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1.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 175-182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592456

RESUMO

Rodents are common pests that transmit various deadly pathogens to humans. Here we have studied the helminth parasites of rodents from different ecological niches in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The gastrointestinal helminths were investigated from a total of 70 rodents, namely Bandicota bengalensis (20), Rattus rattus (15), Rattus norvegicus (25) and Mus musculus (10). The rodents were live-captured from houses in the slum areas (20), stationary shops (20), residential buildings (15) and rice fields (15). The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 71.43%. The highest prevalence was found in R. norvegicus (84%), followed by B. bengalensis (75%), R. rattus (66.66%) and M. musculus (40%). Among different areas of Dhaka city, the highest prevalence recorded in slum areas (85%). Out of 50 rodents, 36 (72%) had mixed endoparasitic infection whereas only 14 (28%) rodents had single infection. The prevalence of endoparasitic infection in male (66%) rodents was higher than that of female (34%). The parasites detected from the rodents were Heterakis spumosa (60%), Hymenolepis diminuta (47.14%), Moniliformis moniliformis (42.85%), Taenia taeniaeformis (35%) and Gongylonema neoplasticum (34.28%). To the best of our knowledge, G. neoplasticum is going to be reported for the first time from rodents in Bangladesh. Except H. spumosa, all the parasites recovered have public health significance. Therefore, proper attention needs to be paid for the prevention of rodent borne zoonosis through the control of rodents.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintos/anatomia & histologia , Helmintos/classificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia
2.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 251-254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592548

RESUMO

Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso, was recognized as a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis in April 2000. Leishmania major was the only strain isolated in this focus. We conducted a prospective study to detect L. major in rodents, animals which are described as reservoir of the parasite. Rodents were caught in five city areas from November 2005 to October 2006. Giemsa stained smears were realized from the cutaneous lesions when present after macroscopic examination of external lesions. The spleen of each rodent was sterilely removed and split into 3 parts for microscopic examination of smears, culture on NNN media and PCR, respectively. A total of 101 rodents belonging to 9 genera were trapped. All the direct examinations and cultures were negative. By using PCR of lesions and spleen samples, three animals were found infected by L. major: one out of 24 (4.2%) Mastomys natalensis; one out of 8 (12.5%) Taterillus sp. and one out of three Cricetomys gambianus. This is the first detection of L. major in rodent species in Burkina Faso. Further studies are needed to confirm their role as reservoirs of L. major.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Burkina Faso , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia
3.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008438, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353066

RESUMO

One of the defining characteristics of the B cell receptor (BCR) is the extensive diversity in the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes that make up the BCR, resulting in broad range of specificity. Gammaherpesviruses are B lymphotropic viruses that establish life-long infection in B cells, and although the B cell receptor plays a central role in B cell biology, very little is known about the immunoglobulin repertoire of gammaherpesvirus infected cells. To begin to characterize the Ig genes expressed by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infected cells, we utilized single cell sorting to sequence and clone the Ig variable regions of infected germinal center (GC) B cells and plasma cells. We show that MHV68 infection is biased towards cells that express the Igλ light chain along with a single heavy chain variable gene, IGHV10-1*01. This population arises through clonal expansion but is not viral antigen specific. Furthermore, we show that class-switching in MHV68 infected cells differs from that of uninfected cells. Fewer infected GC B cells are class-switched compared to uninfected GC B cells, while more infected plasma cells are class-switched compared to uninfected plasma cells. Additionally, although they are germinal center derived, the majority of class switched plasma cells display no somatic hypermutation regardless of infection status. Taken together, these data indicate that selection of infected B cells with a specific BCR, as well as virus mediated manipulation of class switching and somatic hypermutation, are critical aspects in establishing life-long gammaherpesvirus infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/virologia , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/virologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/genética , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008222, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted by contact with the urine of infected mammals. Rodents play a mayor role in the transmission of leptospires to humans. The province of Santa Fe reports the greatest number of cases in Argentina. Yet, in this region, there are still knowledge gaps regarding the diversity of rodent species that may be hosts of pathogenic leptospires. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of leptospiral antibodies in rodents from three riverside communities of Santa Fe, and to identify factors associated with leptospiral infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Each community was divided into three environmental settings based on the level of human disturbance, and sampled during two springs (Sep-Oct 2014 and 2015) and one autumn (Mar-Apr 2015). Serum samples of captured sigmodontine and murine rodents were tested for leptospiral antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microagglutination test (MAT) was used to assess the infecting serovar in seropositive individuals. Factors influencing seropositivity were analyzed using logistic regression models. We caught 119 rodents, of which 101 serums were suitable for analysis. Most frequently trapped species were Scapteromys aquaticus, Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys spp., with seroprevalences of 41.3%, 42.9% and 55% respectively. Seropositivity was higher in individuals with an average body condition score and in those that were sexually mature, but in the latter the differences were marginally significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that native rodents may be playing a role in the environmental circulation of pathogenic leptospires and provide relevant information for public health policies in the area.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/sangue , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Roedores/classificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008197, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, commonly known as rat-urine disease, is a global but endemic zoonotic disease in the tropics. Despite the historical report of leptospirosis in Malaysia, the information on human-infecting species is limited. Determining the circulating species is important to understand its epidemiology, thereby to strategize appropriate control measures through public health interventions, diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We investigated the human-infecting Leptospira species in blood and serum samples collected from clinically suspected leptospirosis patients admitted to three tertiary care hospitals in Malaysia. From a total of 165 patients, 92 (56%) were confirmed cases of leptospirosis through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (n = 43; 47%), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (n = 63; 68%) or both MAT and PCR (n = 14; 15%). The infecting Leptospira spp., determined by partial 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequencing revealed two pathogenic species namely Leptospira interrogans (n = 44, 70%) and Leptospira kirschneri (n = 17, 27%) and one intermediate species Leptospira wolffii (n = 2, 3%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified an isolate of L. interrogans as a novel sequence type (ST 265), suggesting that this human-infecting strain has a unique genetic profile different from similar species isolated from rodents so far. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri were identified as the dominant Leptospira species causing human leptospirosis in Central Malaysia. The existence of novel clinically important ST 265 (infecting human), that is different from rodent L. interrogans strains cautions reservoir(s) of these Leptospira lineages are yet to be identified.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Adulto , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/patogenicidade , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/patogenicidade , Leptospirose/sangue , Leptospirose/urina , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
7.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014892

RESUMO

Rodents are critical for the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to the definitive feline host via predation, and this relationship has been extensively studied as a model for immune responses to parasites. Neospora caninum is a closely related coccidian parasite of ruminants and canines but is not naturally transmitted by rodents. We compared mouse innate immune responses to N. caninum and T. gondii and found marked differences in cytokine levels and parasite growth kinetics during the first 24 h postinfection (hpi). N. caninum-infected mice produced significantly higher levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by as early as 4 hpi, but the level of IFN-γ was significantly lower or undetectable in T. gondii-infected mice during the first 24 hpi. "Immediate" IFN-γ and IL-12p40 production was not detected in MyD88-/- mice. However, unlike IL-12p40-/- and IFN-γ-/- mice, MyD88-/- mice survived N. caninum infections at the dose used in this study. Serial measures of parasite burden showed that MyD88-/- mice were more susceptible to N. caninum infections than wild-type (WT) mice, and control of parasite burdens correlated with a pulse of serum IFN-γ at 3 to 4 days postinfection in the absence of detectable IL-12. Immediate IFN-γ was partially dependent on the T. gondii mouse profilin receptor Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11), but the ectopic expression of N. caninum profilin in T. gondii had no impact on early IFN-γ production or parasite proliferation. Our data indicate that T. gondii is capable of evading host detection during the first hours after infection, while N. caninum is not, and this is likely due to the early MyD88-dependent recognition of ligands other than profilin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Animais , Interferon gama/deficiência , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/deficiência , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neospora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Can Vet J ; 61(2): 135-137, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020929

RESUMO

A 16-month-old male hamster was diagnosed with generalized demodicosis with both Demodex aurati and Demodex criceti and was treated successfully with oral fluralaner at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight that was repeated on day 60. After the first dose, there was a rapid improvement of the skin lesions, and negative skin scrapings were obtained on day 30. To the author's knowledge, this is the first published report of the use of an isoxazoline to treat demodicosis in a hamster. A single dose long-acting oral drug is advantageous as it reduces stressful handling for pets and owners.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Cricetinae , Isoxazóis , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Síria
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 758-768, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926505

RESUMO

Causes of morbidity and mortality and a survey of infectious disease agents were collated from wild and colony-raised endangered Amargosa voles (Microtus californicus scirpensis). Six voles from the wild and 295 voles in the captive-breeding colony were included in the study upon identification of an infectious agent during screening, identification of clinical signs of disease, or finding a pathological condition or infectious agent on necropsy. Findings included 28 significant or incidental pathological conditions of seven organ systems and 19 parasitic, viral, bacterial, or fungal agents. Several voles captured in the wild had fungal osteomyelitis of the tail that disseminated systemically in a vole brought from the wild to the colony and may have been caused by a Penicillium sp. Three voles reintroduced from the colony to the wild experienced inanition and subsequent severe hepatic and moderate renal tubular lipidosis. The most common significant pathological conditions in colony-reared voles were chronic interstitial nephritis with proteinosis; cardiomyopathy; trichobezoars that, in intestines or cecocolic junctions, sometimes induced local rupture or infarction with peritonitis; multifocal gastrointestinal ulceration and colibacillosis; acute renal tubular necrosis or nephritis; sepsis; hepatic and renal lipidosis; molar apical elongation sometimes progressing to invasion of the calvarium; and mammary tumors. Uncommon diagnoses included intervertebral disc disease; microvascular dysplasia; and multifocal bacterial abscessation. Common or clinically important infectious agents included Demodex sp. mites in hair follicles, Demodex sp. in esophageal mucosa, and an outbreak of tropical rat mites thought to have been introduced via the straw bedding; gastrointestinal Helicobacter sp.; attaching and effacing Escherichia coli; and Citrobacter braakii, a possible zoonotic bacterium. This survey of species-specific diseases and pathogens was possible because the established health surveillance program that is part of the species recovery plan allowed for monitoring of voles throughout the duration of their natural life spans in captivity.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Arvicolinae , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Abrigo para Animais , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Doenças dos Roedores/mortalidade , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978068

RESUMO

Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse) is a known reservoir of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Sampling of white-footed mice allows for year-round B. burgdorferi surveillance as well as opportunities to establish the diversity of the different variants in a geographic region. This study explores the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections in the tissues of white-footed mice, investigates the correlations between B. burgdorferi infected tissues, and determines the optimum field methods for surveillance of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus. A total of 90 mice and 573 tissues (spleen, liver, ear, tongue, tail, heart, and kidney) were screened via nested PCR for B. burgdorferi infections. A large number of infections were found in the 90 mice as well as multiple infections within individual mice. Infections in a single mouse tissue (spleen, liver, ear, tongue and tail) were predictive of concurrent infection in other tissues of the same mouse at a statistically significant level. Ear tissue accounted for 68.4% of detected infections, which increased to 78.9% of the infected mice with the inclusion of tail samples. The use of ear punch or tail snip samples (used individually or in tandem) have multiple advantages over current Lyme disease ecological studies and surveillance methodologies, including lower associated costs, minimization of delays, year-round B. burgdorferi testing opportunities, as well as longitudinal monitoring of B. burgdorferi in defined geographic regions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, personal prevention measures are currently the most effective way to reduce Lyme disease transmission to humans. Thus, the identification and monitoring of environmental reservoirs to inform at-risk populations remains a priority. The sampling methods proposed in this study provide a reasonable estimate of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice in a timely and cost-effective manner.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Peromyscus/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Feminino , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 38-45, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977284

RESUMO

Hosts that overlap geographically, are less phylogenetically divergent, and/or share similar ecological conditions (e.g., climate, habitat type) are also likely to share parasites. Here we assessed the ectoparasite communities sustained by 3 solitary species of Bathyergidae (Georychus capensis, Bathyergus suillus, and Bathyergus janetta) as well as the endoparasites exploiting G. capensis and compared them with those reported in the literature for other sympatric and parapatric African mole-rat species. In addition to 1 nematode ( Trichuris sp.) and 1 symbiotic ciliate (Meistoma georychi), we collected mites of the genera Androlaelaps and Bathyergolichus as well as unidentified trombiculids from these hosts. Host specificity was high at either the species, genus, or family level for Androlaelaps spp. and Bathyergolichus spp. irrespective of geographic proximity, host phylogeny, or ecological conditions. Host sharing was more limited for helminths but observed among sympatric host species. Our results suggest that ecological similarity and geographic proximity may be more important determinants of host sharing than phylogeny within Bathyergidae.


Assuntos
Ratos-Toupeira/classificação , Ratos-Toupeira/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Geografia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Filogenia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(1): e1008262, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971979

RESUMO

Mouse kidney parvovirus (MKPV) is a member of the provisional genus Chapparvovirus that causes renal disease in immune-compromised mice, with a disease course reminiscent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in immune-suppressed kidney transplant patients. Here we map four major MKPV transcripts, created by alternative splicing, to a common initiator region, and use mass spectrometry to identify "p10" and "p15" as novel chapparvovirus accessory proteins produced in MKPV-infected kidneys. p15 and the splicing-dependent putative accessory protein NS2 are conserved in all near-complete amniote chapparvovirus genomes currently available (from mammals, birds and a reptile). In contrast, p10 may be encoded only by viruses with >60% amino acid identity to MKPV. We show that MKPV is kidney-tropic and that the bat chapparvovirus DrPV-1 and a non-human primate chapparvovirus, CKPV, are also found in the kidneys of their hosts. We propose, therefore, that many mammal chapparvoviruses are likely to be nephrotropic.


Assuntos
Rim/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/fisiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Tropismo Viral , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Parvovirinae/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 283-290, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811423

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic pathogen in immunodeficient patients. Although this pathogen has been reported in many domestic animals, few data are available about the occurrence of E. bieneusi in wild rats. In the current study, a total of 228 fecal samples from two wild rat species (Leopoldamys edwardsi and Berylmys bowersi) in China were examined by a nested PCR-based sequencing approach employing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in wild rats was 33.3% (76/228), with 35.1% (39/111) in L. edwardsi and 31.6% (37/117) in B. bowersi. Ten E. bieneusi genotypes (including four known and six novel genotypes) were identified, with the novel CQR-2 (n = 15) as the predominant genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ten genotypes in the present study belong to zoonotic group 1, which contains many genotypes in humans. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that 19 ITS-positive samples were successfully amplified at three microsatellites and one minisatellite, forming 18 multilocus genotypes (MLGs). This is the first report of E. bieneusi infection in the wild rats L. edwardsi and B. bowersi. Our findings suggest that wild rats could be a significant source of human infection, including contaminated food and water.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China/epidemiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 291-298, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820167

RESUMO

We describe three new coccidian species of the genus Eimeria Schneider 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) and redescribe and report Eimeria zygodontomyis Lainson and Shaw, 1990 in the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 from the Serra dos Órgãos National Park in southeastern Brazil. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria zygodontomyis are ellipsoidal to cylindrical with a 0.6 (0.5-0.8) µm thick very delicate bi-layered wall; length × width (n = 49) 18.3 × 12.5 (16-20 × 11-13) µm; length/width ratio of 1.4 (1.2-1.6); 1 polar granule occasionally present; micropyle, residuum both absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal; length × width 8.5 × 5.2 (8-11 × 5-6) µm; length/width ratio of 1.5 (1.3-1.7) µm; Stieda body is prominent; sub-Stieda body is absent; sporocyst residuum is compact. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria montensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal with a 1.2 (1.0-1.4) µm thick bi-layered wall; outer layer lightly pitted; length × width (n = 30) 16.3 × 12.5 (15-17 × 13-15) µm; length/width ratio of 1.3 (1.0-1.4); 1 polar granule present; micropyle, residuum both absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal; length × width 7.2 × 5.1 (6-8 × 4-6) µm; length/width ratio of 1.4 (1.2-1.6); Stieda body is present, sub-Stieda body is absent; sporocyst residuum consists of small, scattered granules. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria uricanensis n. sp. are ovoidal to pyriform with a 1.4 ( 1.3-1.6) µm thick bi-layered wall; outer layer lightly pitted; length × width (n = 40) 26.6 × 18.6 (23-30 × 17-20) µm; length/width ratio of 1.4 (1.3-1.6); 1 polar granule present; micropyle, residuum both absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, length × width 13.3 × 8.0 (10-16 × 7-9) µm; length/width ratio of 1.7 (1.5-1.9); Stieda body, sub-Stieda body both absent; sporocyst residuum consists of a cluster of granules, forming a spheroid mass. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria parnasiensis n. sp. are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal with a 1.8 ( 1.3-2.4) µm thick bi-layered wall; outer layer lightly pitted; length × width (n = 54) 28.2 × 21.9 (26-32 × 19-28) µm; length/width ratio of 1.3 (1.2-1.4); 1 polar granule present; micropyle is absent; oocyst residuum is present and consists of a cluster of granules of varying thickness. Sporocysts are ovoidal, tapering towards the Stieda body; length × width 12.2 × 7.6 (10-13 × 6-9) µm; length/width ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9); Stieda body is present; sub-Stieda body is absent; sporocyst residuum is present and consists of an aggregate of thin granules.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sigmodontinae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/citologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos/citologia , Parques Recreativos
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 481-485, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574216

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of free-ranging animals/hunting dogs as sources of infection in the vaccinia virus (VACV) transmission chain. Serological, cell culture and molecular assays were conducted in 56 free-ranging animals and 22 hunting dogs. ELISA/neutralizing assays showed that two (2.5%) capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) had anti-OPV positive antibodies, while all samples tested negative through PCR/cell culture. After being hit by cars on roads, capybaras that exhibited neither clinical signs nor any association with bovine outbreaks had neutralizing antibodies against the Orthopoxvirus, as detected through plaque-reduction neutralizing tests and ELISA. Evidence exists regarding peridomestic capybaras acting as a source of the virus and serving as a link between wild and urban environments, thus contributing to viral maintenance.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Vaccinia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Vaccinia/epidemiologia , Vaccinia/transmissão , Vaccinia/virologia , Vírus Vaccinia/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 519-527, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848746

RESUMO

Rodents are popular companion animals and are often kept as pets for children. However, they can be reservoirs of a variety of zoonotic pathogens. As little attention is being paid to the possibility of acquiring parasitic infections from pet rodents, the occurrence of Hymenolepis nana in rodents from pet shops and breeding clubs of Slovakia was surveyed, with parallel genetic analyses to type isolates from rodent species. In 2016-2018, pooled faecal samples from 119 boxes with 228 mice, 191 rats, 124 hamsters and 25 Mongolian gerbils were collected from 12 pet shops and 3 breeding clubs in five cities of eastern Slovakia. H. nana eggs were detected in 25 (21.0%) boxes. Animals from pet shops were infected more frequently (24.6% positive boxes) than those from breeding clubs (17.2%), without statistical significance. The highest prevalence was recorded in rats from pet shops, where 41.7% of boxes contained parasite eggs. Hamsters and mice in pet shops were also frequently infected; in 23.8% and 25% of boxes, respectively, H. nana eggs were observed. Prevalence in rats and hamsters from breeding clubs was lower, but in mice surpassed 40%. Nine samples with positive PCR products in any of the four DNA regions, mitochondrial cox1 and nuclear pmy, ITS1 and ITS2 targets, gave profiles characteristic of H. nana. The results imply the risk of zoonotic transmission of hymenolepiasis in Slovakia. Particular attention should be given to hygiene level maintained while keeping rodents. Furthermore, rodents intended for sale should be tested for parasites and then dewormed.


Assuntos
Himenolepíase/veterinária , Hymenolepis nana/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Himenolepíase/parasitologia , Hymenolepis nana/genética , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Ratos , Eslováquia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Parasitol ; 105(6): 904-912, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805245

RESUMO

From the small intestines of both Ctenomys boliviensis and Ctenomys steinbachi collected from August 1984 through June 1990 from the eastern lowlands of the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia a total of 36 specimens of Ancylostoma were recovered. Morphological investigation and comparisons with known species described and reported from mammals in the Neotropical Region show that this is an undescribed species, herein described as new. These nematans were collected from individuals of C. steinbachi collected from near a locality called Caranda (northwest of Santa Cruz de la Sierra) and from C. boliviensis from near Santa Rosa de la Roca (northeast of Santa Cruz de la Sierra) and from cajuchis collected from 3 km west of Estación El Pailón, 30 km east of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. The new species of Ancylostoma differs from all other species of Ancylostoma known from the Neotropical Region in the presence of paired sub-terminal papillae on the dorsal ray of males.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/classificação , Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Ancylostoma/anatomia & histologia , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Animais , Bolívia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Roedores/parasitologia
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 674-676, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Echinococcus multilocularis is a very dangerous zoonotic parasite threatening human health. The red fox is the main definitive host, and cats and dogs less commonly. Rats can be intermediate hosts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the parasitofauna of Norway rats and some cats and dogs living on a farm near a forest. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A parasitological section on 15 Norway rats was conducted. The internal organs were examined by means of macroscopic and microscopic methods. For molecular examination, a QIAmp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen) was used. RESULTS: Based on necropsy, parasitological and molecular examinations, of the 15 examined rats, 1 was found to have larvae of E. multilocularis, while 3 others had eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Syphacia obvelata. The faeces of the pets did not contain any developmental forms of parasites. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of Echinococcus multilocularis infestation in a rat in Poland.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fígado/parasitologia , Polônia , Ratos
20.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(4): 216-218, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865660

RESUMO

Kirikkale University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Parasitology Department Laboratory has brought a male kobay for 3-4 months with the complaint having a large number of black mites on his hair by a student of the same school. Microscopic examination revealed that this mite was Chirodiscoides caviae. These cases were reported for the first time in Turkey. The animal has been treated with fipronil.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Cobaias/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Laboratórios , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Doenças dos Roedores/tratamento farmacológico , Turquia
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