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2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 822-836, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926512

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been identified as a major cause of mortality in all four great ape taxa in zoologic institutions. In an effort to better understand and treat CVD in captive great apes, a program called the Great Ape Heart Project (GAHP), based at Zoo Atlanta, collects and maintains a database of echocardiograms and other relevant medical information relating to the cardiac health status of great apes. Cardiac health assessments have become standard practice among North American zoos that house great apes and are recommended by all four great ape Species Survival Plans (SSP) for the assessment of CVD in captive great apes. As of December 31, 2017, more than 70 ape-holding institutions have submitted approximately 1,100 cardiac examinations of great apes to the GAHP, information from which is stored in the GAHP database. Transthoracic echocardiography is one of the most practical and cost-effective diagnostic imaging techniques for the evaluation of cardiac function in great apes. Standardization of echocardiographic measurements is critical for maximizing the diagnostic value of an echocardiographic exam and for utilization of stored information in comparative studies within and between the great ape taxa. The following manuscript offers suggestions for standardization of nomenclature, imaging technique, echocardiographic measurements, data storage, and reporting of cardiac exams for submission into the GAHP database with the goal of promoting consistency and quality in data collection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Hominidae , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 206-212, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769389

RESUMO

Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and residents from nearby villages, and describe contact with possible monkeypox reservoirs. We focused specifically on Gambian rats (Cricetomys spp.) because they are recognized possible reservoirs and because contact with Gambian rats was common enough to render sufficient statistical power. We collected one 5-mL whole blood specimen from each participant to perform a generic anti-OPXV ELISA test for IgG and IgM antibodies and administered a questionnaire about prior symptoms of monkeypox-like illness and contact with possible reservoirs. Our results showed evidence of OPXV exposures (IgG positive, 6.3%; IgM positive, 1.6%) among some of those too young to have received smallpox vaccination (born after 1980, n = 63). No participants reported prior symptoms consistent with monkeypox. After adjusting for education level, participants who frequently visited the forest were more likely to have recently eaten Gambian rats (OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.91-5.92, P < 0.001) and primate sanctuary staff were less likely to have touched or sold Gambian rats (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.19-0.28, P < 0.001). The asymptomatic or undetected circulation of OPXVs in humans in Cameroon is likely, and contact with monkeypox reservoirs is common, raising the need for continued surveillance for human and animal disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Monkeypox/veterinária , Orthopoxvirus , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 461-465, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260215

RESUMO

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in humans is most commonly caused by disruption of thyroid gland development (dysgenesis) or an inherited defect in thyroid hormone biosynthesis (dyshormonogenesis). CH has not been previously documented in great apes. This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of CH in a 9-mo-old male Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and a 6-wk-old female Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii). Primary CH due to thyroid dysgenesis was confirmed in the Bornean orangutan using sonography and radioisotope scintigraphy. Although commercial thyroid immunoassays are not validated for use in orangutans, in comparison to age-matched controls, thyroid-stimulating hormone level was markedly elevated, and serum thyroxine (T4) and free T4 levels were markedly decreased in both cases. Oral supplementation with levothyroxine sodium resulted in noticeable clinical improvement in both orangutans within 30 days of initiating treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/congênito , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/veterinária , Pongo/classificação , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218763, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242268

RESUMO

Cardiac disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for adult gorillas. Previous research indicates a sex-based difference with predominantly males demonstrating evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. To evaluate these findings, we analyzed serum markers with cardiac measures in a large sample of gorillas. The study sample included 44 male and 25 female gorillas housed at American Association of Zoo and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited zoos. Serum samples were collected from fasted gorillas during routine veterinary health exams and analyzed to measure leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, insulin, ferritin, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cardiac ultrasonography via transthoracic echocardiogram was performed simultaneously. Three echocardiographic parameters were chosen to assess cardiac disease according to parameters established for captive lowland gorillas: left ventricular internal diameter, inter-ventricular septum thickness, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness. Our data revealed that high leptin, low adiponectin, and lowered cholesterol were significantly and positively correlated with measures of heart thickness and age in males but not in females. Lowered cholesterol in this population would be categorized as elevated in humans. High leptin and low adiponectin are indicative of increased adiposity and suggests a potential parallel with human obesity and cardiovascular disease in males. Interestingly, while females exhibited increased adiposity with age, they did not progress to cardiac disease.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Gorilla gorilla , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/sangue , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/sangue , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
J Med Primatol ; 48(6): 364-366, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179536

RESUMO

We screened hepatitis E from 15 species of non-human primates. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 11.1% (1/9) Mandrillus sphinx, 14.3% (2/14) Gorilla gorilla, 5.9% (4/67) pan troglodytes and 8.7% (2/23) Mandrillus leucophaeus, whereas anti-HEV IgM was detected in 1.5% (1/18) papio Anubis, 28.6% (2/7) Cercocebus agilis and 1.5% (1/67) pan troglodyte.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Cercopithecidae , Gorilla gorilla , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Camarões , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 243-253, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120685

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis is the etiologic agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a severe and potentially fatal larval cestode infection primarily affecting the liver. AE is known to occur in dead-end intermediate hosts, including humans and nonhuman primates. Between 1999 and 2016, AE was diagnosed in seven western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), all from a Swiss zoo. Six gorillas died of the disease. One individual is still alive, receives continuous albendazole medication, and shows no clinical signs. Most infected animals remained asymptomatic for years. Only one young gorilla showed early signs of acute discomfort and abdominal pain. In the final stage of the disease, affected animals died suddenly, or showed a short course of nonspecific but severe clinical signs, including lethargy, recumbency, abdominal enlargement, and anorexia. Postmortem examination confirmed hepatic AE complicated by peritonitis in most cases. Echinococcus multilocularis infection may remain undetected because of a very long incubation period. Hematological and biochemical parameters rarely showed abnormalities in this phase. Thus, inclusion of abdominal hepatic ultrasound examination and serology is recommended for early AE detection in routine examinations of gorillas in endemic areas or where food is potentially contaminated with E. multilocularis eggs. Ultrasound or computed tomography was useful to monitor progression and to estimate the volumetric extension of the hepatic lesions. Current medication with albendazole, which proved to be effective for human patients, was not able to stop progression of hepatic lesions in gorillas. Therefore, its therapeutic value remains questionable in gorillas. However, long-term oral albendazole treatment proved to be safe, and therapeutic plasma levels published for humans were achieved. Preventive measures such as thermo-treatment of food or vaccination of gorillas and other nonhuman primates should be considered in areas where E. multilocularis is present.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/veterinária , Gorilla gorilla , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1771-1775, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959551

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been detected in different animal species. A survey study was carried out to assess HEV infection in non-human primates (NHPs) housed in zoos in Spain. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in eight of the 181 NHPs tested (4.4%; 95%CI: 1.4-7.4). At least one seropositive animal was detected in five of the 33 species sampled (15.2%). This is the first report of seropositivity in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Anti-HEV antibodies were found in six of the eight zoos included in the study (75.0%). Seroconversion was detected in one chimpanzee, which confirms HEV circulation in one zoo between 2015 and 2016. Seropositivity was significantly higher in hominids than in other NHP families. HEV RNA was not detected in any of the serum samples tested. The results indicate susceptibility of NHPs to HEV infection. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of these species in the epidemiology of HEV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Primatas , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Lemuridae , Macaca , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pan troglodytes , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 139-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866768

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses of human origin infect wild apes across Africa, sometimes lethally. Here we report simultaneous outbreaks of two distinct human respiratory viruses, human metapneumovirus (MPV; Pneumoviridae: Metapneumovirus) and human respirovirus 3 (HRV3; Paramyxoviridae; Respirovirus, formerly known as parainfluenza virus 3), in two chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) communities in the same forest in Uganda in December 2016 and January 2017. The viruses were absent before the outbreaks, but each was present in ill chimpanzees from one community during the outbreak period. Clinical signs and gross pathologic changes in affected chimpanzees closely mirrored symptoms and pathology commonly observed in humans for each virus. Epidemiologic modelling showed that MPV and HRV3 were similarly transmissible (R0 of 1.27 and 1.48, respectively), but MPV caused 12.2% mortality mainly in infants and older chimpanzees, whereas HRV3 caused no direct mortality. These results are consistent with the higher virulence of MPV than HRV3 in humans, although both MPV and HRV3 cause a significant global disease burden. Both viruses clustered phylogenetically within groups of known human variants, with MPV closely related to a lethal 2009 variant from mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), suggesting two independent and simultaneous reverse zoonotic origins, either directly from humans or via intermediary hosts. These findings expand our knowledge of human origin viruses threatening wild chimpanzees and suggest that such viruses might be differentiated by their comparative epidemiological dynamics and pathogenicity in wild apes. Our results also caution against assuming common causation in coincident outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/genética , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Vírus da Parainfluenza 3 Humana/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889217

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in zoo-housed great apes, accounting for 41% of adult gorilla death in North American zoological institutions. Obtaining a timely and accurate diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in gorillas is challenging, relying on echocardiography which generally requires anesthetic medications that may confound findings and can cause severe side effects in cardiovascularly compromised animals. The measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has emerged as a modality of interest in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of human patients with heart failure. This study evaluated records for 116 zoo-housed gorillas to determine relationships of BNP with cardiovascular disease. Elevations of BNP levels correlated with the presence of visible echocardiographic abnormalities, as well as reported clinical signs in affected gorillas. Levels of BNP greater 150 pb/mL should alert the clinician to the presence of myocardial strain and volume overload, warranting medical evaluation and intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gorilla gorilla/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/sangue , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino
11.
Ecohealth ; 16(2): 275-286, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838479

RESUMO

Disease surveillance in wildlife is rapidly expanding in scope and methodology, emphasizing the need for formal evaluations of system performance. We examined a syndromic surveillance system for respiratory disease detection in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, from 2004 to 2012, with respect to data quality, disease trends, and respiratory disease detection. Data quality was assessed by examining community coverage, completeness, and consistency. The data were examined for baseline trends; signs of respiratory disease occurred at a mean frequency of less than 1 case per week, with most weeks containing zero observations of abnormalities. Seasonal and secular (i.e., over a period of years) trends in respiratory disease frequency were not identified. These baselines were used to develop algorithms for outbreak detection using both weekly counts and weekly prevalence thresholds and then compared retrospectively on the detection of 13 respiratory disease clusters from 2005 to 2012. Prospective application of outbreak detection algorithms to real-time syndromic data would be useful in triggering a rapid outbreak response, such as targeted diagnostic sampling, enhanced surveillance, or mitigation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Pan troglodytes , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Tanzânia
12.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(3): 310-315, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737897

RESUMO

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in children and adults. Several pieces of evidence suggest that viruses genetically and antigenically closely related to human NoVs might infect animals, raising public health concerns about potential cross-species transmission. The natural susceptibility of non-human primates (NPHs) to human NoV infections has already been reported, but a limited amount of data is currently available. In order to start filling this gap, we screened a total of 86 serum samples of seven different species of NPHs housed at the Zoological Garden (Bioparco) of Rome (Italy), collected between 2001 and 2017, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of human GII.4 and GIV.1 NoVs. Antibodies specific for both genotypes were detected with an overall prevalence of 32.6%. In detail, IgG antibodies against GII.4 NoVs were found in 18 Japanese macaques (29.0%, 18/62), a mandrill (10.0%, 1/10), a white-crowned mangabey (16.6%, 1/6) and in an orangutan (33.3%, 1/3). Twelve macaques (19.3%, 12/62), five mandrills (50.0%, 5/10), two chimpanzees (100%, 2/2) and a white-crowned mangabey (16.6%, 1/6) showed antibodies for GIV.1 NoVs. The findings of this study confirm the natural susceptibility of captive NHPs to GII NoV infections. In addition, IgG antibodies against GIV.1 were detected, suggesting that NHPs are exposed to GIV NoVs or to antigenically related NoV strains.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Haplorrinos/virologia , Hominidae/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
J Med Primatol ; 48(1): 65-67, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307044

RESUMO

A Delorme's procedure perineal surgical repair was performed in a wild adult male Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) with a chronic persistent rectal prolapse that had been unsuccessfully treated by 6 previous surgeries. The rectal prolapse did not recur, and the orangutan was successfully released to the wild, 6 weeks later.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/cirurgia , Pongo abelii , Prolapso Retal/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Prolapso Retal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Med Primatol ; 48(2): 133-136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443913

RESUMO

An orangutan (Pongo abelii) presented with chronic respiratory problems. Cytological evaluation of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids revealed macrophages with well-circumscribed intracytoplasmic clear vacuoles and lipid droplets in the background, confirmed by Oil Red O staining. The findings were indicative of lipoid pneumonia. This is the first report of lipoid pneumonia in an orangutan.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Lipoide/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Pneumonia Lipoide/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Lipoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Pongo abelii , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
J Med Primatol ; 48(1): 22-31, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine gastrointestinal (GI) parasites commonly found in Malaysia's non-human primates (NHP) living in three different types of populations (wild, urban, and captive) and the basis of major GI parasites of zoonotic importance. METHODS: A total of 308 samples was collected and microscopically screened from the NHP in the wild (n = 163), urban (n = 76), and captive (n = 69) populations. The samples were taken from 12 species of local NHPs. RESULTS: At least, 44 species of GI parasites comprising of protozoans (seven species), nematodes (26 species), cestodes (five species), trematodes (five species), and pentastomida (one species) were detected. There were no significant differences for the overall prevalence and no great differences in GI parasite species among the wild, urban, and captive NHP populations. CONCLUSION: The most common GI parasite was Ascaris spp. (49.7%), followed by Oesophagostomum spp. (26.9%), and 31 species discovered in this study are of known public health importance.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Primatas , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/parasitologia , Bornéu/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(2): 298-303, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284944

RESUMO

Mountain gorillas ( Gorilla beringei beringei) are one of the most critically endangered great apes in the world. The most common cause of mountain gorilla morbidity and mortality is trauma (e.g., injury from conspecifics or snare entrapment). We conducted a retrospective case-control study of free-ranging, human-habituated mountain gorillas to evaluate factors associated with snare entrapment and the results of clinical intervention. Data were collected from clinical records on all clinical intervention cases ( n=132) in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, conducted between 1995-2015. Wildlife veterinarians treated 37 gorillas entrapped in snares and 95 gorillas for other clinical conditions (including trauma and respiratory illness). Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that young gorillas (<8 yr old) were more likely than older gorillas to become snared; that comorbidities delayed times to intervention (≥3 d); and that severity of wounds at the time of intervention were associated with increased risk of lasting impairment (including loss of limb or limb function, or death) within 1 mo after intervention. Our results may influence decisions for gorilla health monitoring and treatment to most effectively conserve this critically endangered species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/patologia , Gorilla gorilla/lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Envelhecimento , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruanda/epidemiologia
17.
J Med Primatol ; 48(2): 114-122, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from non-human primates primate (NHP) with a history of endemic diarrhea housed at Como Park Zoo. METHODS: Fecal samples from 33 symptom-free NHP belonging to eight different species were collected weekly for 9 weeks. Species-level characterization and phylogenetic analysis of isolates included biochemical testing and 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the feces of 42% (14/33) of the primates. Three Campylobacter spp. (C upsaliensis, C jejuni, and novel Campylobacter sp.) were identified from three NHP species. A possible positive host Campylobacter species-specificity was observed. However, no statistical association was observed between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and age and sex of the animal. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed the value of conducting repeated fecal sampling to establish the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in zoo-maintained NHP; it also importantly identifies a novel Campylobacter sp. isolated from white-faced saki monkeys.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter upsaliensis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Hominidae , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Am J Primatol ; 80(9): e22923, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281825

RESUMO

Reference growth studies of captive rhesus macaque infants have not accounted for diarrhea and the potential for growth stunting or growth faltering. Healthy infants without diarrhea could be used to build a standard growth chart and a tool used to detect growth faltering associated with diarrhea. We hypothesized infants who develop diarrhea during the first year of life would experience decreased linear weight gain compared to healthy infants, and we used healthy infants to establish standard growth of male and female infants. We hypothesized the lower 3rd percentile of standard growth would be cut-off criteria used in screening for diarrhea-associated growth faltering. Using a retrospective cohort of 6,510 infant weight records in a multiple linear regression, daily weight gain through the first year of life was determined by sex, housing type, and health status. Male standard growth was 4.1 g/day (95%CI: 4.0-4.2 g/day) in corrals and 4.7 g/day (95%CI: 4.5-4.8 g/day) in shelter housing. Female standard growth was 4.0 g/day (95%CI: 3.8-4.2 g/day) in corrals and 4.4 g/day (95%CI: 4.0-4.7 g/day) in shelter housing. Diarrhea was significantly associated with decreased linear weight gain by up to 34% during the first year of life. Odds of growth faltering of infants, defined as those falling below the 3rd percentile of standard growth, were at least 8.9 higher given a history of diarrhea compared to healthy. The growth faltering cut-off criteria had a sensitivity of at least 53% for males and females to screen for diarrhea in infants between 6 and 12 months in shelters housing. Interinstitutional collaborations of infant rhesus macaque weight records would refine the standard growth charts and cut-off criteria, and additional morphometric data would provide a more nuanced picture of growth stunting.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Transtornos do Crescimento/veterinária , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Am J Bioeth ; 18(10): 35-42, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339070

RESUMO

As the usual regulatory framework did not fit well during the last Ebola outbreak, innovative thinking still needed. In the absence of an outbreak, randomised controlled trials of clinical efficacy in humans cannot be done, while during an outbreak such trials will continue to face significant practical, philosophical, and ethical challenges. This article argues that researchers should also test the safety and effectiveness of novel vaccines in wild apes by employing a pluralistic approach to evidence. There are three reasons to test vaccines in wild populations of apes: i) protect apes; ii) reduce Ebola transmission from wild animals to humans; and iii) accelerate vaccine development and licensing for humans. Data obtained from studies of vaccines among wild apes and chimpanzees may even be considered sufficient for licensing new vaccines for humans. This strategy will serve to benefit both wild apes and humans.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/ética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Revisão Ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Gorilla gorilla/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Vacinação/ética
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13346, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190614

RESUMO

Monitoring immune system activation of wild animals has garnered increasing interest within the field of ecological immunology, leading to an urgent need for non-invasive biomarkers measuring these changes. Urinary neopterin, a marker of the cell-mediated immune response, is validated as an immune-related biomarker in captive and laboratory animals. However, wild animals naturally host higher and chronic pathogen loads. Therefore, detection and quantification of additional infections via neopterin might not be possible against the background of a chronically challenged immune system. To assess the suitability of urinary neopterin in wild animals, we measured neopterin corrected for specific gravity with an enzyme immunoassay in 185 samples collected before, during and after a respiratory disease outbreak in 28 individuals from a group of wild chimpanzees (Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire). Urinary neopterin levels were significantly higher during periods when individuals showed respiratory symptoms versus before and after the outbreak. Furthermore, urinary neopterin levels were significantly higher in individuals that died, with higher levels already apparent before the outbreak, suggesting individuals may have an already activated immune system. Measuring urinary neopterin levels, with other biomarkers of energetic condition, stress challenges, and reproduction will contribute towards a deeper understanding of life-history trade-offs in wild animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides , Surtos de Doenças , Neopterina/urina , Pan troglodytes/urina , Doenças Respiratórias , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/urina , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/urina , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária
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