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1.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(10): 755-762, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752965

RESUMO

CME: Primary and Secondary Hypercholesterolemia Abstract. In patients with hypercholesterolemia and an LDL-cholesterol level >5 mmol/l, familial hypercholesterolemia (primary hypercholesterolemia) should be considered. This genetically determined illness should lead to medical therapy and screening for hypercholesterinemia in close relatives. Beside the superelevated LDL-cholesterol levels, additional clinically diagnostic findings and family anamnesis can support the diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of familial hypercholesterolemia can be estimated using the Lipid Clinic Network Score. Additionally, a variety of exogenous factors may have an impact on lipoprotein metabolism and may lead to secondary hypercholesterolemia. Hypothyroidism, cholestasis, nephrotic syndrome or specific medications, among others, should be considered as potential factors leading to high cholesterol levels before familial hypercholesterolemia is suspected or lipid-lowering treatment is started.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Lipídeos , Programas de Rastreamento
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3612, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681035

RESUMO

Bile acid synthesis plays a key role in regulating whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Transcriptional factor EB (TFEB) is a nutrient and stress-sensing transcriptional factor that promotes lysosomal biogenesis. Here we report a role of TFEB in regulating hepatic bile acid synthesis. We show that TFEB induces cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in human hepatocytes and mouse livers and prevents hepatic cholesterol accumulation and hypercholesterolemia in Western diet-fed mice. Furthermore, we find that cholesterol-induced lysosomal stress feed-forward activates TFEB via promoting TFEB nuclear translocation, while bile acid-induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), acting via mTOR/ERK signaling and TFEB phosphorylation, feedback inhibits TFEB nuclear translocation in hepatocytes. Consistently, blocking intestinal bile acid uptake by an apical sodium-bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibitor decreases ileal FGF15, enhances hepatic TFEB nuclear localization and improves cholesterol homeostasis in Western diet-fed mice. This study has identified a TFEB-mediated gut-liver signaling axis that regulates hepatic cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term antiretroviral therapy has modified the clinical course of HIV infection to a chronic condition associated with increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Information is scant, from sub-Saharan Africa, on the prevalence of NCDs and associated factors among individuals on ART. METHODOLOGY: We consecutively enrolled individuals with HIV infection who were ART naïve and those on ART for ≥5 years (LTART) attending health facilities in Dar es Salaam. Participant's blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and fasting blood glucose were recorded. Participants with impaired fasting blood glucose underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. A venous blood sample was sent to the lab for biochemical tests. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions, Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: Overall, 612 individuals with HIV infection were enrolled, half of whom were ART naïve. Females comprised 71.9% and 68.0% of participants in the LTART and ART naïve study arms, respectively, p = 0.290. The mean age (±SD) was 44.9 ± 12.7 years and 37.5 ± 11.8 years among LTART and ART naïve participants, respectively, p<0.001. Hypertension was documented in 25.2% in those on LTART compared to 6.9% among ART naïve subjects, p<0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 22.9% and 4.6% among LTART compared to ART naïve subjects, p<0.001. Diabetes mellitus was detected in 17.0% of those on LTART compared to 3.9% ART naïve participants, p<0.001. Hypercholesterolemia was found in 30.4% of individuals on LTART compared to 16.7% of ART naïve subjects, p<0.001, and hypertriglyceridemia was found in 16.0% of participants on LTART compared to 9.5% of ART naïve, p = 0.015. LTART use, age ≥40 years, history of smoking, and body mass index were independently associated with NCDs. CONCLUSION: Hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with long-term use of antiretroviral drugs.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tanzânia
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 163-167, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650914

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are novel drugs that provide striking lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when added to maximum tolerated therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Ceramides, novel cardiac risk markers, have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The Ceramide Risk Score (CRS) predicts the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events within 1 to 3 years in patients with coronary artery disease. The effect of PCSK9 inhibition on plasma ceramides is not well known. The study examines the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on plasma ceramides and CRS in patients with clinical indication for this therapy. Retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with hypercholesterolemia on PCSK9 inhibitors was conducted (n = 24; Mayo Clinic 2015 to 2018). Plasma ceramides were measured before the initiation of PCSK9 inhibitors and 2 to 12 months after treatment. CRS was calculated before and after therapy based on individual plasma concentrations of 4 ceramides. Treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors was associated with significant reduction in mean CRS and individual ceramides levels (p <0.0001). CRS significantly improved with PCSK9 therapy. PCSK9 inhibitors significantly decreased LDL-C levels by 63% (p <0.0001). The absolute reduction in CRS did not correlate with the absolute reduction in LDL-C (r = 0.31; confidence interval -0.10 to 0.64), indicating that CRS may evaluate a different pathway for risk reduction beyond LDL-C lowering. In conclusion, treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors is associated with significant reduction in CRS and distinct ceramide levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ceramidas/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/sangue , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 28-34, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650921

RESUMO

Involvement of atherosclerosis in extracardiac vascular territories may identify coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at higher risk for adverse events. We investigated the long-term prognostic implications of polyvascular disease in patients with CAD, and further analyzed lipid goal attainment and its relation to patient outcomes. The study was a retrospective analysis of 10,297 patients who underwent coronary revascularization, categorized as having CAD alone (83.1%) or with multisite artery disease (MSAD) (16.9%) including cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) according to vascular territories involved, and in relation to most-recent lipid levels attained, were analyzed. Patients with MSAD were older with higher burden of co-morbidities. The rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) and its individual components increased with the number of affected vascular beds. Adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for MACE was 1.41 (1.24 to 1.59) in patients with CAD and CBVD, 1.46 (1.33 to 1.62) in CAD and PAD, and 1.69 (1.49 to 1.92) in those with CAD and CBVD and PAD, compared with CAD alone. Most-recent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <55 mg/dl and <70 mg/dl were attained by 21.8% and 44.6% of patients with CAD alone, in comparison to 22.7% and 43.3% in MSAD. Compared with patients with most-recent LDL-C > 100 mg/dl, attaining LDL-C < 70 mg/dl had an adjusted HR for MACE of 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57) in CAD only patients and 0.66 (0.57 to 0.78) in MSAD patients. In conclusion, the presence of CBVD and/or PAD in patients with CAD is associated with higher burden of co-morbidities and progressive increase in long-term MACE. More than half of CAD patients with or without MSAD do not achieve lipid goals, which are associated with a significantly lower risk for adverse events.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4137-4145, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Lung diseases are common in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). This study evaluates the prevalence of lung cancer (LC) in high-risk patients screened for AAA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six hundred and one male patients (≥65 years of age, cardiovascular high-risk profile) were enrolled and followed prospectively over a median of 16.5 months. RESULTS: In 29 patients (4.8%) LC and in another 50 patients (8.3%) AAA were found. The prevalence of LC among patients with AAA was even higher (9 of 50, 18.0%). Twenty-one patients had an initial diagnosis of LC, with an incidence of 12.0% (6 of 50) in patients with AAA. During follow-up, 14 of 70 patients with AAA and/ or LC (20.0%) deceased. The highest mortality was found in patients with LC only (8 of 20, 40.0%), followed by patients with both AAA and LC (3 of 9, 33.3%), while patients with AAA only had the lowest mortality rate (3 of 41, 7.3%). CONCLUSION: In patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile, a high prevalence of both AAA and LC were found, whereby the prognosis is largely determined by the LC. Therefore, LC is of particular importance in the setting of screening and surveillance of AAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Am Heart J ; 225: 88-96, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485329

RESUMO

Intensive lipid management is critical to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We performed an observational study of 7628 patients with (n = 2943) and without DM (n = 4685), enrolled in the Provider Assessment of Lipid Management (PALM) registry and treated at 140 outpatient clinics across the United States in 2015. Patient self-estimated CV risk, patient-perceived statin benefit and risk, observed statin therapy use and dosing were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with DM were more likely to believe that their CV risk was elevated compared with patients without DM (39.1% vs 29.3%, P < .001). Patients with DM were more likely to receive a statin (74.2% vs 63.5%, P < .001) but less likely to be treated with guideline-recommended statin intensity (36.5% vs 46.9%, P < .001), driven by the low proportion (16.5%) of high risk (ASCVD risk ≥7.5%) primary prevention DM patients treated with a high intensity statin. Patients with DM treated with guideline-recommended statin intensity were more likely to believe they were at high CV risk (44.9% vs 38.4%, P = .005) and that statins can reduce this risk (41.1% vs 35.6%, P = .02), compared with patients treated with lower than guideline-recommended statin intensity. Compared with patients with an elevated HgbA1c, patients with well-controlled DM were no more likely to be on a statin (77.9% vs 79.3%, P = .43). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, the majority of patients with DM were treated with lower than guideline-recommended statin intensity. Patient education and engagement may help providers improve lipid therapy for these high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low plasma testosterone, either spontaneous or as a result of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The underlying mechanism in humans is not understood. Experimental studies in mice have shown that castration facilitates atherogenesis and may increase signs of plaque vulnerability. Pigs used for translational atherosclerosis research have frequently been castrated for practical or commercial reasons, but the effect of castration on atherosclerosis has never been systematically evaluated in pigs. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of castration on atherosclerotic plaque burden and type in genetically modified minipigs with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Newborn male Yucatan minipigs with transgenic overexpression of a human gain-of-function mutant of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 were randomized to undergo orchiectomy (n = 8) or serve as controls (n = 6). Minipigs were started on high-fat diet at 3 months of age and the amount and composition of atherosclerotic lesions were analyzed at 12 months of age. Plasma lipid profiles and behavioral parameters were also assessed. RESULTS: Plasma lipids were slightly affected to a more atherogenic profile by orchiectomy, but atherosclerotic lesion size was unaltered in the LAD, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliac arteries. The distribution of lesion types (xanthomas, pathological intimal thickening and fibroatheromas) were also not statistically different between groups in any of the examined vascular territories. The abdominal aorta developed the most advanced stages of disease with reproducible fibroatheroma formation, and here it was found that the area of necrotic core was significantly increased in orchiectomized pigs compared with controls. Orchiectomy also reduced aggressive behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Castration does not alter the burden of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic Yucatan minipigs, but may increase necrotic core area in fibroatheromas.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/complicações , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Artéria Ilíaca/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Necrose , Orquiectomia , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Testosterona/sangue
11.
Nature ; 582(7810): 73-77, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494083

RESUMO

High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular risk-changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108450, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-172295

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia and is mainly based on an immune-driven pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that COVID-19 is fueled by a maladaptive host inflammatory response that involves excessive activation of innate immune pathways. While a "cytokine storm" involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection. C3-targeted intervention may provide broader therapeutic control of complement-mediated inflammatory damage in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report the clinical course of a patient with severe ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia who was safely and successfully treated with the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor AMY-101.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/imunologia , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/imunologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/virologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108450, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360516

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia and is mainly based on an immune-driven pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that COVID-19 is fueled by a maladaptive host inflammatory response that involves excessive activation of innate immune pathways. While a "cytokine storm" involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection. C3-targeted intervention may provide broader therapeutic control of complement-mediated inflammatory damage in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report the clinical course of a patient with severe ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia who was safely and successfully treated with the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor AMY-101.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/imunologia , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/imunologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/virologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470058

RESUMO

Soluble endoglin (sEng) released into the circulation was suggested to be related to cardiovascular based pathologies. It was demonstrated that a combination of high sEng levels and long-term exposure (six months) to high fat diet (HFD) resulted in aggravation of endothelial dysfunction in the aorta. Thus, in this study, we hypothesized that a similar experimental design would affect the heart morphology, TGFß signaling, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and eNOS signaling in myocardium in transgenic mice overexpressing human sEng. Three-month-old female transgenic mice overexpressing human sEng in plasma (Sol-Eng+ high) and their age-matched littermates with low levels of human sEng (Sol-Eng+ low) were fed a high-fat diet containing 1.25% of cholesterol and 40% of fat for six months. A blood analysis was performed, and the heart samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The results of this study showed no effects of sEng and HFD on myocardial morphology/hypertrophy/fibrosis. However, the expression of pSmad2/3 and p-eNOS was reduced in Sol-Eng+ high mice. On the other hand, sEng and HFD did not significantly affect the expression of selected members of TGFß signaling (membrane endoglin, TGFßRII, ALK-5, ALK-1, Id-1, PAI-1), inflammation (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), oxidative stress (NQO1, HO-1) and heart remodeling (PDGFß, COL1A1, ß-MHC). In conclusion, the results of this study confirmed that sEng, even combined with a high-fat diet inducing hypercholesterolemia administered for six months, does not affect the structure of the heart with respect to hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Interestingly, pSmad2/3/p-eNOS signaling was reduced in both the heart in this study and the aorta in the previous study, suggesting a possible alteration of NO metabolism caused by six months exposure to high sEng levels and HFD. Thus, we might conclude that sEng combined with a high-fat diet might be related to the alteration of NO production due to altered pSmad2/3/p-eNOS signaling in the heart and aorta.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Endoglina , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Endoglina/sangue , Endoglina/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose , Hipertrofia , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miocárdio/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(6): 573-586, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394074

RESUMO

The treatment of elevated plasma lipids plays an important role in atherosclerosis prevention. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with statins and, if required, additional inhibition is of the utmost importance. Lifestyle modification plays only a minor role in LDL cholesterol lowering. Absolute cardiovascular risk determines whether and at what intensity lipid lowering therapy should be implemented. Thus, in patients at very high risk, an LDL cholesterol level <55 mg/dl (<1.4 mmol/l) and a 50% reduction from baseline should be achieved. With respect to elevated triglyceride concentrations, treatment goals are less clearly defined, despite the fact that elevated triglyceride concentrations are causally linked to atherosclerotic events. Lifestyle modification can significantly reduce triglyceride concentrations and are often more effective than specific triglyceride lowering medications. New lipid lowering drugs still need to prove their clinical benefit in endpoint trials.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol , Dislipidemias/sangue , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemias/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with Western Europe, the decline in cardiovascular (CV) mortality has been delayed in former communist countries in Europe, including the Czech Republic. We have assessed longitudinal trends in major CV risk factors in the Czech Republic from 1985 to 2016/17, covering the transition from the totalitarian regime to democracy. METHODS: There were 7 independent cross-sectional surveys for major CV risk factors conducted in the Czech Republic in the same 6 country districts within the WHO MONICA Project (1985, 1988, 1992) and the Czech post-MONICA study (1997/98, 2000/01, 2007/08 and 2016/2017), including a total of 7,606 males and 8,050 females. The population samples were randomly selected (1%, aged 25-64 years). RESULTS: Over the period of 31/32 years, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of smoking in males (from 45.0% to 23.9%; p < 0.001) and no change in females. BMI increased only in males. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both genders, while the prevalence of hypertension declined only in females. Awareness of hypertension, the proportion of individuals treated by antihypertensive drugs and consequently hypertension control improved in both genders. A substantial decrease in total cholesterol was seen in both sexes (males: from 6.21 ± 1.29 to 5.30 ± 1.05 mmol/L; p < 0.001; females: from 6.18 ± 1.26 to 5.31 ± 1.00 mmol/L; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The significant improvement in most CV risk factors between 1985 and 2016/17 substantially contributed to the remarkable decrease in CV mortality in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Política , Fatores de Risco , Mudança Social
17.
Life Sci ; 254: 117756, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389832

RESUMO

Polydatin (PD) is a monocrystalline metabolite from the underground parts of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., a member of the Polygonaceae family, which has been traditionally used in Asian countries as both foodstuffs and medicine. PD, also reckoned as pieceid, 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-3-ß-D-glucoside, (E)-piceid, (E)-polydatin, and trans-polydatin. It possesses potent biological activities i.e. analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The initial part of this report specifically explains distinct sequential mechanisms underlying the initiation and development of atherosclerotic plaques and later part deals with the pharmacological efficacy of PD in the management of major cardiac event i.e. atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) via modulation of a set of molecular mechanisms i.e. antioxidant potential, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism including total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, ß-hydroxy-ß-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R) expression and functionality, SIRT signalling, LDL-receptor (LDL-R), LDL oxidation status (Ox-LDL), effects on endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), macrophage, foam cell formation and plaque stabilization, inflammatory signalling pathways and hypertension. In contrast, one of the major insight into the potential cardioprotective molecular mechanism is the PD-mediated targeting of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK-9) and LDL-R pathway, both at transcriptional and protein functional level, which makes it a better alternative therapeutic medicinal candidate to treat hypercholesterolemia, especially for the patients facing inadequate lipid lowering with classical HMG-R inhibitors (statins) and statin intolerance. Finally, to sum up the whole, we concluded that PD may be promoted from alternative to mainstream medicine in targeting risk factors mediated ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fallopia japonica/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteínas LDL , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298312

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolaemia is considered an important cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In a previous investigation, we demonstrated that cultured hepatoma cells treated with hypercholesterolaemic sera compared with cells treated with normocholesterolaemic sera show overexpression of mRNAs related to mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGCS2). In the present work, using an NMR metabolomic analysis, we demonstrate that the hypercholesterolaemic blood sera previously used to treat cultured hepatoma cells are characterized by a metabolomic profile that is significantly different from the normocholesterolaemic sera. Acetate, acetone, 2-hydroxybutyrate, cysteine, valine, and glutamine are the metabolites distinguishing the two groups. Abnormalities in the concentrations of these metabolites reflect alterations in energy-related pathways, such as pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, pyruvate, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, and ketone bodies. Regarding ketone bodies, the pathway is regulated by HMGCS2; therefore, serum samples previously found to be able to increase HMGCS2 mRNA levels in cultured cells also contain higher amounts of the metabolites of its encoded enzyme protein product.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Metabolômica , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Sintase/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 395: 114979, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234517

RESUMO

Epidemiology suggests that adverse environmental exposure during pregnancy may predispose children to hypercholesterolemia in adulthood. This study aimed to demonstrate hypercholesterolemia induced by prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) in adult male offspring rats and explore the intrauterine programming mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with dexamethasone (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg∙d) from gestational days (GD) 9 to 21, and the serum and liver of the male offsprings were collected at GD21, postnatal week (PW) 12 and 28. Furthermore, the effects of dexamethasone on the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and its epigenetic mechanism was confirmed in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) hepatoid differentiated cells and continuous hepatocyte line. PDE could reduce the birth weight of male offsprings, increase the serum total cholesterol (TCH) level in adult rats, and decrease the liver low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression. Serum TCH level and liver LDLR expression were decreased in PDE male fetuses in utero (GD21). Moreover, PDE increased the translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the fetal liver, the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 gene (DGCR8), the pre- and post-natal expression of miR-148a. The results of PDE offspring in vivo and in vitro exhibited similar changes. These changes could be reversed by overexpressing LDLR, inhibiting miR-148a or GR. PDE caused hypercholesterolemia in male adult offspring rats, which was mediated via dexamethasone activated intrauterine hepatic GR, enhanced the expression of DGCR8 and miR-148a, thereby reducing the expression of LDLR, leading to impaired liver cholesterol reverse transport function, and finally causing hypercholesterolemia in adult rats.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Receptores de LDL/fisiologia , Animais , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Idade Gestacional , Fígado/química , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/fisiologia , Receptores de LDL/genética
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