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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008461, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706772

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that has important veterinary and public health consequences as well as economic impact in sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected districts of Borena Pastoral setting in Southern Ethiopia from October 2017 to February 2018 to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and assess associated risk factors in cattle, sheep, goats and occupationally associated humans. A total of 750 cattle, 882 sheep and goats and 341 human subjects were screened for evidence of brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with positive results confirmed by Competitive-ELISA(c-ELISA). Structured questionnaires were used for collection of metadata from individual animals, herders and animal attendants to test the association between explanatory and outcome variables. The overall animal level prevalence was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.7) in cattle, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1-4.6) in sheep and goats, and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2-5) in humans occupationally linked to livestock production systems. Herd size, parity, and history of abortion were risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05) in cattle whereas in sheep and goats the results showed that district, age group, flock size, and history of abortion were significantly associated risk factors with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Assisting calving and presence of seropositive animals in a household (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in humans. Evidence of brucellosis in various animal species and the associated human population illustrates the need for a coordinated One Health approach to controlling brucellosis so as to improve public health and livestock productivity.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0214497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639963

RESUMO

The Bashbay sheep (Ovis aries), an indigenous breed of Xinjiang, China, has many excellent characteristics. It is resistant to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection, the causative agent of mycoplasma ovipneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease that is harmful to the sheep industry. To date, knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for M. ovipneumoniae pathogenesis in scant. Herein, we report the results of transcriptome profiling of lung tissues from Bashbay sheep experimentally infected with an M. ovipneumoniae strain at 4 and 14 days post-infection, in comparison to mock-infected animals (0 d). Transcriptome profiling was performed by deep RNA sequencing, using the Illumina platform. The analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed to determine concomitant gene-specific temporal patterns of mRNA expression in the lungs after M. ovipneumoniae infection. We found 1048 differentially expressed genes (575 up-regulated, 473 down-regulated) when comparing transcriptomic data at 4 and 0 days post-infection, and 2823 (1362 up-regulated, 1461 down-regulated) when comparing 14 versus 0 days post-infection. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes at 4 and 14 versus 0 days post-infection were enriched in 245 and 287 pathways, respectively, and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was considered most closely related to MO infection (p < 0.01). Two pathways (LAMP-TLR2/TLR6-MyD88-MKK6-AP1-IL1B and LAMP-TLR8MyD88-IRF5-RANTES) were identified based on the TLR signaling pathway from differentially expressed genes related M. ovipneumoniae infection. Gene Ontology analysis showed that differentially expressed genes in different groups were enriched for 1580 and 4561 terms, where those most closely related to M. ovipneumoniae infection are positive regulators of inflammatory responses (p < 0.01). These results could aid in understanding how M. ovipneumoniae infection progresses in the lungs and may provide useful information regarding key regulatory pathways.


Assuntos
Pulmão/metabolismo , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 211-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592460

RESUMO

Hydatid cyst, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and Fasciola spp. are common parasites among ruminants. The current study was conducted to assess the prevalence of these parasites in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Sabzevar abattoir, from April 2014 to March 2016. Total of 1653 cattle and 26720 sheep were inspected for helminthic infections of liver and lung in different seasons. The prevalence rates were found to be 684 (2.55%) and 235 (14.21%) in sheep and cattle, respectively. The infection rate of liver in cattle was estimated to be 5.86%, 0.84% and 5.68% for hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst in cattle was 1.81%. Moreover, the liver infection rate of sheep was estimated to be 0.87%, 0.06% and 2.13% with hydatid cysts, Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum, respectively and lung infection with hydatid cyst was 0.35%. The rate of infection with D. dendriticum was higher in the both animals than the other parasites. The results of this study indicated that the prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was high, which caused high economic losses. Therefore, sanitary and preventive measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Dicrocelíase , Equinococose , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Dicrocoelium , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fasciola , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(5): 908-919, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567274

RESUMO

A multiplex PCR method was developed to detect the main pathogens of Qinghai Tibetan sheep endometritis. First, the genomes of five standard bacterial strains were extracted and specific primers were selected; the multiplex PCR method was established by using the genome of the standard strain as a template. The samples were collected by sterile cotton swab from Tibetan sheep uterus, and then placed in LB medium and numbered. After 48 h, the genomes of cultured bacteria were extracted and detected by single PCR method, then the positive samples were recorded. The positive samples detected by single PCR were selected for multiplex PCR detection and recorded again. The coincidence rate between these two methods was calculated to measure the accuracy of multiplex PCR. In order to identify the species of the pathogen, 30 positive samples verified by single and multiplex PCR were randomly selected for bacterial isolation and identification. In the 600 samples, the infected ratio of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) was 47.33%, Escherichia coli 34.83%, Staphylococcus aureus 6.5%, Salmonella and Trueperella pyogenes were negatively detected. Among the positive samples detected by multiplex PCR, the positive ratio of GBS was 45.50%, E. coli 33.50%, S. aureus 6.5%. Comparison of two detection results, Multiplex PCR detection coincidence rate is more than 95%. The isolated pathogens were identified as E. coli, GBS and S. aureus, which was consistent with the results of two methods. The multiplex PCR method was successfully established and the main pathogens of endometritis in Qinghai Tibetan sheep were GBS, E. coli and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Endometrite , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Endometrite/microbiologia , Endometrite/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Tibet
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Toxicon ; 185: 1-4, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598988

RESUMO

Some species of the genus Brachiaria are cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical climate regions as the main feed for ruminants. Several studies report photosensitization by Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, and Brachiaria humidicola, but the poisoning by Brachiaria ruziziensis have been reported only twice. Cutaneous and hepatic lesions may be caused by the steroidal saponins present in the leaves or by the mycotoxin sporidesmin produced by the saprophyte fungus Pithomyces chartarum. The present report describes the clinical and pathological changes observed in an outbreak of hepatogenic photosensitization in sheep kept in B. ruziziensis pastures. In addition, the present study will provide a better understanding of the etiology of this photosensitization through the evaluation of the saponin protodioscin and the spore count of P. chartarum. Santa Inês and Lacaune mixed-breed sheep showed signs of photosensitization after feeding B. ruziziensis. Clinical signs included jaundice, apathy, dehydration, and photosensitization characterized by facial edema and cutaneous scars, especially in the ears. Pathological examination of the liver revealed diffuse infiltrates of foamy cells, rare multinucleated cells, and mild enlargement of hepatocytes (megalocytosis). The skin showed acute epidermal and dermal necrosis with occlusive thrombi. B. ruziziensis showed low levels of protodioscin (0.020 ± 0.024% in mature leaves and 0.065 ± 0.084% in sprouts) but high P. chartarum spore counts (mean of 479,844 ± 443,951 spores/g plant). Thus, sheep grazing B. ruziziensis pastures must be closely monitored because of the risk of photosensitization.


Assuntos
Brachiaria , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Ovinos , Animais , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Fígado , Saponinas , Pele
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479551

RESUMO

Johne's disease (JD) is an infectious wasting condition of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in domestic livestock of every country that has been investigated. Controlling JD is problematic due to the lack of sensitive, specific, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostic tests. A major challenge in the development of diagnostics like ELISA is the selection of an ideal antigen/(s) that is pathogen-specific and allows sensitive recognition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify and use Mce-truncated protein-based ELISA assay for the diagnosis of MAP infection with high sensitivity and specificity. In silico epitope prediction by epitope mapping throughout the whole length of MAP2191 protein revealed that C-terminal portion of this protein presented potential T- and B-cell epitopes. Therefore, a novel Mce-truncated protein encoded by the selected region of MAP2191 gene was expressed, purified with Ni-NTA gel matrix and confirmed by SDS PAGE and western blot. A profiling ELISA assay was developed to evaluate sera from MAP infected and non-infected ruminant species for antibodies against Mce-truncated protein to infer the immunogenicity of this protein in the host. Using this Mce protein-based ELISA, 251 goats, 53 sheep, 117 buffaloes, and 33 cattle serum samples were screened and 49.4, 51.0, 69.2, and 54.6% animals, respectively, were found positive. Comparing with i-ELISA, the new Mce-based ELISA kit showed a relatively higher specificity but suffered from slightly reduced sensitivity. Mce-based ELISA excluded apparently false positive results of i-ELISA. Mce protein was found to be antigenic and Mce-ELISA test could be employed as a diagnostic test for JD in domestic livestock in view of the a relatively higher specificity and accuracy. The antigenic potential of Mce antigen can also be exploited for the development of a new vaccine for the control of MAP infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Paratuberculose/sangue , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Cabras , Mycobacterium avium/patogenicidade , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569297

RESUMO

Trade in animals and animal products is a key factor in the transmission of infectious diseases. Livestock traders play an important role in this process, yet there is little knowledge of traders' perceptions of animal disease or their associated actions. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions and practices of Zambian small ruminant traders with regard to sheep and goat health and disease. It also analysed how existing perceptions and practices might affect risks of disease transmission through trade. A case study was performed at the two largest small livestock markets in Zambia: the Lusaka market in the capital and the Kasumbalesa market near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. Semi-structured interviews with 47 traders performed in April-May and September 2018 represent the core material. Zambian small ruminant traders frequently trade animals that have clinical signs of disease, either because they appear unaware or indifferent to the associated risks, experience financial constraints or assign responsibility for disease prevention to other value chain actors. In their decision about whether or not to sell a visibly sick small ruminant, traders appear to consider whether the clinical sign is perceived as 'natural' or the result of an illness, whether the buyer is aware of the animal's health condition, and whether the animal is sold for consumption or breeding purposes. Traders appear to regard the veterinary certificate required to transport small ruminants in Zambia as proof of health, placing the responsibility for potential disease in traded animals on the veterinary authorities. In their description of a model trader, taking good care of and being sensitive to customer needs was emphasized, indicating that an efficient way to encourage traders to change their behaviour is to influence customer demands. In contrast to the focus in previous studies on identifying and filling knowledge gaps, the present study show that lack of knowledge is not central to why traders engage in disease-transmitting behaviour. Greater awareness of other reasons for certain perceptions and practices could lead to the formulation of risk communication strategies and mitigation measures that are relevant for the local context, as well as alternative strategies for changing trader behaviour.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Humanos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574178

RESUMO

The abomasal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus can influence the abomasal microbiome of the host. On the other hand, no information occurs on the influence of the parasite on the hindgut microbiome of the host. We evaluated the impact of Haemonchus contortus on the fecal microbial community of the experimentally infected lambs treated with a mixture of medicinal herbs to ameliorate the haemonchosis. Twenty-four female lambs were divided into four groups: infected animals (Inf), infected animals supplemented with a blend of medicinal herbs (Inf+Herb), uninfected control animals (Control), and uninfected animals supplemented with medicinal herbs (C+Herb). Inf and Inf+Herb lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 L3 larvae of a strain of H. contortus susceptible to anthelmintics (MHco1). Herb blend (Herbmix) consisted of dry medicinal plants of Althaea officinalis, Petasites hybridus, Inula helenium, Malva sylvestris, Chamomilla recutita, Plantago lanceolata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Solidago virgaurea, Fumaria officinalis, Hyssopus officinalis, Melisa officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia absinthium. Each animal was fed meadow hay and a commercial concentrate (600 + 350 g DM/d). Inf+Herb and C+Herb lambs were fed Herbmix (100 g DM/d and animal). Treatment lasted for 50 days. The fecal microbial fermentation parameters (short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and pH) were evaluated at intervals of 0, 20, 32, and 50 days. The fecal eubacterial populations were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) at day 32 when H. contortus infection was the highest. No substantial effects of the H. contortus infection and the herbal treatment on fecal microbial fermentation parameters and fecal eubacterial populations were observed. Evaluation of DGGE patterns by Principal component analysis pointed to the tendency to branch the C+Herb group from the other experimental groups on Day 32. The results indicate that hindgut microbial activity was not disturbed by H. contortus infection and herbal treatment.


Assuntos
Abomaso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Abomaso/microbiologia , Abomaso/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Aust Vet J ; 98(9): 438-441, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567123

RESUMO

At the slaughterhouse, 1465 culled sheep heads were studied in order to identify disorders of the mandibular cheek teeth. Of these, 227 (15.5%) had evidence of osteomyelitis. The lesional profile showed that the mandible was affected in a similar proportion on both sides (46.7% on the right side vs 50.7% on the left side), mainly in the middle region (55.3%) and with most of the lesions closed without fistulisation (89.4%). In addition, swelling was palpable, with an increase in thickness in the area of the affected body (2.65 ± 0.065 cm vs 1.74 ± 0.030 cm). In 78.6% of the animals, the regional lymph nodes were enlarged. Concerning the mandibular cheek teeth, more than half of the animals lacked at least one tooth (57.0%), with the first premolar being the most frequently missing tooth (34.8%) and the third molar the least (8.2%). The impaction of food around the teeth was very common with the posterior molars being more frequently affected. In the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study that analyses the prevalence of mandibular molar and premolar disorders in sheep, and these are revealed as an important condition affecting culled sheep.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Dente Impactado/veterinária , Animais , Mandíbula , Dente Molar , Prevalência , Ovinos , Espanha
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428186

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on the hemato-biochemical parameters, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance in Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ± 1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and uninfected (U, n = 9). The I group received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week, for three weeks). During the experimental period, blood, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance were evaluated. The I lambs showed a reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and total proteins, as well as an increase in platelets and eosinophils compared to those in the U group (p < 0.05). With the exception of total protein content, these values were within the normal range for the species. Furthermore, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility were observed in the I lambs (p = 0.08). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection has the potential to impair some hemato-biochemical parameters as well as feed digestibility in lambs, which could affect their productivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/parasitologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Nitrogênio/urina , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/sangue , Tricostrongilose/urina , Tricostrongilose/veterinária
12.
Aust Vet J ; 98(8): 380-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to utilise wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a sentinel species to study levels of environmental contamination with N. caninum and T. gondii in South Australia, and to examine associations with rainfall, climate and land use. DESIGN: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an apicomplexan parasite, causes the clinical disease toxoplasmosis, which can affect sheep as well as humans and many other animals. Neosporosis, the clinical disease caused by closely related Neospora caninum (N. caninum), causes abortions in cattle, with large economic impacts to cattle industries. METHODS: Aliquots of wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) serum were obtained from twelve sites across South Australia over a period of eighteen years, with a total of 2114 samples. An in-house Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) was developed, and samples were screened for the specific antibodies against both T.gondii and N. caninum. RESULTS: Overall, 9.9% of samples screened for T. gondii tested positive and 6.1% of samples screened for N. caninum tested positive. There was no difference observed in seroprevalence of T.gondii specific antibodies between samples collected throughout summer, autumn, winter or spring. By contrast, a significantly higher (p=0.030) seroprevalence of N. caninum specific antibodies was observed in spring than any other season. T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies were discovered at sites across a broad area of South Australia, indicating these environments maybe infected with both parasites. CONCLUSION: Results provide evidence that suggests N. caninum oocysts may have different survival characteristics, such as varying tolerances to low relative humidity, than T. gondii oocysts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal , Aborto Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Coelhos , Espécies Sentinelas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Austrália do Sul
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418380

RESUMO

Pakistan is at intersection of hyperendemic regions for hydatidosis. Current study aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts and cyst characteristics in different intermediate hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes) across the 4 provinces of Pakistan. A total of 991 sheep, 1,478 goats, 1,602 cattle and 1,343 buffaloes were examined for presence of hydatid cysts during 2 years (January 2016-December 2018). Differences in frequency of hydatidosis were observed with highest overall prevalence in buffaloes (11.9%) and sheep (11.5%). Highest prevalence and burden of infection were observed in older age animals (23.8%, 9.78±0.49) and females (26.5%, 12.53±0.67). Data for seasonal prevalence alluded to year-round presence of disease with non-significant statistical difference. Organ predilection indicated liver as the most preferred site of cyst localization followed mainly by lungs. An over-dispersion pattern was observed in all infected animals as majority of cysts belonged <10 cysts per infected host category. Highest percentage of fertile cysts was observed in liver of sheep. Interestingly, solitary form of cysts had higher fertility rate than multiple form. Amid lack of data and wide gap of knowledge, this study would try to fill up the lacunae regarding this neglected tropical disease. Extensive rearing of livestock, unregulated official slaughter and home slaughtering have played role in adaptability of E. granulosus in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453749

RESUMO

The foot-and-mouth disease is an ever-present hazard to the livestock industry due to the huge economic consequences following an outbreak that necessitates culling of possibly infected animals in vast numbers. The disease is highly contagious and previous epizootics have shown that it spreads by many routes. One such route is airborne transmission, which has been investigated in this study by means of a detailed multilevel model that includes all scales of an outbreak. Local spread within an infected farm is described by a stochastic compartment model while the spread between farms is quantified by atmospheric dispersion simulations using a network representation of the set of farms. The model was applied to the Swedish livestock industry and the risk for an epizootic outbreak in Sweden was estimated using the basic reproduction number of each individual livestock-holding farm as the endpoint metric. The study was based on comprehensive official data sets for both the current livestock holdings and regional meteorological conditions. Three species of farm animals are susceptible to the disease and are present in large numbers: cattle, pigs and sheep. These species are all included in this study using their individual responses and consequences to the disease. It was concluded that some parts of southern Sweden are indeed preconditioned to harbor an airborne epizootic, while the sparse farm population of the north renders such events unlikely to occur there. The distribution of the basic reproduction number spans over several orders of magnitudes with low risk of disease spread from the majority of the farms while some farms may act as very strong disease transmitters. The results may serve as basic data in the planning of the national preparedness for this type of events.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Expiração , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Gado , Análise Multinível , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2207-2215, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447517

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a disease of livestock and humans caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) species complex and occurs especially in areas where sheep breeding is widespread. This survey evaluates, after more than a decade since the last epidemiological survey, the current situation and trend of CE in sheep of the highly endemic island of Sardinia (Italy). From 2012 to 2018, out of a total of 1416 sheep, 65.3% were found positive for CE. Cyst fertility has increased slightly from 10.3% in 2006 (Scala et al. 2006) to 11.7% in the present survey (χ2 = 1.07; P = 0.30018) with a peak of 14.0% in the province of Sassari. Overall, 6815 hydatids were found and classified as sterile (26.2%), fertile (14.4%), caseous (5.3%), or calcified (54.1%) based on their morphology. All isolates were identified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (former G1/G3, strains). Results shown as the implementation of new European Council Regulations and in particular of 21/2004 that established a system for the individual identification and tracking of sheep could be a step forward towards a better control of animal movement, preventing illegal slaughtering on the island as well as in other countries experiencing similar problems. Even if at first sight the general situation of Sardinia regarding CE seems a little better compared with the past, our findings indicate that in some Provinces the epidemiological situation is not improved since 2006.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Cistos/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Larva , Gado , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109121, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361524

RESUMO

The search of novel strategies for anthelmintic control is a crucial need considering the widespread increase in resistant parasitic populations in livestock. Bioactive phytochemicals may contribute to improve parasite control by enhancing the effect of existing anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro pharmaco-chemical interaction and the in vivo efficacy of the combination of albendazole (ABZ) with thymol (TML) in lambs naturally infected with resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Thirty (30) lambs were allocated into three experimental groups. Each group was treated orally with either ABZ (5 mg/kg), TML (150 mg/kg, twice every 24 h) or the co-administration of both compounds. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 51 h post-treatment and TML, ABZ and its metabolites were measured by HPLC. Individual faecal samples were collected at days -1 and 14 post-treatment to perform the faecal egg count reduction test. Additionally, the effect of TML on the sulphoreduction and sulphonation of ABZ sulphoxide was assessed in vitro using ruminal content and liver microsomes, respectively. The metabolism of TML in the ruminal content was very low and the monoterpene exhibited a low degree of association with the particulate phase of the ruminal content. No changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ sulphoxide were observed in the presence of the natural product (TML). In contrast, the ABZ sulphone Cmax and AUC were lower (P 0.002 and 0.001 respectively) in the co-administered animals (0.16 ±â€¯0.07 µg/mL and 3.63 ±â€¯1.21 µg.h/mL) compared with those that received ABZ alone (0.45 ±â€¯0.15 µg/mL and 9.50 ±â€¯2.84 µg.h/mL). TML was detected in the bloodstream between 1 and 48 h post-treatment, which indicates the time of target nematodes being exposed to the bioactive monoterpene. However, the in vivo efficacy of TML was 0% and the presence of this terpene did not increase the efficacy of ABZ. The presence of TML significantly inhibited the ruminal sulphoreduction (P 0.001) and the hepatic sulphonation (P 0.001) of ABZ sulphoxide. These observations point out that in vivo pharmaco-parasitological studies are relevant to corroborate the adverse kinetic/metabolic interactions and the efficacy of bioactive natural products combined with synthetic anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Timol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of medicinal herbal mixtures rich in phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations and lipid oxidation in tissues of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite (Haemonchus contortus). Parallel in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using two different herbal mixtures (Mix1 and Mix2). The in vitro study was conducted in a 2 (infection status; non-infected versus infected) × 3 (diets; control, Mix1 and Mix2) factorial design. In the in vivo study, 24 lambs were equally divided into four treatments: non-infected lambs fed a control diet, infected lambs fed the control diet, infected lambs fed a diet with Mix1 and infected lambs fed a diet with Mix2. Herbal mixtures (100 g dry matter (DM)/d) were added to the basal diets of meadow hay (ad libitum) and a commercial concentrate (500 g DM/d). The experimental period lasted for 70 days. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production were not affected by infection in vivo or in vitro. Both herbal mixture supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P < 0.01) and DM digestibility (P < 0.01) in vitro. Archaea population was slightly diminished by both herbal mixtures (P < 0.05), but they did not lower methane production in vitro or in vivo (P > 0.05). Infection of H. contortus or herbal mixtures modulated FA proportion mainly in the liver, especially the long chain FA proportion. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum were significantly higher after 70 days post-infection in the infected lambs. Herbal Mix1 supplementation reduced TBARS concentrations in meat after seven days of storage. In conclusion, supplementing of herbal mixtures to the diets of GIN parasite infected lambs did not affect the basic ruminal fermentation parameters. Herbal mixtures may improve few FA proportions mainly in liver as well as decrease lipid oxidation in meat.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 240-246, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234614

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is a triatomic form of oxygen. As O3 rapidly dissociates into water and releases a reactive form of oxygen that may oxidize cells, the gas mixture of O3/O2 is used in medicine. ATP is widely available for cellular activity. O3 can be administered via the systemic and local routes. Although O3 is known as one of the most powerful oxidants, it also promotes antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, it stimulates some of the cells of the immune system and inactivates pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa, and viruses. Owing to these activities, O3 is used to improve several diseases, both in human and in veterinary medicine. Considering the wide scope of O3 application, the aim of this review was to reiterate the mechanisms of action of O3 and its utilization in different mammalian species (bovine, ovine-caprine, equine, canine, porcine).


Assuntos
Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Aust Vet J ; 98(7): 305-311, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Successful disease management requires effective surveillance. Slaughterhouse inspections provide opportunities to efficiently collect regular disease data from many animals across large areas. Toxoplasma is a cat-borne parasite that causes reproduction failure in sheep, although it is not visually detectable at slaughterhouses. Macroscopic sarcocystosis is a disease of sheep that is visually detectable at slaughter and is caused by parasites that share a similar biology with Toxoplasma. We investigated if sarcocystosis could act as a proximate measure for Toxoplasma exposure in sheep to facilitate its efficient surveillance at large scales. DESIGN/METHODS: We compared the presence of macroscopic sarcocystosis to Toxoplasma serostatus at the animal and farm levels. RESULTS: At the animal level, we found a weak association between Toxoplasma seropositivity and sarcocysts in the oesophagus (OR = 1.76 [95% CI: 1.17, 2.65; McFadden's R2 = 0.01]) but no association between Toxoplasma seropositivity and sarcocysts in skeletal muscles. At the farm level, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was strongly associated with oesophageal sarcocystosis prevalence (OR = 28.59 [95% CI: 13.07, 62.57; McFadden's R2 = 0.34]) but less strongly associated with sarcocystosis prevalence in skeletal muscles (OR = 7.91 [95% CI: 1.24, 50.39; McFadden's R2 = 0.02]). CONCLUSIONS: For Toxoplasma surveillance in sheep at the farm level, routine slaughter inspection and recording of macroscopic oesophageal sarcocystosis could be are liable and efficient proximate measure. The monitoring of oesophageal sarcocystosis may be a useful passive Toxoplasma surveillance tool for guiding the timing and location of other Toxoplasma detection methods to facilitate the management of Toxoplasma impacts within the sheep industry.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Animais , Gatos , Esôfago , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
20.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 316-322, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330281

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection of humans and, more commonly, ruminants. It is caused by 2 liver fluke species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which differ in size. The traditional morphological methods used to distinguish the 2 species can be unreliable, particularly in the presence of hybrids between the 2 species. The development of advanced molecular methods has allowed for more definitive identification of Fasciola species, including their hybrids. Hybrids are of concern, as it is thought that they could acquire advantageous traits such as increased pathogenicity and host range. In 2013, we collected flukes from Fasciola-positive cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in 4 Chadian abattoirs. DNA from 27 flukes was extracted, amplified, and analyzed to identify species using the ITS1+2 locus. Twenty-six of the 27 flukes were identified as F. gigantica, while the remaining fluke showed heterozygosity at all variable sites that distinguish F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Cloning and sequencing of both alleles confirmed the presence of 1 F. hepatica and 1 F. gigantica allele. To our knowledge, this is the first unambiguous, molecular demonstration of the presence of such a hybrid in a bovine in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Quimera/genética , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Chade , Quimera/classificação , Sequência Consenso , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola hepatica/classificação , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
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