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1.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 118-122, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the association between HIV and breast cancer mammographic patterns and histological subtypes are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether specific mammographic findings, histological features and patient profiles were unique to a cohort of HIV-positive patients who developed breast cancer, by comparing them with a HIV-negative cohort. METHODS: This was a descriptive study in which we conducted a retrospective chart review and mammographic and pathology analysis of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients referred to the Addington Hospital breast clinic between August 2008 and June 2012 and entered into a prospective database. RESULTS: Thirty-eight HIV-positive and 38 HIV-negative patients were included in the study. HIV-positive patients were more likely to have multifocal breast cancer (p=0.007), but not multicentric disease (p=0.05). The presence of grouped and fine pleomorphic microcalcifications and positive HIV status demonstrated statistical significance (p=0.000). A statistically significant relationship between grouped and fine pleomorphic microcalcifications with biopsies confirming high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (HGDCIS) and HIV status was demonstrated (p=0.001). The mean age of the HIV-positive patients was 42.5 years (p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between HIV status, the presence of multifocal breast cancer, and mammographically detected grouped and fine pleomorphic microcalcifications. A statistically significant relationship between HGDCIS and HIV status, and the presence of grouped and fine pleomorphic microcalcifications in HIV-positive patients with biopsies confirming HGDCIS, was demonstrated. Our study also showed that there is a relationship between age of presentation and HIV status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20847, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664078

RESUMO

High-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) requires resection due to the high risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The predictive powers of noninvasive predictors for high-grade DCIS remain contradictory. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of calcification for high-grade DCIS in Chinese patients.This was a retrospective study of Chinese DCIS patients recruited from the Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University between January and December 2018. The patients were divided into calcification and non-calcification groups based on the mammography results. The correlation of calcification with the pathologic stage of DCIS was evaluated using the multivariable analysis. The predictive value of calcification for DCIS grading was examined using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve.The pathologic grade of DCIS was not associated with calcification morphology (P = .902), calcification distribution (P = .252), or breast density (P = .188). The multivariable analysis showed that the presence of calcification was independently associated with high pathologic grade of DCIS (OR = 3.206, 95% CI = 1.315-7.817, P = .010), whereas the age, hypertension, menopause, and mammography BI-RADS were not (all P > .05) associated with the grade of DCIS. The ROC analysis of the predictive value of calcification for DCIS grading showed that the area under the curve was 0.626 (P = .019), with a sensitivity of 73.1%, specificity of 52.2%, positive predictive value of 72.2%, and negative predictive value of 53.3%.The presence of calcification is independently associated with high pathologic grade of DCIS and could predict high-grade DCIS in Chinese patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/classificação , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4191-4198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumoral calcification after chemotherapy or radiation therapy has been reported in various cancer patients, but not after radioembolization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of radioembolization-induced tumor calcification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by radioembolization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study comprised patients with single nodular HCC who underwent yttrium-90 radioembolization between November 2015 and April 2019. The presence of tumoral calcification was visually assessed on a follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (64.8±11.8 years, 43 men) were evaluated. Tumoral calcification was present in 21 (38.2%) of 55 patients in the one-month CT scan (calcification group). The complete response rate for the primary index tumor was 72.7% (40 of 55) in the total study population, and 100% (21 of 21) in the calcification group, respectively. The calcification group had a longer local progression-free survival rate than the non-calcification group (p=0.017). CONCLUSION: Radioembolization-induced tumoral calcification is relatively common and can be used as an early surrogate marker of complete response.


Assuntos
Calcinose/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Am Heart J ; 225: 138-148, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to high gradient aortic stenosis (AS), patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS have higher mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), but distinct outcome predictors in this patient subset are yet to be determined. The present study investigated the prognostic impact of aortic valve calcification (AVC) in patients with low-flow, low-gradient AS undergoing TAVR. METHODS: This retrospective single-center analysis includes all patients undergoing TAVR for severe low-flow, low-gradient AS (n = 526), ie, low EF low gradient AS (LEF-LG AS; n = 290) and paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient AS (PLF-LG AS; n = 236), in whom AVC was quantified from contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography images. AVCdensity was defined as calcium volume per annulus area. Patients were trichotomized according to sex-specific AVCdensity tertiles in both subgroups. All-cause mortality was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analyses and independent outcome predictors were determined by multivariable analyses. RESULTS: In both subgroups, patients with high AVCdensity had higher mean transvalvular gradients at baseline and higher rates of PVL after TAVR. High AVCdensity was associated with lowest 1- and 3-year mortality after TAVR in the LEF-LG AS but not in the PLF-LG AS group. According to multivariable analysis AVCdensity was independently associated with better survival in LEF-LG AS patients (HR 0.73 [0.60-0.88], P = .0011), but not in those with PLF-LG AS (HR 0.91 [0.73-1.14], P = .42). CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of AVC may not only be of diagnostic but also of prognostic value, as it facilitates the selection of LEF-LG AS patients with higher probability of beneficial outcome after TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/classificação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 759-763, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525108

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in the head and neck using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to determine their clinical importance. Subjects and Methods: Soft tissue calcifications in the head and neck region were retrospectively evaluated in 1557 CBCT images obtained between 2013 and 2015. The findings were categorized as follows: tonsillolith (calcified tonsil), carotid artery calcification (CAC), sialolith (salivary stone), calcified triticeous cartilage (CTC), calcified lymph node (CLN), rhinolith, antrolith, calcification of the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage (CSCTC), calcified stylohyoid ligaments (CSL), myositis ossifican, osteoma cutis, and intracranial calcification. A Chi-square test was performed for categorical variables. In the 1557 CBCT images, 520 (33.4%) contained had at least one soft tissue calcification in the head and neck region. Results: Tonsilloliths (18.8%) were the most prevalent soft tissue calcification, followed by CTC (5.8%), CAC (4.3%), intracranial calcifications (3.9%), CSL (3.7%), CSCTC (2.1%), osteoma cutis (1%), sialoliths (0.7%), antroliths (0.5%), myositis ossificans (0.4%), rhinoliths, and CLN (0.2%). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in the head and neck region on CBCT images. Tonsilloliths were the most common type of calcification. CBCT imaging may aid the diagnosis and assessment of these calcifications.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cartilagens/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Cartilagens/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfadenopatia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Faríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 483-488, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438839

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread over many countries and regions since the end of 2019, becoming the most severe public health event at present. Most of the critical cases developed multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) may complicate the process of severe COVID-19 patients. This manuscript reviews the different aspects of blood purification in critically ill patients with AKI and increased inflammatory factors, and examines its potential role in severe COVID-19 treatment. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been practiced in many sepsis patients with AKI. Still, the timing and dosing need further robust evidence. In addition to the traditional CRRT, the high-throughput membrane with adsorption function and cytokine adsorption column are two representatives of recently emerging novel membrane technologies. Their potential in removing inflammatory factors and other toxins prospects for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Calcinose/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/terapia , Hipotricose/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Dermatopatias Genéticas/terapia , Calcinose/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/etiologia , Humanos , Hipotricose/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Dermatopatias Genéticas/etiologia
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 694-706, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359472

RESUMO

How mutations in the non-coding U8 snoRNA cause the neurological disorder leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC) is poorly understood. Here, we report the generation of a mutant U8 animal model for interrogating LCC-associated pathology. Mutant U8 zebrafish exhibit defective central nervous system development, a disturbance of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis and tp53 activation, which monitors ribosome biogenesis. Further, we demonstrate that fibroblasts from individuals with LCC are defective in rRNA processing. Human precursor-U8 (pre-U8) containing a 3' extension rescued mutant U8 zebrafish, and this result indicates conserved biological function. Analysis of LCC-associated U8 mutations in zebrafish revealed that one null and one functional allele contribute to LCC. We show that mutations in three nucleotides at the 5' end of pre-U8 alter the processing of the 3' extension, and we identify a previously unknown base-pairing interaction between the 5' end and the 3' extension of human pre-U8. Indeed, LCC-associated mutations in any one of seven nucleotides in the 5' end and 3' extension alter the processing of pre-U8, and these mutations are present on a single allele in almost all individuals with LCC identified to date. Given genetic data indicating that bi-allelic null U8 alleles are likely incompatible with human development, and that LCC is not caused by haploinsufficiency, the identification of hypomorphic misprocessing mutations that mediate viable embryogenesis furthers our understanding of LCC molecular pathology and cerebral vascular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Alelos , Calcinose/genética , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Cistos/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Calcinose/patologia , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sequência Conservada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
12.
Am Heart J ; 225: 10-18, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470635

RESUMO

Coronary calcification limits optimal stent expansion and apposition and worsens safety and effectiveness outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Current ablative technologies that modify calcium to optimize stent deployment are limited by guidewire bias and periprocedural complications related to atheroembolization, coronary dissection, and perforation. Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) delivers pulsatile ultrasonic pressure waves through a fluid-filled balloon into the vessel wall to modify calcium and enhance vessel compliance, reduce fibroelastic recoil, and decrease the need for high-pressure balloon (barotrauma) inflations. IVL has been used in peripheral arteries as stand-alone revascularization or as an adjunct to optimize stent deployment. STUDY DESIGN AND OBJECTIVES: Disrupt CAD III (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03595176) is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm study designed to assess safety and efficacy of the Shockwave coronary IVL catheter to optimize coronary stent deployment in patients with de novo calcified coronary stenoses. The primary safety end point is freedom from major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) at 30 days compared to a prespecified performance goal. The primary effectiveness end point is procedural success without in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events. Enrollment will complete early in 2020 with clinical follow-up ongoing for 2 years. CONCLUSION: Disrupt CAD III will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Shockwave coronary IVL catheter to optimize coronary stent deployment in patients with calcified coronary stenoses.


Assuntos
Calcinose/terapia , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Litotripsia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Litotripsia/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Stents
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(6): 1436-1444, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of 2D synthetic mammography (SM) to that of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in the detection of microcalcifications and to evaluate radiologists' preference between the two imaging modalities for assessing calcifications. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A fully crossed, mode-balanced, paired-case (n = 160), retrospective, multireader (n = 3) performance study was implemented to compare screening mammograms acquired with digital breast tomosynthesis and both FFDM and SM between 2015 and 2017. The study cohort included 70 patients with mammograms recalled for microcalcifications (35 with malignant findings and 35 with benign findings) and was supplemented with 90 patients with mammograms with negative findings. In separate sessions, readers interpreted SM or FFDM images by recording a BI-RADS assessment and the probability of malignancy. In a final session that included 70 mammograms with microcalcifications, readers recorded their subjective assessment of microcalcification conspicuity and diagnostic confidence. RESULTS. There was no difference in diagnostic accuracy as assessed by comparing the likelihood of malignancy based on the AUC of plotted ROCs, with AUCs of 91% (95% CI, 83-97%) and 88% (95% CI, 79-95%) observed for SM and FFDM, respectively (p = 0.392), and with noninferiority of SM compared with FFDM (p = 0.011). No significant difference was observed between SM and FFDM in terms of sensitivity (77% vs 73%, respectively; p = 0.366) or negative predictive value (84% vs 82%, respectively; p = 0.598). The specificity and positive predictive value of SM were lower than those of FFDM (91% vs 98%, respectively [p = 0.034], and 87% vs 96%, respectively [p = 0.034]). All readers found calcifications to be more conspicuous on SM (p < 0.0001); however, no significant difference in subjective diagnostic confidence was seen. CONCLUSION. SM is noninferior to FFDM in the detection of microcalcifications. Despite the increased conspicuity of microcalcifications on SM, the subjective diagnostic confidence in the two modalities is comparable.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255786

RESUMO

Phosphate toxicity is a major threat to cardiovascular health in chronic kidney disease. It is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and the accumulation of calcium phosphate commonly known as calcification in soft tissues leading to functional disorders of blood vessels. An improved calcification propensity test for the assessment of phosphate toxicity was developed, which measures the velocity of calcium phosphate mineralization from colloidal precursors in vitro. This so called T50 test measures the transformation from a primary into a secondary form of nanosized colloidal plasma protein-calcium phosphate particles known as calciprotein particles. The T50 test in its previous form required a temperature controlled nephelometer and several hours of continuous measurement, which precluded rapid bed side testing. We miniaturized the test using microfluidic polymer chips produced by ultrasonic hot embossing. A cartridge holder contained a laser diode for illumination, light dependent resistor for detection and a Peltier element for thermo control. Increasing the assay temperature from 37°C to 75°C reduced the T50 test time 36-fold from 381 ± 10 min at 37°C to 10.5 ± 0.3 min at 75°C. Incorporating sputtered micro mirrors into the chip design increased the effective light path length, and improved signal-to-noise ratio 9-fold. The speed and reproducibility of the T50 chip-based assay run at 75°C suggest that it may be suitable for rapid measurements, preferably in-line in a dialyser or in a portable microfluidic analytic device with the chip inserted as a disposable cartridge.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/sangue , Microfluídica/métodos , Polímeros/química , Calcinose/sangue , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Diálise Renal , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Temperatura
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if findings of "cartilage icing" and chondrocalcinosis on knee radiography can differentiate between gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD). METHODS: IRB-approval was obtained and informed consent was waived for this retrospective study. Electronic medical records from over 2.3 million patients were searched for keywords to identify subjects with knee aspiration-proven cases of gout or CPPD. Radiographs were reviewed by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists in randomized order, blinded to the patients' diagnoses. Images were evaluated regarding the presence or absence of cartilage icing, chondrocalcinosis, tophi, gastrocnemius tendon calcification, and joint effusion. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated. RESULTS: From 49 knee radiographic studies in 46 subjects (31 males and 15 females; mean age 66±13 years), 39% (19/49) showed gout and 61% (30/49) CPPD on aspiration. On knee radiographs, cartilage icing showed a higher sensitivity for CPPD than gout (53-67% and 26%, respectively). Chondrocalcinosis also showed a higher sensitivity for CPPD than gout (50-57% versus 5%), with 95% specificity and 94% positive predictive value for diagnosis of CPPD versus gout. Soft tissue tophus-like opacities were present in gout at the patellar tendon (5%, 1/19) and at the popliteus groove in CPPD (15%, 4/27). Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was present in 30% (8/27) of subjects with CPPD, and 5% (1/19) of gout. CONCLUSION: In subjects with joint aspiration-proven crystal disease of the knee, the radiographic finding of cartilage icing was seen in both gout and CPPD. Chondrocalcinosis (overall and hyaline cartilage) as well as gastrocnemius tendon calcification positively correlated with the diagnosis of CPPD over gout.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pirofosfato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Condrocalcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Gota/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrocalcinose/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Gota/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Arthroscopy ; 36(4): 991-992, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247429

RESUMO

Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common pathology that often presents with clinical symptoms simulating a rotator cuff tear. The reported incidence of rotator cuff tear in the setting of calcific tendinopathy varies widely; however, the reported incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff tear on imaging in calcific tendinopathy is consistently low (<5%). In patients with symptomatic calcific tendinopathy, initial conservative management followed by minimally invasive treatments should be employed prior to performing shoulder magnetic resonance imaging to assess for a rotator cuff tear. A shoulder magnetic resonance imaging may be performed for preoperative planning prior to surgical removal of calcium deposits, but even in this patient population, the incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff tear is low.


Assuntos
Calcinose , Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Tendinopatia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Manguito Rotador , Ombro
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19728, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present several cases of benign and malignant nipple lesions and contribute to diagnosis and differential diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 13 patients. All of the patients were evaluated by ultrasonography, and 11 of them had pathological results. We analyzed the clinical and sonographic features. RESULTS: There were 3 malignant lesions, 7 benign lesions, and 3 congenital nipple dysplasia, listed as follows:Malignant lesions (n = 3, 23%): Paget's disease (PD, n = 3, 23%). All of the patients with PD showed unilateral nipple erosion, discharge, and pain. The ultrasound showed abundant blood flow (n = 3, 23%); 2 patients (n = 2, 15%) had microcalcifications.Benign lesions (n = 7, 54%): Adenoma of the nipple (n = 2, 15%). One patient (n = 1, 8%) had nipple erosion and discharge. Two patients (n = 2, 15%) had a palpable nodule in the nipple. The ultrasound of both patients (n = 2, 15%) showed regular-shaped, clear border nodule with abundant blood flow (n = 2, 15%).Leiomyoma of the nipple (n = 1, 8%): This male patient was characterized by unilateral nipple enlargement and pain. The ultrasound showed a regular nodule with absent blood flow.Plasma cell mastitis (n = 2, 15%): Two patients showed unilateral nipple inversion and pain. One patient (n = 1, 8%) showed swollen and redness. The 2 patients showed a lesion in the gland around the nipple present as an irregular shape and unclear boundary hypoechoic mass.Nipple wart (n = 2, 15%): Two patients showed a unilateral soft exogenous neoplasm. Both of the patients showed a hypoechoic wart; the echo was similar to the nipple, the border was clear, and had no blood flow in the wart.Nipple Dysplasia (n = 3, 23%): Accessory nipple (n = 3, 23%). Two patients (n = 2, 15%) had accessory nipples in the subcoastal area, 1 patient (n = 1, 8%) in the areolar. All of the patients' sonographic features were the same as the nipple.The positive predict value (PPV) of the clinical symptoms: Erosion and discharge are both 75% (P < 0.05). The PPV of the US manifestations: irregular shape, indictinct margin, abundant blood flow, microcalcification, thicken skin in diagnosing malignant lesions are 60%,60%,60%,100%,100%, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The characteristic sonographic features together with clinical symptoms contribute to the diagnosis of nipple lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamilos/irrigação sanguínea , Mamilos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doença da Mama Fibrocística/patologia , Humanos , Leiomioma/patologia , Masculino , Mastite , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mamilos/patologia , Doença de Paget Mamária/patologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Plasmócitos/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Verrugas
19.
Kardiologiia ; 60(2): 83-88, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to study biochemical factors of calcification in stable and unstable plaques of coronary arteries and in the blood of patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis, to find associations of biochemical factors of calcification with the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 25 men aged 60,4±6,8 years who received coronary bypass surgery. In the course of the operation intraoperative indications in men were from coronary endarteriectomy (s) artery (a - d) and histological and biochemical analyses of the samples of the intima / media. Out of 85 fragments of intima / media of coronary arteries, 15 fragments of unchanged intima / media, 39 fragments of stable atheromatous plaque and 31 fragments of unstable plaque were determined. In homogenates of samples of intima / media (after measurement of protein by the method of Lowry) and in blood by ELISA were determined by biochemical factors of calcification: osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, an osteopontin, osteonectin, as well as inflammatory factors (cytokines, chemokines). RESULTS: A significant direct correlation (Spearman coefficient =0.607, p<0.01) between the stages of atherosclerotic focus development to unstable plaque and the degree of calcification of atherosclerotic focus development samples was found. There was an increased content of osteocalcin in stable and unstable plaques by 3.3 times in comparison with the unchanged tissue of intima / media of coronary arteries, as well as in samples with small and dust-like, with coarse-grained calcifications in comparison with samples without calcifications by 2.8 and 2.1 times, respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary artery is associated with a reduced content of osteocalcin (OR=0.988, 95 % CI 0.978-0.999, p=0.028). Also, the relative risk of calcifications in the atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary artery is associated with an increased content of osteocalcin (OR=1,008, 95 % CI 1,001-1,015, p=0,035). In men with severe coronary atherosclerosis, a significant inverse correlation was found (Spearman coefficient -0.386, p=0.022) between the content of osteoprotegerin in the vascular wall and in the blood.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Calcinose , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Placa Aterosclerótica , Idoso , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): e153-e165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Macrophages have been described in calcific aortic valve disease, but it is unclear if they promote or counteract calcification. We aimed to determine how macrophages are involved in calcification using the Notch1+/- model of calcific aortic valve disease. Approach and Results: Macrophages in wild-type and Notch1+/- murine aortic valves were characterized by flow cytometry. Macrophages in Notch1+/- aortic valves had increased expression of MHCII (major histocompatibility complex II). We then used bone marrow transplants to test if differences in Notch1+/- macrophages drive disease. Notch1+/- mice had increased valve thickness, macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory macrophage maturation regardless of transplanted bone marrow genotype. In vitro approaches confirm that Notch1+/- aortic valve cells promote macrophage invasion as quantified by migration index and proinflammatory phenotypes as quantified by Ly6C and CCR2 positivity independent of macrophage genotype. Finally, we found that macrophage interaction with aortic valve cells promotes osteogenic, but not dystrophic, calcification and decreases abundance of the STAT3ß isoform. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that Notch1+/- aortic valve disease involves increased macrophage recruitment and maturation driven by altered aortic valve cell secretion, and that increased macrophage recruitment promotes osteogenic calcification and alters STAT3 splicing. Further investigation of STAT3 and macrophage-driven inflammation as therapeutic targets in calcific aortic valve disease is warranted.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Animais , Valva Aórtica/imunologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/imunologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Calcinose/imunologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Movimento Celular , Óxidos S-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/química , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Osteogênese , Receptor Notch1/análise , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
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