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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD008959, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, particularly those of iron, vitamin A, and zinc, affect more than two billion people worldwide. Young children are highly vulnerable because of rapid growth and inadequate dietary practices. Multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) are single-dose packets containing multiple vitamins and minerals in powder form, which are mixed into any semi-solid food for children six months of age or older. The use of MNPs for home or point-of-use fortification of complementary foods has been proposed as an intervention for improving micronutrient intake in children under two years of age. In 2014, MNP interventions were implemented in 43 countries and reached over three million children. This review updates a previous Cochrane Review, which has become out-of-date. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and safety of home (point-of-use) fortification of foods with MNPs on nutrition, health, and developmental outcomes in children under two years of age. For the purposes of this review, home fortification with MNP refers to the addition of powders containing vitamins and minerals to semi-solid foods immediately before consumption. This can be done at home or at any other place that meals are consumed (e.g. schools, refugee camps). For this reason, MNPs are also referred to as point-of-use fortification. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to July 2019: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other databases. We also searched four trials registers, contacted relevant organisations and authors of included studies to identify any ongoing or unpublished studies, and searched the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs with individual randomisation or cluster-randomisation. Participants were infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months at the time of intervention, with no identified specific health problems. The intervention consisted of consumption of food fortified at the point of use with MNP formulated with at least iron, zinc, and vitamin A, compared with placebo, no intervention, or use of iron-containing supplements, which is standard practice. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We reported categorical outcomes as risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and continuous outcomes as mean differences (MDs) and 95% CIs. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 studies (33,147 children) conducted in low- and middle-income countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, where anaemia is a public health problem. Twenty-six studies with 27,051 children contributed data. The interventions lasted between 2 and 44 months, and the powder formulations contained between 5 and 22 nutrients. Among the 26 studies contributing data, 24 studies (26,486 children) compared the use of MNP versus no intervention or placebo; the two remaining studies compared the use of MNP versus an iron-only supplement (iron drops) given daily. The main outcomes of interest were related to anaemia and iron status. We assessed most of the included studies at low risk of selection and attrition bias. We considered some studies to be at high risk of performance and detection bias due to lack of blinding. Most studies were funded by government programmes or foundations; only two were funded by industry. Home fortification with MNP, compared with no intervention or placebo, reduced the risk of anaemia in infants and young children by 18% (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.90; 16 studies; 9927 children; moderate-certainty evidence) and iron deficiency by 53% (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.56; 7 studies; 1634 children; high-certainty evidence). Children receiving MNP had higher haemoglobin concentrations (MD 2.74 g/L, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.53; 20 studies; 10,509 children; low-certainty evidence) and higher iron status (MD 12.93 µg/L, 95% CI 7.41 to 18.45; 7 studies; 2612 children; moderate-certainty evidence) at follow-up compared with children receiving the control intervention. We did not find an effect on weight-for-age (MD 0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.07; 10 studies; 9287 children; moderate-certainty evidence). Few studies reported morbidity outcomes (three to five studies each outcome) and definitions varied, but MNP did not increase diarrhoea, upper respiratory infection, malaria, or all-cause morbidity. In comparison with daily iron supplementation, the use of MNP produced similar results for anaemia (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.39; 1 study; 145 children; low-certainty evidence) and haemoglobin concentrations (MD -2.81 g/L, 95% CI -10.84 to 5.22; 2 studies; 278 children; very low-certainty evidence) but less diarrhoea (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72; 1 study; 262 children; low-certainty of evidence). However, given the limited quantity of data, these results should be interpreted cautiously. Reporting of death was infrequent, although no trials reported deaths attributable to the intervention. Information on side effects and morbidity, including malaria and diarrhoea, was scarce. It appears that use of MNP is efficacious among infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months who are living in settings with different prevalences of anaemia and malaria endemicity, regardless of intervention duration. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Home fortification of foods with MNP is an effective intervention for reducing anaemia and iron deficiency in children younger than two years of age. Providing MNP is better than providing no intervention or placebo and may be comparable to using daily iron supplementation. The benefits of this intervention as a child survival strategy or for developmental outcomes are unclear. Further investigation of morbidity outcomes, including malaria and diarrhoea, is needed. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências Nutricionais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
2.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 59-67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940621

RESUMO

Vitamins are essential organic compounds that catalyze metabolic reactions. They also function as electron donors, antioxidants or transcription effectors. They can be extracted from food and supplements, or in some cases, synthesized by our body or gut microbiome. Severe vitamin deficiencies result in systemic complications, including the development of scurvy, rickets, pellagra, and beriberi. Some moderate and severe deficiencies also result in oral conditions. A lower intake of vitamin A has been associated with decreased oral epithelial development, impaired tooth formation, enamel hypoplasia and periodontitis. Vitamin D deficiency during tooth development may result in non-syndromic amelogenesis and dentinogenesis imperfecta, enamel and dentin hypoplasia, and dysplasia. Clinical studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D's endocrine effects and periodontitis. On the other hand, no significant association has been found between cariogenic activity and vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin C deficiency results in changes in the gingivae and bone, as well as xerostomia; while vitamin B deficiencies are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis, enamel hypomineralization, cheilosis, cheilitis, halitosis, gingivitis, glossitis, atrophy of the lingual papillae, stomatitis, rashes around the nose, dysphagia, and pallor. The effects of vitamins E and K on oral health are not as clear as those of other vitamins. However, vitamin K has a systemic effect (increasing the risk of haemorrhage), which may affect individuals undergoing oral surgery or suffering an oral injury. Health care professionals need to be aware of the effects of vitamins on oral health to provide the best available care for their patients.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas , Vitaminas , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Vitamina A , Vitamina K
3.
JAAPA ; 33(1): 28-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880647

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is primarily managed with lifestyle modifications, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and medication. The goal is to maintain A1C less than 7% in most patients and prevent damage to other organs such as the kidneys and heart. Patients who are obese and cannot achieve normal blood glucose levels despite diet, exercise, and multiple medications may be considered for bariatric surgery. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy have been shown to improve A1C, reduce weight, and reduce the number of medications patients need for diabetes management. Comorbidities such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension also may improve. This article describes types of bariatric surgery, proper selection of surgical candidates, patient education, and the postoperative patient management necessary for long-term success in improving blood glucose control.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitaminas/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Síndromes de Malabsorção/epidemiologia , Síndromes de Malabsorção/prevenção & controle , Síndromes de Malabsorção/terapia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Seleção de Pacientes , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717934

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition with many imbalances, including nutritional issues. Next to sarcopenia and cachexia which are clinically evident, micronutrient deficiency is also present in HF. It is involved in HF pathophysiology and has prognostic implications. In general, most widely known micronutrients are depleted in HF, which is associated with symptoms and adverse outcomes. Nutritional intake is important but is not the only factor reducing the micronutrient availability for bodily processes, because absorption, distribution, and patient comorbidity may play a major role. In this context, interventional studies with parenteral micronutrient supplementation provide evidence that normalization of micronutrients is associated with improvement in physical performance and quality of life. Outcome studies are underway and should be reported in the following years.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Oligoelementos/deficiência
5.
Pediatr Ann ; 48(11): e434-e440, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710362

RESUMO

Vitamins and minerals are part of a well-balanced diet. They are essential for normal growth and development, which is especially crucial for the pediatric population. Vitamins are divided based on their solubility into fat-soluble vitamins, which include vitamins A, D, E, and K and water-soluble vitamins, which include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Minerals include calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Trace minerals are micronutrients and include copper, zinc, selenium, chromium and manganese. The pediatrician is often the first health care provider to interface with patients, allowing them to pick up on nutritional derangements. This article reviews the basic sources, absorption, metabolism as well as the signs and symptoms that arise in deficient and toxic states of fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. [Pediatr Ann. 2019;48(11):e434-e440.].


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/diagnóstico , Dieta , Humanos , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
6.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 48(4): 483-498, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668178

RESUMO

Pediatric intestinal failure occurs when gut function is insufficient to meet the growing child's hydration and nutrition needs. After massive bowel resection, the remnant bowel adapts to lost absorptive and digestive capacity through incompletely defined mechanisms newly targeted for pharmacologic augmentation. Management seeks to achieve enteral autonomy and mitigate the development of comorbid disease. Care has improved, most notably related to reductions in blood stream infection and liver disease. The future likely holds expansion of pharmacologic adaptation augmentation, refinement of intestinal tissue engineering techniques, and the development of a learning health network for efficient multicenter study and care improvement.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Curto/terapia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Deficiência de Vitaminas/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/terapia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Criança , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Nutrição Enteral , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Nutrição Parenteral , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/etiologia
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice fortification with vitamins and minerals has the potential to increase the nutrition in rice-consuming countries where micronutrient deficiencies exist. Globally, 490 million metric tonnes of rice are consumed annually. It is the dominant staple food crop of around three billion people. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of rice fortification with vitamins and minerals (iron, vitamin A, zinc or folic acid) on micronutrient status and health-related outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and 16 other databases all up to 10 December 2018. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 10 December 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials (with either individual or cluster randomisation) and controlled before-and-after studies. Participants were populations older than two years of age (including pregnant women) from any country. The intervention was rice fortified with at least one micronutrient or a combination of several micronutrients (iron, folic acid, zinc, vitamin A or other vitamins and minerals) compared with unfortified rice or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently screened studies and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (10,483 participants) and identified two ongoing studies. Twelve included studies were randomised-controlled trials (RCTs), with 2238 participants after adjusting for clustering in two cluster-RCTs, and five were non-randomised studies (NRS) with four controlled before-and-after studies and one cross-sectional study with a control (8245 participants). Four studies were conducted in India, three in Thailand, two in the Philippines, two in Brazil, one each in Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Indonesia, Mexico and the USA. Two studies involved non-pregnant, non-lactating women and 10 involved pre-school or school-age children. All 17 studies reported fortification with iron. Of these, six studies fortified rice with iron only; 11 studies had other micronutrients added (iron, zinc and vitamin A, and folic acid). One study had one arm each with vitamin A alone and carotenoid alone. Elemental iron content ranged from 0.2 to 112.8 mg/100 g uncooked rice given for a period varying from two weeks to 48 months. Thirteen studies did not clearly describe either sequence generation or allocation concealment. Eleven studies had a low attrition rate. There was no indication of selective reporting in the studies. We considered two RCTs at low overall risk of bias and 10 at high overall risk of bias. One RCT was at high or unclear risk of bias for most of the domains. All controlled before-and-after studies had a high risk or unclear risk of bias in most domains. The included studies were funded by Government, private and non-governmental organisations, along with other academic institutions. The source of funding does not appear to have altered the results. We used the NRS in the qualitative synthesis but we excluded them from the quantitative analysis and review conclusions since they provided mostly contextual information and limited quantitative information. Rice fortified with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice (no micronutrients added) Fortification of rice with iron (alone or in combination with other micronutrients) may make little or no difference in the risk of having anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.97; I2 = 74%; 7 studies, 1634 participants; low-certainty evidence) and may reduce the risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84; 8 studies, 1733 participants; low-certainty evidence). Rice fortification may increase mean haemoglobin (mean difference (MD) 1.83, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.00; I2 = 54%; 11 studies, 2163 participants; low-certainty evidence) and it may make little or no difference to vitamin A deficiency (with vitamin A as one of the micronutrients in the fortification arm) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.29; I2 = 37%; 4 studies, 927 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that fortification of rice (with folic acid as one of the micronutrients) may improve serum or plasma folate (nmol/L) (MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.00 to 6.60; 215 participants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that fortification of rice with iron alone or with other micronutrients may slightly increase hookworm infection (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.70; 785 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of fortified rice on diarrhoea (RR 3.52, 95% CI 0.18 to 67.39; 1 study, 258 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Rice fortified with vitamin A alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice (no micronutrients added) One study had one arm providing fortified rice with vitamin A only versus unfortified rice. Fortification of rice with vitamin A (in combination with other micronutrients) may increase mean haemoglobin (MD 10.00, 95% CI 8.79 to 11.21; 1 study, 74 participants; low-certainty evidence). Rice fortified with vitamin A may slightly improve serum retinol concentration (MD 0.17, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.21; 1 study, 74 participants; low-certainty evidence). No studies contributed data to the comparisons of rice fortification versus no intervention. The studies involving folic acid and zinc also involved iron in the fortification arms and hence we reported them as part of the first comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Fortification of rice with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of having anaemia or presenting iron deficiency and we are uncertain about an increase in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the general population older than 2 years of age. Fortification of rice with iron and other micronutrients such as vitamin A or folic acid may make little or no difference in the risk of having vitamin A deficiency or on the serum folate concentration. There is limited evidence on any adverse effects of rice fortification.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Oryza , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698711

RESUMO

Obesity and nutrients intake deficiencies may contribute to the clinical manifestations and inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake with clinical variables in Mexican-mestizo SLE patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 130 female SLE patients, classified by the 1997 SLE American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria; the clinical activity was evaluated by the Mexican-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Disease Activity Index (Mex-SLEDAI); body mass index (BMI) by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria; the energy calculation and nutritional intake were performed by Nutritionist Pro Diet software. SLE patients with excess weight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) showed a higher score of clinical activity (Mex-SLEDAI = 2; p = 0.003), higher clinical activity prevalence (40.9%; p = 0.039) and a significant association for high clinical activity (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-5.9; p = 0.033), in comparison with patients without excess weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2). In particular, the excess weight increased the Mex-SLEDAI score (ß coefficient = 1.82; R2 = 0.05; p = 0.005). Also, the SLE patients presented a high prevalence (%) of deficient consumption (cut-off point: <67% of dietary adequacy) of vitamin E (100%), iodine (96%), omega 3 (93.44%), biotin (78%), vitamin K (73.33%), iron (67%), vitamin D (63.3%), potassium (59%), folic acid (56.67%), pantothenic acid (43.3%), vitamin A (41.67%) and zinc (32%). In conclusion, in SLE patients the excess weight was associated with increased clinical activity and to the presence of deficiencies in some essential nutrients ingested.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adulto , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(9): 1151-1155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618329

RESUMO

This report describes the post-bariatric-surgery evolution of an obese patient who had low adherence to the diet and micronutrient supplementation. Four years after two bariatric surgeries, the patient was admitted due to transient loss of consciousness, slow thinking, anasarca, severe hypoalbuminemia, in addition to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. She had subcutaneous foot abscess but did not present fever. Received antibiotics, vitamins A, D, B12, thiamine, calcium, and parenteral nutrition. After hospitalization (twenty-eight days), there was a significant body weight reduction probably due to the disappearance of clinical anasarca. Parenteral nutrition was suspended after twenty-five days, and the oral diet was kept fractional. After hospitalization (weekly outpatient care), there was a gradual laboratory data improvement, which was now close to the reference values. Such outcome shows the need for specialized care in preventing and treating nutritional complications after bariatric surgeries as well as clinical manifestations of infection in previously undernourished patients.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Adulto , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas/terapia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Nutrição Parenteral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/complicações , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/etiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 96-106, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386889

RESUMO

We investigate the long-term effect of very-low dose exposure to a mixture of six pesticides associated with hydrophilic vitamin deficiency on the neurobehavioral outcomes of rats. Two hundred Wistar rats were divided into four groups, two control groups, a vitamin sufficient control group and a vitamin deficiency control group and 2 test groups, a vitamin sufficient test group, and a vitamin deficiency group. The test groups were exposed for 9 months to a mixture of diquat, imazamox, imazethapyr, tepraloxydin, bentazone and acifluorfen in doses of 0.01xNOAEL (mg/kg bw/day). After 9 months of exposure, the behavior changes were evaluated by open field test and elevated plus maze test and the memory was assessed by passive avoidance test. Chronic vitamin deficiency decreased locomotor and special orientation activity and increased anxiety-like behavior in rats. Exposure to very low doses of a mixture of 6 pesticides caused central nervous effects, manifested as decreased locomotor activity, and increased anxiety levels. Vitamin deficiency and low dose chronic pesticides mixture exposure thus affected the central nervous system, especially long-term memory.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 250, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various antiepileptic drugs can potentially cause psychiatric side effects in patients with epilepsy, but the precise mechanism of these actions remains unknown. In recent years, the common polymorphism C677T in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene has attracted attention for its role in the onset of psychiatric diseases. MTHFR and several vitamins (as cofactors) are crucial for remethylation of homocysteine via folate and homocysteine metabolism. We report a case of a Japanese patient who presented with reversible schizophrenia-like symptoms during antiepileptic drug therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient had frontal lobe epilepsy and had been treated with several antiepileptic drugs since the age of 13 years. He developed auditory hallucinations and multiple personalities at 17 years of age, several months after the initiation of phenytoin and phenobarbital, despite these antiepileptic drugs being used within the therapeutic ranges. Genetic analysis revealed that he was homozygous for the C677T polymorphism of MTHFR. Hyperhomocysteinemia, hypomethionemia, and multiple vitamin deficiencies, including folate, riboflavin, and pyridoxal, were identified at the age of 23 years. Vitamin supplementation and alteration of the antiepileptic drugs improved his psychotic symptoms. Multiple vitamin deficiencies with homozygous MTHFR C677T should be considered in patients presenting with schizophrenia-like symptoms during antiepileptic drug therapy. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antiepileptic drug-induced psychosis associated with homozygous C677T and multiple vitamin deficiencies. Our findings will contribute to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the psychiatric side effects of antiepileptic drugs and lead to improved medical management for patients with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Fenobarbital/efeitos adversos , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/etiologia , Adolescente , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/deficiência , Polimorfismo Genético , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/diagnóstico , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 48(3): 125-129, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common medical condition managed by general practitioners (GPs) in Australia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to raise awareness of anaemia that occurs in pregnancy, understand its increasing complexities with an expanding migrant population, identify at-risk groups and promote appropriate management. DISCUSSION: With anaemia reportedly occurring in 25% of women in pregnancy and GPs managing the majority of preconception and early pregnancy care, it is important to have a sound understanding of the aetiology, risks and management options. While iron deficiency anaemia is most commonly seen, a more complex understanding in regard to other causes and haemoglobinopathy screening is required.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/fisiopatologia , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/fisiopatologia , Austrália , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/fisiopatologia , Hemoglobinopatias/complicações , Hemoglobinopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This narrative review gives an overview on the essential role of adequate nutrition to an optimally functioning immune defence. Micronutrients act as regulators of the immune response, with the focus of this review on the immunomodulatory effects of the trace elements iron, zinc and selenium, and the vitamins A, D, E, C, B6 and B12 and folic acid. RESULTS: Iron deficiency especially impairs the Th1 cell-borne cellular immunity. T lymphocytes are also most affected by a deficiency of zinc, needed for their maturation and the balance between the different T cell subpopulations and acting as a redox signal in the regulation of many enzymes. Selenium is also involved in redox reactions as the glutathione peroxidases and other redox enzymes are selenoproteins. Selenium status has shown special effects on cellular immunity and resistance to viral infections. Vitamin A in the form of retinoic acid induces a humoral Th2 cell response via antigen-presenting cells and is involved in maintaining intestinal immune defence and tolerance through its nuclear receptor RAR and via kinase signalling cascades. Immune tolerance is particularly promoted by vitamin D acting through dendritic cells to stimulate the differentiation of regulatory T cells. Vitamin E has antiinflammatory effects and stimulates naïve T cells especially in the elderly. Besides its antioxidative properties, vitamin C has effects on cell signalling and epigenetic regulation. The B vitamins are required for cytotoxic cellular immunity and modulate T cell responses. CONCLUSION: A diverse diet and regular exposure to sunlight are the best sources for a balanced nutrient supply to maintain an optimal immune defence.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Deficiência de Vitaminas/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais , Luz Solar , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
14.
Obes Surg ; 29(8): 2367-2372, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The best alimentary and biliopancreatic limb (BPL) lengths in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a BPL of 70 vs 120 cm, with a constant AL of 150 cm on long-term weight loss, remission of comorbidities, and supplementation needs after RYGB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized study of morbidly obese patients undergoing RYGB was performed. Patients were randomized into two groups: those patients undergoing RYGB with a BPL of 70 cm (BPL 70 cm) and those ones undergoing RYGB with a BPL of 120 cm (BPL 120 cm). BMI, excess BMI loss (EBMIL), remission of comorbidities and specific vitamin and mineral supplementation needs at 1, 2, and 5 years were analyzed. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-three patients were included in each group. There were no significant differences in BMI, EBMIL and the remission of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia between groups at 1, 2, and 5 years after surgery. Patients from group BPL 120 cm required greater specific supplementation of vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin A during all the follow-up. CONCLUSION: A RYGB with 120 cm BPL does not achieve greater weight loss or remission of comorbidities than a RYGB with 70 cm BPL but is associated with greater deficiencies of vitamin B12, vitamin A, and folic acid. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03607305. https://clinicaltrials.gov/.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Deficiência de Vitaminas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Ter Arkh ; 91(4): 122-129, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094486

RESUMO

The review discusses thesteps of vitamin B12 metabolism and its role in maintaining of neurological functions. The term "vitamin B12 (cobalamin)" refers to several substances (cobalamins) of a very similar structure. Cobalamin enters the body with animal products. On the peripherу cobalamin circulates only in binding with proteins transcobalamin I and II (complex cobalamin-transcobalamin II is designated as "holotranscobalamin"). Holotranscobalamin is absorbed by different cells, whereas transcobalamin I-binded vitamin B12 - only by liver and kidneys. Two forms of cobalamin were identified as coenzymes of cellular reactions which are methylcobalamin (in cytoplasm) and hydroxyadenosylcobalamin (in mitochondria). The main causes of cobalamin deficiency are related to inadequate intake of animal products, autoimmune gastritis, pancreatic insufficiency, terminal ileum disease, syndrome of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Relative deficiency may be seen in excessive binding of vitamin B12 to transcobalamin I. Cobalamin deficiency most significantly affects functions of blood, nervous system and inflammatory response. Anemia occurs in 13-15% of cases; macrocytosis is an early sign. The average size of neutrophils and monocytes is the most sensitive marker of megaloblastic hematopoiesis. The demands in vitamin B12 are particularly high in nervous tissue. Hypovitaminosis is accompanied by pathological lesions both in white and gray brain matter. Several types of neurological manifestations are described: subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord (funicular myelinosis), sensomotor polyneuropathy, optic nerve neuropathy, cognitive disorders. The whole range of neuropsychiatric disorders with vitamin B12 deficiency has not been studied well enough. Due to certain diagnostic difficulties they are often regarded as "cryptogenic", "reactive", "vascular¼ origin. Normal or decreased total plasma cobalamin level could not a reliable marker of vitamin deficiency. In difficult cases the content of holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid / homocysteine, and folate in the blood serum should be investigated besides carefully analysis of clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Transcobalaminas , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/terapia
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(10): 1171-1184, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886501

RESUMO

Symptoms of gastroenteropancreatic located neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are often related to food intake and manifest as abdominal pain or diarrhoea which can influence patients nutritional status. Malnutrition is common in cancer patients and influences quality of life, treatment options and survival but is also present in up to 40% of patients with GEP-NENs. As part of malnutrition there are often deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, mainly vitamin D. Little knowledge exists on trace elements. Several factors influence the development of malnutrition such as size and localisation of the primary tumour as well as metastases, side effects from treatment but also hormone production of the tumour itself. One of the main influencing factors leading to malnutrition is diarrhoea which leads to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. Treatment of diarrhoea should be guided by its cause. Screening for malnutrition should be part of routine care in every GEP-NEN patient. Multidisciplinary treatment including dietician support is necessary for all malnourished patients with GEP-NENs.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Desnutrição/etiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/terapia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/terapia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Vitaminas/fisiologia
17.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(6): 567-577, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912673

RESUMO

Objective: The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves a complex interplay between immune system dysfunction, genetics, and environmental factors. It is well known that nutritional status is essential to a proper functioning immune system, leading to a highly debated question regarding the role of dietary factors in the pathogenesis of AD. Food allergies and elimination diets have been broadly studied in atopy; however, less consideration has been given to how vitamins, minerals, and other micronutrients influence the risk for AD and severity of symptoms. This systematic review discusses evidence on how various micronutrients, including vitamins (C, E, and D) and trace minerals (zinc, selenium, iron, copper, magnesium, and strontium) are associated with AD, and how supplementation influence disease severity. Design: A systematic search was conducted to identify the role that oral micronutrients have on AD. The authors reviewed 49 studies herein. Results: While there are weak associations between vitamins C or E and AD, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation provides benefit in AD patients. Deficiency of selenium and zinc may exacerbate AD. Current reports are not sufficient to confidently discern the role of other vitamins and trace minerals on AD. Conclusions: Though oral micronutrients may play a role in AD, the current literature is limited, and there is a need for more comprehensive randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to truly decipher the role between oral micronutrients and AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Humanos , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico
18.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764587

RESUMO

As microbiological diagnostic techniques improve and the frequency of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) infection increases worldwide, NTM-PD is becoming increasingly important to clinicians and researchers. Vitamin activity has been associated with the host immune response in tuberculosis; however, such information is very limited in NTM-PD. We performed a case-control study in 150 patients with NTM-PD and 150 healthy controls to investigate serum vitamin status. We measured concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E along with homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA) as indicators of vitamin B12 deficiency, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. The serum concentrations of vitamins A and E were significantly lower in patients with NTM-PD than in healthy controls (1.5 vs. 2.1 µmol/L, p < 0.01 for vitamin A; and 27.3 vs. 33.1 µmol/L, p < 0.01 for vitamin E). In contrast, the serum concentrations of vitamin D and homocysteine were not significantly different between the two groups. Vitamin A deficiency (< 1.05 µmol/L) was significantly more prevalent in patients with NTM-PD than in healthy controls (p < 0.01) and was associated with an 11-fold increase in risk of NTM-PD. Multiple vitamin deficiencies were only observed in patients with NTM-PD (7.3% of all NTM-PD patients). Positive correlations were observed among vitamins (vitamins A and D; r = 0.200, p < 0.05; vitamins D and E, r = 0.238, p < 0.05; vitamins A and E, r = 0.352, p < 0.05). Serum vitamin status, demographic variables, and biochemical indicators were not associated with treatment outcomes. Vitamin A deficiency was strongly associated with patients with NTM-PD. Our study suggests that altered vitamin status is associated with mycobacterial disease. Future well-designed prospective studies with large patient cohorts addressing these issues are needed to clarify the significance of vitamins in NTM-PD.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas/sangue
19.
Obes Surg ; 29(5): 1638-1643, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with morbid obesity undergoing metabolic surgery are prone to develop vitamin and mineral deficiencies, which may worsen in time. In order to prevent these deficiencies after metabolic surgery, all patients are advised to take daily multivitamin supplementation. The aim of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of specially developed multivitamins (WLS Forte®) for metabolic surgery and over-the-counter (standard) multivitamin supplementation (sMVS). METHODS: This cost-effectiveness analysis was preformed alongside an RCT for the Netherlands. Between June 2011 and March 2012, a total of 148 patients were randomized to one tablet daily of either WLS Forte® or sMVS. The patients were followed for 12 months. Data on costs within the health sector and outside the health sector were collected. The primary outcome is financial and logistic advantages, in terms of less patient visits to the outpatient department and the relevant costs to the employer due to absenteeism. RESULTS: In total, 10 (14%) patients in the WLS Forte® group versus 23 (30%) patients in the sMVS group developed a deficiency. The costs for the WLS forte® supplement were €38 versus €23 for sMVS. Additional return visits and associated costs for medical staff were the largest costs, up to 43% in the sMVS group. Total costs for supplementation with sMVS were €243 versus €134 for WLS Forte®. CONCLUSION: Preventing deficiencies with WLS Forte® seem initially more expensive than sMVS. However, treatment with WLS Forte® resulted in less vitamin and mineral deficiencies, which eventually resulted in less overall costs.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/prevenção & controle , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/economia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência de Vitaminas/economia , Deficiência de Vitaminas/etiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 78(2): 170-176, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642406

RESUMO

Optimising micronutrient status globally is a major health priority. Nutritional biomarkers are critical for the identification of nutrient inadequacies in light of the limitations of dietary assessment methods. Early diagnosis and prevention of nutrient inadequacies require sensitive, validated and harmonised methods to determine and monitor micronutrient status in individual healthcare and population-based surveys. Important criteria in the identification, validation and implementation of nutritional biomarkers include the testing of biomarker specificity and sensitivity, and their response to dietary as well as physiologic changes, e.g. age or pregnancy. Nutritional status can be categorised into deficient, suboptimal, adequate and excess status, where appropriate, and provided cut-offs are available. Cut-offs are quantitative measures to reflect health outcomes and are important in validating nutritional surveys, interventions and monitoring of populations. For many biomarkers, available cut-offs have limited interpretability and are most commonly derived in adult populations only. For the comparison of studies from across the globe, the harmonisation of analytical methods is essential and can be realised with the use of internationally available reference material and interlaboratory comparison studies. This narrative review describes current efforts on identifying and validating existing and new biomarkers, the derivation of biomarker cut-offs, and international efforts on harmonisation of laboratory methods for biomarker quantitation and their interpretation, in the example of B-vitamins. Establishing sensitive, reliable and cost-efficient biomarkers and related cut-offs for use in populations across the globe are critical to facilitating the early diagnosis of micronutrient inadequacies on the clinical and community-based level for timely intervention and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Deficiência de Vitaminas , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
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