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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1291-1300, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025808

RESUMO

Bertiella sp. is a typical parasite in non-human primates and only a few cases of bertiellosis have been reported in humans. We present a new case study of bertiellosis in a 42-year-old woman caretaker of howler monkeys in a wild rehabilitation center in Argentina. Bertiella sp. infection was also diagnosed in the monkeys. Proglottids and feces were collected from the caretaker and monkeys; the samples were submitted for parasitological examination by morphological characterization and molecular identification using both nuclear (18S and ITS1-5.8-ITS2 rDNA) and mitochondrial (cox1) markers. Morphological and molecular data were consistent and allowed the classification of the specimen to the genus level. The analyses also showed the presence of cysts of Giardia lamblia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in howler monkeys, and cysts of Blastocystis sp. in both the caretaker and monkeys. This study recorded the fourth case of bertiellosis in a human host from Argentina and the eighth case in South America. Moreover, this is the first study that compares the morphological and molecular features of Bertiella sp. found in both a human and monkeys from the same geographical region. These results suggest that the cohabitation between humans and monkeys increases the opportunities of infection by Bertiella sp. and other potential zoonotic parasites.


Assuntos
Alouatta/parasitologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Argentina , Cestoides/classificação , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Filogenia
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of Plasmodium spp. infection in the health of Southern brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans, the main reservoir of malaria in the Atlantic Forest, is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the positivity rate of Plasmodium infection in free-living howler monkeys in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Joinville/SC and to associate the infection with clinical, morphometrical, haematological and biochemical alterations. METHODS: Molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in the captured monkeys was performed by Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (18S rRNA and coxI). Haematological and biochemical parameters were compared among infected and uninfected monkeys; clinical and morphometrical parameters were also compared. FINDINGS: The positivity rate of Plasmodium infection was 70% among forty captured animals, the highest reported for neotropical primates. None statistical differences were detected in the clinical parameters, and morphometric measures comparing infected and uninfected groups. The main significant alteration was the higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in infected compared to uninfected monkeys. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, Plasmodium infection in howler monkeys may causes haematological/biochemical alterations which might suggest hepatic impairment. Moreover, infection must be monitored for the eco-epidemiological surveillance of malaria in the Atlantic Forest and during primate conservation program that involves the animal movement, such as translocations.


Assuntos
Alouatta/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Alouatta/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Malária/sangue , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008027, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049958

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in many countries or territories causing severe neurologic complications with potential fatal outcomes. The small primate common marmosets are susceptible to ZIKV, mimicking key features of human infection. Here, a novel simian adenovirus type 23 vector-based vaccine expressing ZIKV pre-membrane-envelope proteins (Sad23L-prM-E) was produced in high infectious titer. Due to determination of immunogenicity in mice, a single-dose of 3×108 PFU Sad23L-prM-E vaccine was intramuscularly inoculated to marmosets. This vaccine raised antibody titers of 104.07 E-specific and 103.13 neutralizing antibody (NAb), as well as robust specific IFN-γ secreting T-cell response (1,219 SFCs/106 cells) to E peptides. The vaccinated marmosets, upon challenge with a high dose of ZIKV (105 PFU) six weeks post prime immunization, reduced viremia by more than 100 folds, and the low level of detectable viral RNA (<103 copies/ml) in blood, saliva, urine and feces was promptly eliminated when the secondary NAb (titer >103.66) and T-cell response (>726 SFCs/106 PBMCs) were acquired 1-2 weeks post exposure to ZIKV, while non-vaccinated control marmosets developed long-term high titer of ZIKV (105.73 copies/ml) (P<0.05). No significant pathological lesions were observed in marmoset tissues. Sad23L-prM-E vaccine was detectable in spleen, liver and PBMCs at least 4 months post challenge. In conclusion, a prime immunization with Sad23L-prM-E vaccine was able to protect marmosets against ZIKV infection when exposed to a high dose of ZIKV. This Sad23L-prM-E vaccine is a promising vaccine candidate for prevention of ZIKV infection in humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenovirus dos Símios/classificação , Callithrix , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Infecções por Adenoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
4.
Zool Res ; 41(1): 3-19, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840949

RESUMO

Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure can cause serious brain injury as well as life-threatening cerebral edema in severe cases. Previous studies on the mechanisms of HH-induced brain injury have been conducted primarily using non-primate animal models that are genetically distant to humans, thus hindering the development of disease treatment. Here, we report that cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) exposed to acute HH developed human-like HH syndrome involving severe brain injury and abnormal behavior. Transcriptome profiling of white blood cells and brain tissue from monkeys exposed to increasing altitude revealed the central role of the HIF-1 and other novel signaling pathways, such as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathway, in co-regulating HH-induced inflammation processes. We also observed profound transcriptomic alterations in brains after exposure to acute HH, including the activation of angiogenesis and impairment of aerobic respiration and protein folding processes, which likely underlie the pathological effects of HH-induced brain injury. Administration of progesterone (PROG) and steroid neuroprotectant 5α-androst-3ß,5,6ß-triol (TRIOL) significantly attenuated brain injuries and rescued the transcriptomic changes induced by acute HH. Functional investigation of the affected genes suggested that these two neuroprotectants protect the brain by targeting different pathways, with PROG enhancing erythropoiesis and TRIOL suppressing glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the pathology induced by acute HH and provides potential compounds for the development of neuroprotectant drugs for therapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Androstanóis/farmacologia , Hipóxia/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Doenças dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Progesterona/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Androstanóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatias/veterinária , Cálcio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pressão , Progesterona/administração & dosagem
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007906, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although malaria cases have substantially decreased in Southeast Brazil, a significant increase in the number of Plasmodium vivax-like autochthonous human cases has been reported in remote areas of the Atlantic Forest in the past few decades in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state, including an outbreak during 2015-2016. The singular clinical and epidemiological aspects in several human cases, and collectively with molecular and genetic data, revealed that they were due to the non-human primate (NHP) parasite Plasmodium simium; however, the understanding of the autochthonous malarial epidemiology in Southeast Brazil can only be acquired by assessing the circulation of NHP Plasmodium in the foci and determining its hosts. METHODOLOGY: A large sampling effort was carried out in the Atlantic forest of RJ and its bordering states (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo) for collecting and examining free-living NHPs. Blood and/or viscera were analyzed for Plasmodium infections via molecular and microscopic techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 146 NHPs of six species, from 30 counties in four states, were tested, of which majority were collected from RJ. Howler monkeys (Alouatta clamitans) were the only species found infected. In RJ, 26% of these monkeys tested positive, of which 17% were found to be infected with P. simium. Importantly, specific single nucleotide polymorphisms-the only available genetic markers that differentiate P. simium from P. vivax-were detected in all P. simium infected A. clamitans despite their geographical origin of malarial foci. Interestingly, 71% of P. simium infected NHPs were from the coastal slope of a mountain chain (Serra do Mar), where majority of the human cases were found. Plasmodium brasilianum/malariae was initially detected in 14% and 25% free-living howler monkeys in RJ and in the Espírito Santo (ES) state, respectively. Moreover, the malarial pigment was detected in the spleen fragments of 50% of a subsample comprising dead howler monkeys in both RJ and ES. All NHPs were negative for Plasmodium falciparum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that howler monkeys act as the main reservoir for the Atlantic forest human malarial parasites in RJ and other sites in Southeast Brazil and reinforce its zoonotic characteristics.


Assuntos
Alouatta/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(6): 739-747.e4, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830442

RESUMO

Primate lentiviruses encode a Vif protein that counteracts the host antiviral APOBEC3 (A3) family members. The adaptation of Vif to species-specific A3 determinants is a critical event that allowed the spillover of a lentivirus from monkey reservoirs to chimpanzees and subsequently to humans, which gave rise to HIV-1 and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. How Vif-A3 protein interactions are remodeled during evolution is unclear. Here, we report a 2.94 Å crystal structure of the Vif substrate receptor complex from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from red-capped mangabey (SIVrcm). The structure of the SIVrcm Vif complex illuminates the stage of lentiviral Vif evolution that is immediately prior to entering hominid primates. Structure-function studies reveal the adaptations that allowed SIVrcm Vif to antagonize hominid A3G. These studies show a partitioning between an evolutionarily dynamic specificity determinant and a conserved protein interacting surface on Vif that enables adaptation while maintaining protein interactions required for potent A3 antagonism.


Assuntos
Produtos do Gene vif , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Desaminase APOBEC-3G/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Animais , Cercocebus , Cristalografia , Evolução Molecular , Produtos do Gene vif/química , Produtos do Gene vif/genética , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Hominidae , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Lentivirus/metabolismo , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pan troglodytes , Primatas , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene vif do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene vif do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene vif do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ultraestrutura
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007923, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805050

RESUMO

The enteric protozoa Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, which is one of the most common parasitic diseases in developed and developing countries. Entamoeba nuttalli is the genetically closest species to E. histolytica in current phylogenetic analyses of Entamoeba species, and is prevalent in wild macaques. Therefore, E. nuttalli may be a key organism in which to investigate molecules required for infection of human or non-human primates. To explore the molecular signatures of host-parasite interactions, we conducted de novo assembly of the E. nuttalli genome, utilizing self-correction of PacBio long reads and polishing corrected reads using Illumina short reads, followed by comparative genomic analysis with two other mammalian and a reptilian Entamoeba species. The final draft assembly of E. nuttalli included 395 contigs with a total length of approximately 23 Mb, and 9,647 predicted genes, of which 6,940 were conserved with E. histolytica. In addition, we found an E. histolytica-specific repeat known as ERE2 in the E. nuttalli genome. GO-term enrichment analysis of mammalian host-related molecules indicated diversification of transmembrane proteins, including AIG1 family and BspA-like proteins that may be involved in the host-parasite interaction. Furthermore, we identified an E. nuttalli-specific protein that contained 42 repeats of an octapeptide ([G,E]KPTDTPS). This protein was shown to be localized on the cell surface using immunofluorescence. Since many repeat-containing proteins in parasites play important roles in interactions with host cells, this unique octapeptide repeat-containing protein may be involved in colonization of E. nuttalli in the intestine of macaques. Overall, our draft assembly provides a valuable resource for studying Entamoeba evolution and host-parasite selection.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Genoma de Protozoário , Animais , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/veterinária , Macaca , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108459, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767067

RESUMO

Helicobacter suis is a fastidious, Gram negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of pigs and non-human primates. It has also been associated with gastric disease in humans. A combined agar and broth dilution method was used to analyze the activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against 20 and 15 H. suis isolates obtained from pigs and macaques, respectively. After 48 h microaerobic incubation, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by software-assisted calculation of bacterial growth as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. A monomodal distribution of MICs was seen for ß-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, gentamicin, neomycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, and rifampicin. Presence of a bimodal distribution of MICs indicated that 2 porcine isolates did not belong to the wild type population (WTP) for fluoroquinolones. This was also the case for 1 porcine isolate for tetracycline, 1 porcine and 2 primate isolates for lincomycin, and 1 primate isolate for spectinomycin. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were present in the gyrA gene of the isolates not belonging to the WTP for fluoroquinolones and in ribosomal protein encoding genes of the isolates not belonging to the WTP for tetracycline and spectinomycin. MICs of ampicillin, tetracycline and doxycycline were higher for porcine H. suis isolates compared to primate isolates and in these porcine isolates SNPs were detected in genes encoding penicillin binding and ribosomal proteins. This study indicates that acquired resistance occasionally occurs in H. suis isolates and that zoonotically important porcine isolates may be intrinsically less susceptible to ß-lactam antibiotics and tetracyclines than primate isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter heilmannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Girase/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Helicobacter heilmannii/isolamento & purificação , Macaca/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suínos/microbiologia
9.
Virol J ; 16(1): 147, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses play an important role as human pathogens, though most infections are believed to be asymptomatic. The over 100 human adenovirus types are classified into seven species (A-G), some of which include simian adenoviruses. Recent findings have highlighted that simian adenoviruses have a zoonotic potential and that some human adenoviruses are likely the result of relatively recent spillover events. METHODS: In order to evaluate the risks associated with primates hunted and sold as bushmeat, multiple samples from 24 freshly killed monkeys were collected in the Republic of the Congo and tested for adenovirus DNA by PCRs targeting the conserved DNA polymerase and hexon genes. RESULTS: The DNA of a novel simian adenovirus was detected in a moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) by the DNA polymerase PCR, but not by the hexon PCR. The 275 nucleotide amplicon was most closely related to members of the Human mastadenovirus F species (93% HAdV-40 and 89% HAdV-41 amino acid identity), rather than to other known simian adenoviruses. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogenetic clustering with Human mastadenovirus F sequences suggests a common ancestor, more recent than the last common ancestor of humans and moustached monkeys. The findings increase concerns about the zoonotic potential of simian adenoviruses and highlight the need for more research and surveillance on the issue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenovírus Humanos/classificação , Adenovirus dos Símios/classificação , Adenovirus dos Símios/isolamento & purificação , Cercopithecus/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovirus dos Símios/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Congo , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(11): 2147-2149, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625860

RESUMO

Human yaws has historically been endemic to Kenya, but current epidemiologic data are lacking. We report seroprevalence for Treponema pallidum antibodies in olive baboons (Papio anubis) and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Our results suggest endemicity of the yaws bacterium in monkeys, posing a possible zoonotic threat to humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Treponema pallidum , Bouba/veterinária , Animais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Primatas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Treponema pallidum/imunologia
11.
J Med Primatol ; 48(6): 370-373, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482588

RESUMO

Non-human primates are susceptible to many bacteria, some of which bear zoonotic potential. We report the pathologic features of spontaneous fulminating meningoencephalitis by Staphylococcus aureus in a captive infant golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) from Brazil.


Assuntos
Leontopithecus , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia
12.
J Genet ; 982019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544794

RESUMO

Plasmodium knowlesi contributes to the majority of human malaria incidences in Malaysia. Its uncontrollable passage among the natural monkey hosts can potentially lead to zoonotic outbreaks. The merozoite of this parasite invades host erythrocytes through interaction between its erythrocyte-binding proteins (EBPs) and their respective receptor on the erythrocytes. The regionII of P. knowlesi EBP, P. knowlesi beta (PkßII) protein is found to be mediating merozoite invasion into monkey erythrocytes by interacting with sialic acid receptors. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity, natural selection and haplotype grouping of PkßII of P. knowlesi isolates in Malaysia. Polymerase chain reaction amplifications of PkßII were performed on archived blood samples from Malaysia and 64 PkßII sequences were obtained. Sequence analysis revealed length polymorphism, and its amino acids at critical residues indicate the ability of PkßII to mediate P. knowlesi invasion into monkey erythrocytes. Low genetic diversity (π = 0.007) was observed in the PkßII of Malaysia Borneo compared to Peninsular Malaysia (π = 0.015). The PkßII was found to be under strong purifying selection to retain infectivity in monkeys and it plays a limited role in the zoonotic potential of P. knowlesi. Its haplotypes could be clustered into Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysia Borneo groups, indicating the existence of two distinct P. knowlesi parasites in Malaysia as reported in an earlier study.


Assuntos
Macaca , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Animais , Bornéu , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Malásia , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Filogenia , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/sangue , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
J Med Primatol ; 48(6): 357-363, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasalis larvatus are well-known attraction for tourists in the mangrove forest of Bako National Park (BNP). Little is known regarding the infestation of helminth parasites in proboscis monkeys. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence species of major helminth parasites of public health importance in proboscis monkeys in BNP. METHODS: A total of 65 faecal samples screened for helminth parasites via sodium nitrate floatation and faecal sedimentation techniques. RESULTS: A total of 14 helminth parasite species comprising of eight genera of nematodes, two species of cestodes and two trematodes were identified. Eggs of Trichuris trichiura were the most frequently encountered in proboscis monkeys. CONCLUSION: This is the first survey on the fauna of helminth parasites of proboscis monkeys living in mangrove forests, and therefore, it implies the important baseline information that increases our current knowledge for future research regarding parasite-host ecology in primates.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Presbytini , Animais , Bornéu/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Malásia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia
14.
J Med Primatol ; 48(6): 329-337, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the widely used biomarker of whole-blood stimulation assays for tuberculosis diagnosis, the release of IFN-γ might be affected by multiple factors, such as immunosuppression and some infectious agents. Here, we evaluated additional cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: Forty-three cytokines were measured by Luminex xMAP technologies in 30 healthy and 10 naturally Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-infected rhesus monkeys pre- and post-stimulation by purified protein derivative (PPD). RESULTS: After stimulation, production of 23 and 38 cytokines was markedly increased in healthy and MTB-infected macaques, respectively. A comparison of the stimulation index (SI) between MTB infections and healthy macaques showed that the SIs of 32 cytokines in MTB-infected macaques were significantly higher than those in healthy macaques. Pooling the results, eight cytokines were suggested as ideal biomarkers for a whole-blood stimulation assay for MTB diagnosis. CONCLUSION: PPD could induce multiple cytokine responses in either healthy or MTB-infected monkeys, and eight cytokines had reliable predictive capacity as diagnostic biomarkers of MTB infection.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Tuberculina/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Tuberculose/metabolismo
15.
J Med Primatol ; 48(6): 378-380, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424092

RESUMO

Naturally occurring neurologic disease in non-human primates may be attributable to a wide-range of causes, including infectious agents, congenital or acquired malformations, degenerative diseases, and, rarely, neoplasia. We report a case of ataxia and paresis in a juvenile rhesus macaque with ependymal-lined cerebral cysts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/veterinária , Cistos/veterinária , Epêndima/patologia , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Animais , Ataxia/etiologia , Ataxia/veterinária , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Cistos/patologia , Feminino , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/veterinária
16.
J Parasitol ; 105(4): 630-637, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424324

RESUMO

Given a changing climate and large-scale human migration, understanding infectious diseases in wildlife and the factors that drive the spread of these diseases is becoming increasingly important. Owing to the close phylogenetic relationship between nonhuman primates and humans, primate parasites are of particular interest due to the potential for zoonotic disease transmission and for the study of social transmission within gregarious social groups. There is a wide range of social and environmental factors that influence the prevalence and transmission of pathogens, and identifying these, and their effects, is crucial to understanding the population-level consequences of climate change for animals that live in obligate social groups. Here we investigated gastrointestinal parasite species richness and used fecal egg counts to estimate worm intensities in 3 vervet monkey troops (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) in a high latitude, semi-arid region of South Africa. This region is characterized by unpredictable rainfall and temperature extremes in summer and winter. We identified the gastrointestinal parasites in the population and explored potential demographic predictors, namely sex and troop membership, of parasite species richness and estimated intensity. Additionally, we assessed whether there was short-term intra-individual, inter-sample consistency in egg counts. Six species of gastrointestinal helminths were identified from 3 study troops, with egg counts ranging from 0 eggs/g to 1,100 eggs/g. Neither age nor sex predicted species richness or estimated intensity. This population had the highest prevalence of parasites with an insect vector compared with all other vervet populations studied, and distinctively high prevalences of Trichostrongylus sp. (71%) and Ternidens sp. (27%). Additionally, we found intra-individual egg count consistency in the short term (mean: 32 days).


Assuntos
Chlorocebus aethiops/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Animais , Clima , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Óvulo/classificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul
17.
Malar J ; 18(1): 276, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasites from the genus Plasmodium, the aetiological agent of malaria in humans, can also infect non-human primates (NHP), increasing the potential risk of zoonotic transmission with its associated global public health concerns. In Colombia, there are no recent studies on Plasmodium spp. infecting free-ranging NHP. Thus, this study aimed to determine the diversity of Plasmodium species circulating in fragmented forests in central Colombia, both in Anopheles mosquitoes and in the four sympatric NHP in the region (Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor, Alouatta seniculus and Aotus griseimembra), in order to evaluate the risk of infection to humans associated with the presence of sylvatic hosts and vectors infected with Plasmodium spp. METHODS: Overall, there were collected 166 fecal samples and 25 blood samples from NHP, and 442 individuals of Anopheles spp. DNA extraction, nested PCR using mitochondrial (cox3 gene) and ribosomal (18S rDNA) primers, electrophoresis and sequencing were conducted in order to identify Plasmodium spp. from the samples. RESULTS: Plasmodium falciparum was detected in two fecal samples of Alouatta seniculus, while Plasmodium vivax/simium infected Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor and Alouatta seniculus. Co-infections with P. vivax/simium and Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum were found in three individuals. The highest prevalence from blood samples was found for Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum in two Alouatta seniculus while Plasmodium vivax/simium was most prevalent in fecal samples, infecting four individuals of Alouatta seniculus. Seven Anopheles species were identified in the study site: Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula, Anopheles (An.) malefactor, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi, Anopheles (Nys.) triannulatus, Anopheles (An.) neomaculipalpus, Anopheles (Nys.) braziliensis and Anopheles (Nys.) nuneztovari. Infection with P. vivax/simium was found in An. nuneztovari, An. neomaculipalpus, and An. triannulatus. Furthermore, An. oswaldoi and An. triannulatus were found infected with P. malariae/brasilianum. The effect of fragmentation and distance to the nearest town measured in five forests with different degrees of fragmentation was not statistically significant on the prevalence of Plasmodium in NHP, but forest fragmentation did have an effect on the Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) in Anopheles mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Plasmodium spp. in NHP and Anopheles spp. in fragmented forests in Colombia has important epidemiological implications in the human-NHP interface and the associated risk of malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Platirrinos , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Florestas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência
18.
Vet Pathol ; 56(6): 959-963, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382854

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile is a well-documented cause of enterocolitis in several species, including humans, with limited documentation in New World nonhuman primates. We report several cases of C. difficile-associated pseudomembranous enterocolitis, including a case in a Geoffroy's spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) and several cases in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The histologic lesions included a spectrum of severity, with most cases characterized by the classic "volcano" lesions described in humans and several other animal species. C. difficile was isolated from the colon of the spider monkey, while the presence of toxin A or toxin B or of the genes of toxin A or B by polymerase chain reaction served as corroborative evidence in several affected marmosets. C. difficile should be considered a cause of enterocolitis in these species.


Assuntos
Ateles geoffroyi/microbiologia , Callithrix/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Animais , Clostridium difficile/genética , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3635, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406175

RESUMO

The ability to culture pathogenic organisms substantially enhances the quest for fundamental knowledge and the development of vaccines and drugs. Thus, the elaboration of a protocol for the in vitro cultivation of the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum revolutionized research on this important parasite. However, for P. vivax, the most widely distributed and difficult to treat malaria parasite, a strict preference for reticulocytes thwarts efforts to maintain it in vitro. Cultivation of P. cynomolgi, a macaque-infecting species phylogenetically close to P. vivax, was briefly reported in the early 1980s, but not pursued further. Here, we define the conditions under which P. cynomolgi can be adapted to long term in vitro culture to yield parasites that share many of the morphological and phenotypic features of P. vivax. We further validate the potential of this culture system for high-throughput screening to prime and accelerate anti-P. vivax drug discovery efforts.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Macaca/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium cynomolgi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão
20.
Primates ; 60(6): 537-546, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468227

RESUMO

This study examines gastrointestinal parasites in the endangered lion-tailed macaque, which is sympatric with the bonnet macaque that has relocated from nearby towns or agriculture landscapes dominated by humans and livestock. One hundred and ninety-four fresh fecal samples from lion-tailed macaques were collected from a group located at Chiksuli in the central Western Ghats. Of these, 48.5% had at least one endoparasite taxon. The prevalence of endoparasites varied from 0 to 75.0%, and observed endoparasite taxa varied between 0 and 10 across different months. The prevalence of endoparasites decreased with increasing rainfall and with increasing average maximum temperature across months. Of the 17 endoparasite taxa, 11 were nematodes, two were cestodes, and four were protozoans. The prevalence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli was higher than the other taxa. The overall load, helminth load, and protozoan load did not differ between months. The overall endoparasite load was greater in immature macaques in all seasons. Helminth load was higher in adult males, especially in the summer. Comparing our findings with those from sympatric relocated bonnet macaques of Chiksuli (Kumar et al. in PLoS ONE 13(11):e0207495, 2018) and lion-tailed macaques of Anamalai Hills (Hussain et al. in PLoS ONE 8(5):e63685, 2013) revealed: (a) a much higher prevalence of endoparasites in lion-tailed macaques from fragments of Anamalai Hills than in lion-tailed and bonnet macaques of Chiksuli; (b) higher richness of endoparasites in both macaque species of Chiksuli than in Anamalai lion-tailed macaques; and (c) more similar composition of endoparasite taxa between the Chiksuli lion-tailed and bonnet macaques than with the Anamalai Hills lion-tailed macaques. We suggest a complete cessation of relocation of commensal animals to the wild habitat. If relocation is necessary, then individuals to be relocated should be thoroughly screened and treated to prevent transferring endoparasite infections to wild populations.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Macaca , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
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