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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21055, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629732

RESUMO

Food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization are common allergic diseases worldwide, with widely varying estimates of prevalence in children. Our study investigated the characteristics of ingestion and inhalation allergy among children from Sichuan province in Southwest China, so as to get public awareness of these disorders.A total of 1722 children between 0 and 14 years' old were enrolled in this study. They were outpatients in the West China Second University Hospital during June 2019 to September 2019. Serum specific IgE specific to 10 types of food allergen and 10 types of aeroallergen were estimated. Nutrition indicators were tested by electrochemical luminescence.59.70% children were allergic to at least 1 allergen, comprising 24.90% to aeroallergen and 38.81% to food allergen, respectively, whereas 36.28% children were allergic to both aeroallergen and food allergen. Milk was the most common food allergen, and egg came in second place. With regard to aeroallergen, house dust mite held the maximum proportion (65.02%), whereas dust mite followed behind. Inhalation allergy was more commonly seen in boys than girls. Bronchitis was the most common symptom of both allergies. In addition, the highest incidence age for children to be sensitive to food allergen and aeroallergen were 0∼2 years' old and 3∼5 years' old, respectively. It is worth mentioning that there was no significant difference in nutritional status between children with or without allergic diseases.Our findings reveal that milk, egg, house dust mite, and dust mite are the most common allergens among children in Sichuan province. Boys are more susceptible to aeroallergen than girls. Furthermore, the prevalence of ingestion and inhalation allergy varies from different age groups, and has no correlation with nutritional status. In brief, the analysis of the pattern of food allergen and aeroallergen sensitization is invaluable to effective diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Imunização/métodos , Adolescente , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Conscientização , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inalação/imunologia , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Prevalência , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
2.
Pediatr Rev ; 41(6): 283-292, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482691

RESUMO

Urticaria and, to a lesser extent, angioedema are common occurrences in the pediatric population. There are multiple causes of acute and chronic urticaria and angioedema. Most causes are benign, although they can be worrisome for patients and their parents. An allergist should evaluate acute urticaria and/or angioedema if there are concerns of an external cause, such as foods or medications. Chronic urticaria and angioedema can severely affect quality of life and should be managed aggressively with antihistamines and immunomodulators if poorly controlled. Chronic symptoms are unlikely to be due to an external cause. Anaphylaxis is a more serious allergic condition characterized by a systemic reaction involving at least 2 organ systems. Anaphylaxis should be initially managed with intramuscular epinephrine. Patients who experience anaphylaxis should be evaluated by an allergist for possible causes; if found, avoidance of the inciting antigen is the best management. All patients should also be given an epinephrine autoinjector and an action plan. Foods are a common cause of anaphylaxis in the pediatric population. New evidence suggests that the introduction of highly allergic foods is safe in infancy and should not be delayed. In addition, the early introduction of foods such as peanuts may help prevent the development of food allergies.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/etiologia , Angioedema/etiologia , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Urticária/etiologia , Adolescente , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Angioedema/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(25): 1042-1049, 2020 06.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516122

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of adverse food reactions is increasing, with 10-20% of the adult population experiencing such complaints. Most symptoms are thought to be indicators of food allergy, although non-immune-mediated food intolerance and other (e.g., gastroenterological) disorders are more likely to cause them. AIM: Our aim was to gain a better understanding of the adult patient group that has adverse food reactions and to discover the real background of the symptoms that are believed to be caused by food allergy. In addition, in the context of interdisciplinarity, we would like to emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis and collaboration with associate specialists. METHOD: 406 adult (>18) patients underwent an allergo-dermatological examination in order to assess, identify, and isolate symptoms related to food. Patients were presented with various symptoms, all of which were identified as a sign of 'food allergy'. After a thorough medical history and examination, specific IgE tests were performed if deemed necessary. Patients were referred to other specialists if further examinations were needed to complete the examination. RESULTS: 307 (75.6%) women and 99 (24.4%) men were examined. The average age was 43.6 years. The most common dermatological diagnosis was urticaria (44.1%). Relevant IgE-mediated food allergy was detected in 6 of 406 patients (1.5%). Oral allergy syndrome was diagnosed in 35 cases (8.6%). In many cases, biogenic amine intolerance (50.2%) and other comorbidities (gastroenterological: 62.1%, chronic inflammation: 22.2%) were found as provocative factors. In the background of the symptoms, side effects of drugs taken by patients during meals were identified in 20 cases. CONCLUSION: According to our data, biogenic amine intolerance is very common in the background of patients' food-related reactions, but the number of food allergies is overestimated. It is important for both healthcare professionals and patients to emphasize the diverse pathology behind adverse food reactions. Differentiation should always be based on thorough medical history, examination, and personalized management. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(25): 1042-1049.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Urticária/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Urticária/epidemiologia
4.
South Med J ; 113(6): 267-274, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483635

RESUMO

Red meat allergies have followed tick bites on every continent except Antarctica. The sensitizing antigen is galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), an oligosaccharide constituent of nonprimate blood and meat, acquired by ticks during animal bloodfeeding. Because red meat allergy after tick bites is a worldwide phenomenon, the objectives of this review were to describe the global epidemiology of red meat allergy after tick bites and its immunological mechanisms; to identify the human risk factors for red meat allergy after tick bites; to identify the most common tick vectors of red meat allergy worldwide; to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnostic confirmation, and management of patients with red meat allergy after tick bites; and to recommend strategies for the prevention of tick bites. To meet these objectives, Internet search engines were queried with keywords to select scientific articles for review. The keywords included ticks, tick bites, allergy, anaphylaxis, and meat allergy. The study period was defined as 1980-2019. The major risk factors for red meat allergy after tick bites included male sex, non-B blood type, systemic mastocytosis, a bioprosthetic (bovine or porcine) heart valve, and preexisting allergies to gelatin or animal dander. Following confirmation by challenge testing, patients with red meat allergies should avoid red meats, foods containing gelatin, and intravenous immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab and infliximab produced in SP2/0 mouse cell lines. Red meat allergy after tick bites represents an emerging threat from tick bites in addition to infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Animais , Bioprótese , Dissacarídeos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Ixodidae , Carne Vermelha , Fatores de Risco , Picadas de Carrapatos/prevenção & controle
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 204-206, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420946

RESUMO

In children with food allergy the visits should be limited to those that are unequivocally needed on clinical basis. Food challenge can be performed in selected situations, taking a more detailed history to make sure that patients provide whatever information we need. The maintenance of a safe diet can be hampered by several factors. Nutritional supplementation may be necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Administração Oral , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
6.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(6): 524-532, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Specific IgG4 (sIgG4) increases with allergen specific immunotherapy and may reflect a state of immune tolerance in food allergy. While ImmunoCAP® has been widely used to measure sIgG4 to a single allergen, PROTIA™ Specific IgG4® has been designed as a multiplex assay for measuring sIgG4. This study sought to validate this assay in comparison to ImmunoCAP®. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements of sIgG4 were compared between PROTIA™ Specific IgG4® and ImmunoCAP® using sera from 519 allergy patients (asthma: 114, allergic rhinitis: 318, food allergy: 146) with 731 paired tests. sIgG4 was measured against nine inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat dander, dog dander, birch pollen, oak pollen, ragweed pollen, mugwort pollen, and Alternaria alternata spores) and nine food allergens (egg white, casein, wheat, peanut, walnut, crab, shrimp, apple, and peach). RESULTS: PROTIA™ Specific IgG4® showed 95.6% agreement rate with ImmunoCAP® in the positivity comparison. For sIgG4 positivity to each individual allergen, an agreement rate of more than 84.8% was observed. In Cohen's kappa analysis, these assays displayed substantial correlations [Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) ≥0.699], except for shrimp (κ=0.448). Furthermore, both assays displayed strong correlations in quantitative comparisons [correlation coefficients value (ρ) ≥0.8014], except for apple (ρ=0.6571, p=0.175). Serial dilution tests also showed consistency between the assays. CONCLUSION: PROTIA™ Specific IgG4® showed high consistency with ImmunoCAP® in measuring sIgG4. This assay is applicable to various clinical fields, including allergen immunotherapy and food allergy.


Assuntos
Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Titulação por Diluição de Reatividade a Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1253: 141-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445094

RESUMO

Food allergy is a global health problem, particularly in developed countries. It is mainly mediated by Th2 cell and IgE produced by B cells. While the pathogenesis of IgE-mediated food allergy is quite straightforward, the factors that lead to the development of food allergies at any age in children and adults are unclear. Recent studies have revealed that genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures contribute to the development of atopy. In this chapter, we discuss the interplay between these three key elements, reveal how epigenetic modifications may mediate genetic susceptibility of food allergies, and explain why epigenetic modifications may be the key in environmental factors mediated-gene expression, leading to the loss of immune tolerance and eventually, the initiation of food allergies. It should be noted that the study of the role of epigenetics in food allergy is still in its infancy, and lags behind research on epigenetics in other fields such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. One of the reasons for this may be the extreme complexity and variability of clinical presentation of food allergy, ranging from less severe forms such as oral allergy syndrome to full-blown anaphylaxis. Research on early exposure has disrupted the previous thinking of avoidance of food allergies to prevent sensitization in children, instead leading to recommendations that early introduction to foods may, in fact, induce tolerance. However, clear and unequivocal guidelines on how to approach this in the clinical setting have not been developed. The coming of the epigenetic era in food allergies is to provide better understanding of pathogenesis of food allergy, as well as providing therapeutic and preventive strategies for this very common condition.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/genética , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA. OBJECTIVE: We studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors. METHODS: Likely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL). RESULTS: Of the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10-250-1.29*10-7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10-4 and p = 4.84*10-4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10-4 and p = 8.39*10-13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alérgenos , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Eczema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Food Chem ; 322: 126711, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283362

RESUMO

Jug r 1, the major allergen of walnut, triggers severe allergic reactions through epitopes. Hence, research on the efficient strategy for analyzing the linear epitopes of Jug r 1 are necessary. In this work, bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the linear epitopes of Jug r 1. Overlapping peptide synthesis was used to map linear epitopes. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and HPLC-MS/MS were used to identify digestion-resistant peptides. The results showed that six predicted linear epitopes were AA28-35, AA42-49, AA55-62, AA65-73, AA97-104, and AA109-121. AA16-30 and AA125-139 were identified by the sera of walnut allergic patients. Five digestion-resistant peptides were AA19-33, AA40-45, AA54-74, AA96-106, and AA117-137. The predicted results only included one of the linear epitopes identified by sera, while the digestion-resistant peptides covered all. Therefore, the digestion-resistant property of food allergens may be a promising direction for studying the linear epitopes of Jug r 1.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/química , Epitopos/química , Juglans/química , Peptídeos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Juglans/genética , Juglans/imunologia , Nozes/química , Nozes/genética , Nozes/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Análise de Sequência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Food Chem ; 321: 126679, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247887

RESUMO

Although pizza is one of the most popular foods in the world, allergic responses after ingesting pizza are relatively uncommon. However, precisely identifying the allergens responsible for these allergic reactions is challenging because of the high and diverse number of ingredients used in pizza preparation. In this report, we aim to identify the allergens responsible for systemic allergic reactions following ingestion of pizza in two patients. Using a skin prick by prick test (SPPT) and in vitro techniques, with natural and recombinant purified allergens from tomato and mustard seeds, we identified 2S albumin and non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) as the proteins involved. However, IgE responses to the four nsLTPs differed before and after denaturation and reduction, thus suggesting additional complexity around nsLTP in food processing.


Assuntos
Albuminas/imunologia , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Masculino , Mostardeira/imunologia , Sementes/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(689): 684-687, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270935

RESUMO

The goal of this article is to provide an informative review on allergy to mammalian meat. The main allergen contained in «â€…red meat ¼ is the alpha-gal (galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose) that is found in all non-primate mammalian tissues. IgE-mediated allergy to alpha-gal appears typically delayed from the consumption of meat, often three to six hours after ingestion of meat. Common allergic reactions include isolated gastrointestinal symptoms but can potentially be life-threatening with severe anaphylaxis. Diagnosis relies on a thorough clinical history, skin-prick testing and the search for specific IgE. The management of meat allergy consists in the avoidance of all mammalian meat (including gelatins) and other pharmaceutical products that can contain alpha-gal, especially cetuximab.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Carne Vermelha , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Animais , Dissacarídeos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Testes Cutâneos
16.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 53-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141849

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis represents one of the most prevalent manifestations of atopy in children, which is distinguished by the early onset and high frequency of chronicity. The aim of this study was to study the clinical features of atopic dermatitis in early childhood and to evaluate comorbid conditions. The prospective research was conducted to study the cohort of 68 patients, who were developed the atopic dermatitis under 2 years of age. It was revealed, that the age of onset of the disease and the clinical severity was determined by the genetic predisposition on the mother's side. According to the clinical severity of the disease there were revealed the series of peculiarities especially in the case of moderate course: the high frequency of comorbid allergic pathology (rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, allergic gastritis) and the co-existing gastroenterological disorders (colic, constipation and foaming). The use of CoMISSas a non-invasive tool assumes the great importance in respect of making timely diagnosis of the allergy to cow's milk protein.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Urticária/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Eczema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite/epidemiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1452, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210229

RESUMO

In mice, the maternal microbiome influences fetal immune development and postnatal allergic outcomes. Westernized populations have high rates of allergic disease and low rates of gastrointestinal carriage of Prevotella, a commensal bacterial genus that produces short chain fatty acids and endotoxins, each of which may promote the development of fetal immune tolerance. In this study, we use a prebirth cohort (n = 1064 mothers) to conduct a nested case-cohort study comparing 58 mothers of babies with clinically proven food IgE mediated food allergy with 258 randomly selected mothers. Analysis of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples shows maternal carriage of Prevotella copri during pregnancy strongly predicts the absence of food allergy in the offspring. This association was confirmed using targeted qPCR and was independent of infant carriage of P. copri. Larger household size, which is a well-established protective factor for allergic disease, strongly predicts maternal carriage of P. copri.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Mães , Prevotella/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dieta , Características da Família , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Arerugi ; 69(2): 123-128, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188824

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis has been reported as a complication of oral immunotherapy (OIT), but there are only a few reports of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) occurring after OIT. EGE causes eosinophil infiltration into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is characterized by various digestive symptoms. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with EGE. He was diagnosed as having immediate-type food allergies (egg, milk and wheat) by oral food challenges at 1 year of age. OIT for each food was carried out, and the amounts of the offending foods were able to be gradually increased without causing any immediate-type allergy symptoms. However, the total IgE and specific IgE values were remarkably increased at the age of 4 years and 4 months. He first developed oral mucosa symptoms and vomiting at 4 years and 10 months of age, and they gradually worsened. Stopping eggs and milk alleviated the symptoms. Nevertheless, he still occasionally vomited. He started Pica eating disorder (sand and sponge) due to anemia from 5 years and 10 months of age and developed eosinophilia without diarrhea or bloody stool. Upper and lower GI tract endoscopic examinations found no bleeding. The GI mucosa showed eosinophil infiltration of more than 40/high-power field in the stomach and duodenum, so he was diagnosed with EGE. No eosinophils were found in the esophageal mucosa. His GI symptoms and anemia improved on a multiple-food-elimination diet. Patients undergoing OIT should be closely followed up for a long time, and those with GI symptoms should be evaluated by GI endoscopy.


Assuntos
Enterite/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Pica/etiologia , Animais , Criança , Enterite/complicações , Eosinofilia/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Gastrite/complicações , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(6): 594-599, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of children have food allergy. Yet, little is known about how parents cope with the burden of this disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the perceptions of food allergy-related mental health issues of parents of children with food allergy. METHODS: Parents of children with pediatric allergist-diagnosed food allergy were recruited through allergy clinics and education centers in a large Canadian city. We used content analysis to identify overarching themes. RESULTS: We interviewed 21 parents with children (boys [13/21; 62.9%]) aged younger than 12 months to 16 years. Interviews averaged 47 (range 33-82) minutes. Most children were diagnosed as infants, and few (7/21; 33.3%) were monoallergic. About one-half (7/16; 43.8%) had a history of anaphylaxis. Parents of children with a single food allergy spoke of "accommodation and adaptation." In contrast, parents of children with multiple food allergies described "anxiety and isolation" and spoke of being "depressed" and "terrified" about leaving their children in the care of others who may not be equipped to handle food allergy. Many parents felt "overwhelmed and alone," especially if they lacked support from extended family and/or their social circle. "Fear for today, fear for the future" was commonly described by parents, although a tenuous symbiotic coexistence was developed, with parents stating "Food allergy management has become our normal." Finally, a small group of parents reported that "Bullying happens, but we are alone to cope with it." CONCLUSION: Multiple food allergies negatively affect the mental health of parents, in a variety of well-being domains.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Percepção , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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