Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.772
Filtrar
1.
J Med Primatol ; 50(6): 313-322, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthocephalosis is an important cause of death in captive New World primates (NWP). Once established in a colony, it is extremely difficult to treat and control, quickly spreading among NWP with a high mortality rate. This study aimed to characterize the disease associated with infection with acanthocephalans according to its epidemiological, clinical, and anatomopathological aspects in a captive NWP population. METHODS: From 2010 to 2020, a Brazilian zoo had recurrent deaths of NWP associated to acanthocephalan parasitism. Clinical and pathological profiles of these animals were analyzed considering the host species, sex, age, weight, clinical signs, therapeutic protocols, and pathological findings. RESULTS: A total of 27 deaths associated with acanthocephalosis were recorded, all lethal cases affected tamarins and lion tamarins, corresponding to 67.5% of total deaths during the course of this study. Ten animals died with no previously detected clinical signs, whereas cases with noticeable clinical signs often had apathy and progressive weight loss, resulting in cachexia. Symptomatic NWP were treated with anthelmintic protocols, antibiotics, and support therapy. However, all hospitalized animals died and had grossly detectable adult acanthocephalans in the intestinal lumen that were identified as Prosthenorchis sp., which were associated with transmural and ulcerative enteritis. CONCLUSIONS: This report revealed the impact of acanthocephalosis in a naturally infected captive colony of NWP, particularly affecting tamarins (Saguinus spp.) and lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.), with failed treatment and control strategies.


Assuntos
Leontopithecus , Doenças dos Macacos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Saguinus
2.
J Med Primatol ; 50(6): 335-338, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448212

RESUMO

A seven-year-old female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) presented with weight loss. Imaging revealed a left thoracic mass, confirmed at necropsy. Histology and immunohistochemistry suggested a well-differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma. No evidence of local lymphovascular invasion or distant metastasis was observed. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in marmosets.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Doenças dos Macacos , Animais , Callithrix , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico
3.
Gene ; 800: 145837, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274469

RESUMO

Diarrhoea is a widespread disease in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and a small proportion of individuals may experience persistent diarrhoea. Persistent diarrhoea can lead to a compromised immune system, intestinal inflammation and malnutrition. We analyzed the blood transcriptomes of 10 persistent diarrhoeal and 12 healthy rhesus macaques to investigate the gene expression differences between the two groups. We identified 330 DEGs between persistent diarrhoeal and healthy rhesus macaques. The 211 up-regulated DEGs in the diarrhoeal group were mainly enriched in immune-related and interleukin-related categories. Among them, three interleukin (IL) 18 related DEGs (IL18, IL18R1, and IL18BP) played important roles in actively regulating pro-inflammatory responses. Interestingly, the up- and down-regulated DEGs were both enriched in the same immune-related categories. Thus, we applied a new method to examine the distribution of DEGs in all child categories. We found that interleukin and T cell related categories were mainly occupied by up-regulated DEGs, while immunoglobulin production and B cell related categories were enriched by down-regulated DEGs. We also compared rhesus macaque DEGs with the DEGs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) humans and IBD mouse models and found that 30-40% of macaque DEGs were shared with IBD humans and mouse models. In conclusion, our results showed that there were significant immune differences between persistent diarrhoeal rhesus macaques and healthy macaques, which was similar to the expression differences in IBD patients and mouse models.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Interleucinas/genética , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009668, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280241

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection presents clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to fatal respiratory failure. Despite the induction of functional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in convalescent individuals, the role of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the control of SARS-CoV-2 replication remains unknown. In the present study, we show that subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled in the absence of CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus macaques. Eight macaques were intranasally inoculated with 105 or 106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2, and three of the eight macaques were treated with a monoclonal anti-CD8 antibody on days 5 and 7 post-infection. In these three macaques, CD8+ T cells were undetectable on day 7 and thereafter, while virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were induced in the remaining five untreated animals. Viral RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs for 10-17 days post-infection in all macaques, and the kinetics of viral RNA levels in pharyngeal swabs and plasma neutralizing antibody titers were comparable between the anti-CD8 antibody treated and untreated animals. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the pharyngeal mucosa and/or retropharyngeal lymph node obtained at necropsy on day 21 in two of the untreated group but undetectable in all macaques treated with anti-CD8 antibody. CD8+ T-cell responses may contribute to viral control in SARS-CoV-2 infection, but our results indicate possible containment of subacute viral replication in the absence of CD8+ T cells, implying that CD8+ T-cell dysfunction may not solely lead to viral control failure.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis/imunologia , Macaca fascicularis/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Depleção Linfocítica/veterinária , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia
5.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 469-477, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213093

RESUMO

Mutations of PTEN-induced kinase I (PINK1) cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) with selective neurodegeneration in humans. However, current PINK1 knockout mouse and pig models are unable to recapitulate the typical neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in PD patients. This suggests that generating PINK1 disease models in non-human primates (NHPs) that are close to humans is essential to investigate the unique function of PINK1 in primate brains. Paired single guide RNA (sgRNA)/Cas9-D10A nickases and truncated sgRNA/Cas9, both of which can reduce off-target effects without compromising on-target editing, are two optimized strategies in the CRISPR/Cas9 system for establishing disease animal models. Here, we combined the two strategies and injected Cas9-D10A mRNA and two truncated sgRNAs into one-cell-stage cynomolgus zygotes to target the PINK1 gene. We achieved precise and efficient gene editing of the target site in three newborn cynomolgus monkeys. The frame shift mutations of PINK1 in mutant fibroblasts led to a reduction in mRNA. However, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining confirmed the PINK1 protein levels were comparable to that in wild-type fibroblasts. We further reprogramed mutant fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which showed similar ability to differentiate into dopamine (DA) neurons. Taken together, our results showed that co-injection of Cas9-D10A nickase mRNA and sgRNA into one-cell-stage cynomolgus embryos enabled the generation of human disease models in NHPs and target editing by pair truncated sgRNA/Cas9-D10A in PINK1 gene exon 2 did not impact protein expression.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Transferência Embrionária , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macaca fascicularis/embriologia , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA Guia
6.
Parasitology ; 148(11): 1353-1359, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100346

RESUMO

Six Dipetalonema species have been reported from Neotropical monkeys, Dipetalonema gracile, Dipetalonema graciliformis and Dipetalonema caudispina being the dominant species found in French Guiana primates. Adult filarioids isolated from the abdominal cavity of tamarins (Saguinus midas) in French Guiana were morphologically and molecularly identified as D. graciliformis. Phylogenetic analysis based on DNA and amino acid sequences of the cox1 gene as well as the concatenated sequences of the cox1 and the 18S genes indicated that D. graciliformis belongs to the clade 4 (ONC4) of Onchocercidae. Blast analysis of the 18S rDNA revealed that D. graciliformis in the studied tamarins is conspecific with the filarioid circulating in howler monkeys (Alouatta macconnelli) in French Guiana, previously referred to as unidentified Onchocercidae species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Dipetalonema/veterinária , Dipetalonema/classificação , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Saguinus/parasitologia , Animais , Dipetalonema/anatomia & histologia , Dipetalonema/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Dipetalonema/epidemiologia , Infecções por Dipetalonema/parasitologia , Feminino , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1320-1330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112056

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative single-stranded RNA virus within the Filoviridae family and the causative agent of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Nonhuman primates (NHPs), including cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, are considered the gold standard animal model to interrogate mechanisms of EBOV pathogenesis. However, despite significant genetic similarity (>90%), NHP species display different clinical presentation following EBOV infection, notably a ∼1-2 days delay in disease progression. Consequently, evaluation of therapeutics is generally conducted in rhesus macaques, whereas cynomolgus macaques are utilized to determine efficacy of preventative treatments, notably vaccines. This observation is in line with reported differences in disease severity and host responses between these two NHP following infection with simian varicella virus, influenza A and SARS-CoV-2. However, the molecular underpinnings of these differential outcomes following viral infections remain poorly defined. In this study, we compared published transcriptional profiles obtained from cynomolgus and rhesus macaques infected with the EBOV-Makona Guinea C07 using bivariate and regression analyses to elucidate differences in host responses. We report the presence of a shared core of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) reflecting EVD pathology, including aberrant inflammation, lymphopenia, and coagulopathy. However, the magnitudes of change differed between the two macaque species. These findings suggest that the differential clinical presentation of EVD in these two species is mediated by altered transcriptional responses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunidade , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/mortalidade , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 843-848, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130434

RESUMO

A 27-y-old female black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) was evaluated 13 d after an ovariohysterectomy because of abdominal distension, anorexia, and absent urination. The animal was diagnosed with a uroabdomen and urethral obstruction from computed tomographic findings and fluid creatinine levels. During exploratory laparotomy, a defect in the right ureter was confirmed as the source of the uroabdomen. Utilizing intraoperative fluoroscopy, a urethral obstruction with an irregular luminal filling defect was evident. A self-expanding nitinol urethral stent was placed, and a ureteral transposition was performed. Two months after the procedure, the animal developed dysuria, a urinary tract infection, recurrent bladder distension and a partial urethral obstruction. Treatment with prazosin 1 mg/kg PO q12h improved urination. Reobstruction of the urethra occurred 17 mo postsurgery, and the animal was euthanatized. On postmortem examination, the animal had ingrowth into the stent with proliferative granulation tissue, detrusor muscle degeneration, pelvic adhesions, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and hydronephrosis.


Assuntos
Ateles geoffroyi , Cistotomia/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/cirurgia , Stents/veterinária , Ureter/patologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Cistotomia/métodos , Feminino , Ureter/cirurgia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 213, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian species, is a zoonotic pathogen found in both humans and animals. Here, we determined the prevalence, explored the different genotypes of E. bieneusi in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) (Hainan Island of China), and assessed their zoonotic potential. METHODS: We collected 173 fecal specimens from wild rhesus macaques living in Nanwan Monkey Island, Hainan, China. Subsequently, we identified and genotyped E. bieneusi using nested PCR analysis amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the rRNA gene. Lastly, a neighbor-joining tree was built based on gene sequences from the ITS region of E. bieneusi. RESULTS: Of the 173 specimens from wild rhesus macaques, 26 (15%) were infected with E. bieneusi. We identified six genotypes of E. bieneusi, of which five were known: PigEBITS7 (n = 20), D (n = 2), Type IV (n = 1), Peru6 (n = 1), Henan-III (n = 1), and a novel genotype: HNM-IX (n = 1). From the phylogenetic analysis, the six genotypes identified here were all clustered into zoonotic group 1. CONCLUSION: This study is the first report to detect E. bieneusi infection in wild rhesus macaques from Hainan, China. Human-pathogenic genotypes D, Henan-III, Peru6, PigEbITS7, and Type IV in the wild rhesus macaques support these animals infected with E. bieneusi have a public health significance.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 217-222, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827179

RESUMO

Spirurids, specifically the Rictularia, Chitwoodspirura, Streptopharagus, and Protospirura genera, have been reported to parasitize all nonhuman primate taxa. Spirurid pathogenesis in nonhuman primates has not been reported frequently; however, Protospirura muricola has been associated with serious gastric pathologies, including gastric perforation. This study was a retrospective study of 38 vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) necropsies performed in a primate sanctuary that houses captive orphaned or injured wild-born vervet monkeys. Individuals were categorized according to their age, sex, and body condition score to investigate the relationships between these factors and parasite presence. This study identified P. muricola in 47.37% of the necropsied carcasses. Regarding individual factors associated with P. muricola infection, no significant differences between males and females were observed; however, relationships between parasite presence and poor body condition and advanced host age were observed. Furthermore, one monkey death was potentially directly related to spirurid pathogenic action, because the individual showed gastric perforation.


Assuntos
Chlorocebus aethiops , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Espirurídios/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espirurídios/anatomia & histologia , Espirurídios/classificação , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/patologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886668

RESUMO

To identify immunodominant antigens that elicit a humoral immune response following a primary and a secondary genital infection, rhesus monkeys were inoculated cervically with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D. Serum samples were collected and probed with a protein microarray expressing 864/894 (96.4%) of the open reading frames of the C. trachomatis serovar D genome. The antibody response to the primary infection was analyzed in 72 serum samples from 12 inoculated monkeys. The following criteria were utilized to identify immunodominant antigens: proteins found to be recognized by at least 75% (9/12) of the infected monkeys with at least 15% elevations in signal intensity from week 0 to week 8 post infection. All infected monkeys developed Chlamydia specific serum antibodies. Eight proteins satisfied the selection criteria for immunodominant antigens: CT242 (OmpH-like protein), CT541 (mip), CT681 (ompA), CT381 (artJ), CT443 (omcB), CT119 (incA), CT486 (fliY), and CT110 (groEL). Of these, three antigens, CT119, CT486 and CT381, were not previously identified as immunodominant antigens using non-human primate sera. Following the secondary infection, the antibody responses to the eight immunodominant antigens were analyzed and found to be quite different in intensity and duration to the primary infection. In conclusion, these eight immunodominant antigens can now be tested for their ability to identify individuals with a primary C. trachomatis genital infection and to design vaccine strategies to protect against a primary infection with this pathogen.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Doenças Vaginais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Epitopos Imunodominantes/sangue , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Doenças Vaginais/sangue , Doenças Vaginais/microbiologia
13.
Primates ; 62(4): 629-635, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768415

RESUMO

Similar infectious agents may be shared among human and nonhuman primates due to their close proximity. Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the main diseases which can be transmitted between human and nonhuman primates. It is vital to understand the potential transmissions of gastrointestinal parasites (GIP) and monitor their prevalence in free-ranging populations. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diversity of the GIP of Semnopithecus vetulus in Sri Lanka from December 2017 to April 2019. Fresh fecal samples (N = 78) were collected and analyzed using fecal floatation technique and direct iodine mounts. Of these, 55% contained at least one species of GIP (helminths: N = 18 protozoans: N = 30). Multiple infections were recorded in 12% of the samples testing positive for parasites. The most prevalent helminth was Trichuris trichiura (15%). A significant relationship was found between the prevalence of T. trichiura and troop size. There were also significant differences in the prevalence of T. trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides with habitat type. Compared to the forest dwelling populations sampled, those dwelling in urban and suburban habitats receive higher solar radiation, daytime temperatures and disturbance from humans. These conditions can be expected to influence GIP infection rates. S. vetulus living in continuously degrading habitats face a significant threat from GIP infections. Continuous and improved parasitological surveillance is needed to help monitor the conservation status of wildlife and to secure human health.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Presbytini/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
14.
Parasitology ; 148(8): 985-993, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775262

RESUMO

Parasites have the power to impose significant regulatory pressures on host populations, making evolutionary patterns of host switching by parasites salient to a range of contemporary ecological issues. However, relatively little is known about the colonization of new hosts by parasitic, commensal and mutualistic eukaryotes of metazoans. As ubiquitous symbionts of coelomate animals, Blastocystis spp. represent excellent candidate organisms for the study of evolutionary patterns of host switching by protists. Here, we apply a big-data phylogenetic approach using archival sequence data to assess the relative roles of several host-associated traits in shaping the evolutionary history of the Blastocystis species-complex within an ecological framework. Patterns of host usage were principally determined by geographic location and shared environments of hosts, suggesting that weight of exposure (i.e. propagule pressure) represents the primary force for colonization of new hosts within the Blastocystis species-complex. While Blastocystis lineages showed a propensity to recolonize the same host taxa, these taxa were often evolutionarily unrelated, suggesting that historical contingency and retention of previous adaptions by the parasite were more important to host switching than host phylogeny. Ultimately, our findings highlight the ability of ecological theory (i.e. 'ecological fitting') to explain host switching and host specificity within the Blastocystis species-complex.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/fisiologia , Macaca fascicularis/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Blastocystis/classificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Adaptação ao Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Filogenia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009141, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788859

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas disease, is endemic to the southern region of the United States where it routinely infects many host species. The indoor/outdoor housing configuration used in many non-human primate research and breeding facilities in the southern of the USA provides the opportunity for infection by T. cruzi and thus provides source material for in-depth investigation of host and parasite dynamics in a natural host species under highly controlled and restricted conditions. For cynomolgus macaques housed at such a facility, we used a combination of serial blood quantitative PCR (qPCR) and hemoculture to confirm infection in >92% of seropositive animals, although each method alone failed to detect infection in >20% of cases. Parasite isolates obtained from 43 of the 64 seropositive macaques were of 2 broad genetic types (discrete typing units, (DTU's) I and IV); both within and between these DTU groupings, isolates displayed a wide variation in growth characteristics and virulence, elicited host immune responses, and susceptibility to drug treatment in a mouse model. Likewise, the macaques displayed a diversity in T cell and antibody response profiles that rarely correlated with parasite DTU type, minimum length of infection, or age of the primate. This study reveals the complexity of infection dynamics, parasite phenotypes, and immune response patterns that can occur in a primate group, despite being housed in a uniform environment at a single location, and the limited time period over which the T. cruzi infections were established.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Macaca fascicularis/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Texas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717202

RESUMO

HIV-associated inflammation has been implicated in the premature aging and increased risk of age-associated comorbidities in cART-treated individuals. However, the immune mechanisms underlying the chronic inflammatory state of cART-suppressed HIV infection remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of γδT cells, a group of innate IL-17 producing T lymphocytes, in the development of systemic inflammation and leaky gut phenotype during cART-suppressed SIV infection of macaques. Plasma levels of inflammatory mediators, intestinal epithelial barrier disruption (IEBD) and microbial translocation (MT) biomarkers, and Th1/Th17-type cytokine functions were longitudinally assessed in blood and gut mucosa of SIV-infected, cART-suppressed macaques. Among the various gut mucosal IL-17/IL-22-producing T lymphocyte subsets including Th17, γδT, CD161+ CD8+ T, and MAIT cells, a specific decline in the Vδ2 subset of γδT cells and impaired IL-17/IL-22 production in γδT cells significantly correlated with the subsequent increase in plasma IEBD/MT markers (IFABP, LPS-binding protein, and sCD14) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß, IP10, etc.) despite continued viral suppression during long-term cART. Further, the plasma inflammatory cytokine signature during long-term cART was distinct from acute SIV infection and resembled the inflammatory cytokine profile of uninfected aging (inflammaging) macaques. Overall, our data suggest that during cART-suppressed chronic SIV infection, dysregulation of IL-17/IL-22 cytokine effector functions and decline of Vδ2 γδT cell subsets may contribute to gut epithelial barrier disruption and development of a distinct plasma inflammatory signature characteristic of inflammaging. Our results advance the current understanding of the impact of chronic HIV/SIV infection on γδT cell functions and demonstrate that in the setting of long-term cART, the loss of epithelial barrier-protective functions of Vδ2 T cells and ensuing IEBD/MT occurs before the hallmark expansion of Vδ1 subsets and skewed Vδ2/Vδ1 ratio. Thus, our work suggests that novel therapeutic approaches toward restoring IL-17/IL-22 cytokine functions of intestinal Vδ2 T cells may be beneficial in preserving gut epithelial barrier function and reducing chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia
17.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 138-140, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554486

RESUMO

We recently identified a cynomolgus monkey with naturally occurring Parkinson's disease (PD), indicating that PD may not be a uniquely human disease (Li et al, 2020). In our previous study, four lines of evidence, including typical PD clinical symptoms, pharmacological responses, pathological hallmarks, and genetic mutations, strongly supported the identification of a monkey with spontaneous PD (Figure 1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of naturally developed PD in animals. This suggests that PD is not a disease restricted to humans, with its existence in a non-human primate providing a novel evolutionary angle for understanding PD. As a close relative to humans (Buffalo et al, 2019; Phillips et al, 2014; Yan et al, 2011), this rare case of PD in another primate species provides solid evidence that monkeys are ideal candidates for the development of a genuine "animal version of PD", with conserved etiology and pathogenesis (Li et al, 2020). Furthermore, it allows us to compare similarities and differences in PD development between species and to understand PD pathogenesis from an evolutionary point of view.


Assuntos
Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Med Primatol ; 50(2): 141-143, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543769

RESUMO

Tumors of urinary origin are infrequently reported in non-human primates. Urothelial carcinoma involving the urinary bladder was diagnosed in an adult female Japanese macaque that extended transmurally to the uterus and cervix. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a primary cystic urothelial carcinoma in a Japanese macaque.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Macaca fuscata , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Animais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/patologia , Útero/patologia
19.
J Med Primatol ; 50(2): 138-140, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598919

RESUMO

In a captive Macaca mulatta breeding colony, a single family group with 39 animals showed 19 individuals being born with dramatic tail shortening. Through clinical, genealogical, radiographic, and cytogenetic evaluation, it was related to a probable dominant autosomal inheritance of the reduction in the number of distal caudal vertebrae.


Assuntos
Macaca mulatta/anormalidades , Doenças dos Macacos/congênito , Cauda/anormalidades , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/anormalidades , Feminino , Masculino , Cauda/anatomia & histologia
20.
J Med Primatol ; 50(2): 128-133, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyporexia and weight loss are important indicators of physical and psychological well-being in macaque colonies. An FDA-approved transdermal formulated Mirtazapine (MTZ) shows effectiveness in managing feline hyporexia. This study sought to determine its effectiveness as an appetite stimulant in macaques. METHODS: Fourteen macaques with idiopathic hyporexia, intractable to conventional management were treated with transdermal MTZ (0.5 mg/kg) topically administered to aural pinnae once daily for 14 days. Qualitative food consumption was monitored daily for 6 months. Body weights were collected prior to treatment, every 2 weeks for the first 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 6 months post-treatment. RESULTS: Transdermal MTZ significantly reduced the frequency of hyporexia during treatment and monthly for 6 months. No significant increase in weight noted until approximately 6 months post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study indicate that a short course of transdermal MTZ is an effective way to increase food consumption in macaques chronically.


Assuntos
Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Apetite/administração & dosagem , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Mirtazapina/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...