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1.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 187-191, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530165

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To infer postmortem interval (PMI) based on spectral changes of the dorsal skin of rats within 15 days postmortem using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Methods The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after anesthesia, and then placed at 25 ℃ and relative humidity of 50%. The FTIR spectral data collected from the dorsal skin at PMI points were modeled with machine learning technique. Results There was no significant difference of absorption peak location among all the PMI groups but their peak intensities changed as a function of PMIs. The model for PMI estimation was constructed using partial least squares (PLS) regression, reaching a R2 of 0.92 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.30 d. As shown in variable importance for projection (VIP), four spectral bands including 1 760-1 700 cm-1, 1 660-1 640 cm-1, 1 580-1 540 cm-1 and 1 460-1 420 cm-1 were determined as important contributions to model prediction. Conclusion Application of the FTIR technique to detect postmortem spectral changes of the rat skin provides a novel proposal for PMI estimation.


Assuntos
Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Autopsia , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 199-203, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530167

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To study the relations of the dural thickness and the biomechanical parameters with postmortem interval (PMI) of human cadavers, and to explore the feasibility of the two indexes used for PMI estimation. Methods Dural samples were collected at different postmortem intervals of 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 30 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h, 72 h, 84 h and 96 h, then fabricated into 4.0 cm×1.0 cm A and B test specimens. The thickness of the A test specimen was measured, and the biomechanical parameters, such as ultimate load, maximum force deformation, tensile strength, elastic modulus and fracture force, were measured. The regression equations of thickness, biomechanical parameters and PMI were fitted respectively, and the difference between the predicted value and actual measured value of PMI was verified by the verification group. The B test specimen was fixed with 10% neutral formaldehyde solution, then tissue sections were prepared to observe its morphological changes. Results From 6 h to 96 h after death, the dural thickness decreased gradually, the collagen fibers gradually changed from clear arrangement to mutual fusion, and the number of nuclei decreased gradually. The dural thickness, ultimate load, tensile strength, elastic modulus and fracture force decreased sequentially, among which the dural thickness, ultimate load, elastic modulus and fracture force had a correlation with PMI (P<0.05). In the return test, the difference between the predicted value and actual measured value of PMI in the verification group had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusion The dural thickness, ultimate load, elastic modulus and fracture force change sequentially from 6 h to 96 h after death. The regression equation established by the relationship between the changes and PMI can be used for PMI estimation.


Assuntos
Mudanças Depois da Morte , Autopsia , Cadáver , Fraturas Ósseas , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 72-76, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250083

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To discuss the application value of CT scanning technology in cause of death determination of medical dispute cases. Methods From July 2017 to December 2018, postmortem CT imaging data of 12 medical dispute cases were collected. CT imaging diagnosis results and anatomy findings as well as differences between antemortem and postmortem CT diagnosis were compared. The advantages and disadvantages of CT routine tests of the cadavers in terms of the diagnosis of disease and damage were analyzed. Results The comparison between CT imaging diagnosis and anatomical findings showed that CT scans had advantages in the diagnosis of disease and damage with large differences in density changes, such as atelectasis, pneumonia, calcification, fracture and hemorrhage, etc. The comparison of CT diagnosis in antemortem and postmortem examination showed that the cadavers of medical dispute cases were well preserved and that postmortem CT scan was meaningful for the diagnosis of antemortem diseases. Conclusion Virtual anatomy technology has a relatively high application value in postmortem examination of medical dispute cases. It can provide effective information for the appraisers before the autopsy and can also provide a reference for cause of death analysis when the anatomy cannot be performed.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Autopsia , Cadáver , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 86-90, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250085

RESUMO

Abstract: The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a core issue in forensic practice. A large amount of time-dependent data can be produced in the decomposition process of a body, however, such multidimensional data cannot be comprehensively and effectively analyzed and utilized by any existing conventional PMI estimation method. As a rapidly developing information technology, artificial intelligence (AI) has significant advantages in big data processing, due to it's comprehensiveness, efficiency and automation. Some scholars have already applied it to researches on the estimation of PMI, showing it's significant advantages in terms of accuracy and development prospect. This article reviews the significance, mode and progress of application of AI in PMI estimation and provides some suggestions and prospects for future study.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1111): 20190952, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate feasibility of a 3 T multiparametric mapping (MPM) quantitative pipeline for perinatal post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging. METHODS: Whole body quantitative PMMR imaging was acquired in four cases, mean gestational age 34 weeks, range (29-38 weeks) on a 3 T Siemens Prisma scanner. A multicontrast protocol yielded proton density, T1 and magnetic transfer (MT) weighted multi-echo images obtained from variable flip angle (FA) 3D fast low angle single-shot (FLASH) acquisitions, radiofrequency transmit field map and one B0 field map alongside four MT weighted acquisitions with saturation pulses of 180, 220, 260 and 300 degrees were acquired, all at 1 mm isotropic resolution. RESULTS: Whole body MPM was achievable in all four foetuses, with R1, R2*, PD and MT maps reconstructed from a single protocol. Multiparametric maps were of high quality and show good tissue contrast, especially the MT maps. CONCLUSION: MPM is a feasible technique in a perinatal post-mortem setting, which may allow quantification of post-mortem change, prior to being evaluated in a clinical setting. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: We have shown that the MPM sequence is feasible in PMMR imaging and shown the potential of MT imaging in this setting.


Assuntos
Feto/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Morte Perinatal , Autopsia/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294130

RESUMO

In order to investigate the impact of confinement in a car trunk on decomposition and insect colonization of carcasses, three freshly killed pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben) carcasses were placed individually in the trunks of older model cars and deployed in a forested area in the southwestern region of British Columbia, Canada, together with three freshly killed carcasses which were exposed in insect-accessible protective cages in the same forest. Decomposition rate and insect colonization of all carcasses were examined twice a week for four weeks. The exposed carcasses were colonized immediately by Calliphora latifrons Hough and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) followed by Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen) and Protophormia terraenovae (R.-D.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). There was a delay of three to six days before the confined carcasses were colonized, first by P. regina, followed by Pr. terraenovae. These species represented the vast majority of blow fly species on the confined carcasses. Despite the delay in colonization, decomposition progressed much more rapidly in two of the confined carcasses in comparison with the exposed carcasses due to the greatly increased temperatures inside the vehicles, with the complete skeletonization of two of the confined carcasses ocurring between nine and 13 days after death. One confined carcass was an anomaly, attracting much fewer insects, supporting fewer larval calliphorids and decomposing much more slowly than other carcasses, despite similarly increased temperatures. It was later discovered that the vehicle in which this carcass was confined had a solid metal fire wall between the passenger area and the trunk, which served to reduce insect access and release of odors. These data may be extremely valuable when analyzing cadavers found inside vehicle trunks.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Automóveis , Colúmbia Britânica , Cadáver , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patologia Legal , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Suínos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(1): 31-35, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040085

RESUMO

Aim of the study is to identify patterns of variations of the fluorescence intensity of NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide) in the skeletal muscle depending on the time since death. For the evaluation of fluorescence intensity of the studied coenzymes, laser-induced spectroscopy in situ was used. We revealed the dynamic of the fluorescence intensity of NADH and FAD in the skeletal muscle of a rat at different times during the post-mortem period, and theoretically justified the observed phenomena. The results obtained allow us to consider the studied indicators as a potential criterion for determining the post-mortem interval.


Assuntos
Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/análise , Fluorescência , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , NAD/análise , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Autopsia , Ratos
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(1): 61-64, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040091

RESUMO

Analysis of the scientific literature demonstrated that the study of the dynamic of post-mortem changes is one of the actual problems of the forensic thanatology. The establishment of patterns occurring in the post-mortem period is directly related to the determination of the duration of this period and, accordingly, the post-mortem interval. This is especially difficult in cases where the object of study is in a state of putrefactive changes or in the form of skeletonized remains with a minimal amount of soft tissue. The terms of the post-mortem transformation of the body due to putrefactive processes, the destruction of corpse tissue by insects and vertebral scavengers, its skeletonization and fragmentation are very variable. In this regard, it seems relevant to comprehensively compare the results of traditional methods for studying a corpse and studying the effects of microflora, entomofauna and vertebral scavengers. The data obtained will allow experts to more accurately and objectively reconstruct the conditions of the post-mortem period using forensic-zoological and microbial-entomological criteria.


Assuntos
Cadáver , Entomologia Forense , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Autopsia , Humanos
9.
Food Chem ; 315: 126285, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007816

RESUMO

Wooden breast is a common problem in the poultry industry, occurring when broiler breast meat becomes rubber-like and extremely hard. Unclear points remain regarding the mechanical strength changes caused by post-mortem biochemical changes in wooden breasts. This study aimed to investigate this knowledge gap. We found endogenous protease activity to be high in wooden breasts and observed a 30 kDa fragment of troponin T (an indicator of postmortem tenderness) from day 1 postmortem. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in wooden breasts was greater than that of normal breast meat, particularly in the perimysium. The intramuscular connective tissue structure and quantity significantly affect the mechanical strength of meat. It became clear that the wooden breasts are much more mechanically stronger than normal breasts at postmortem day 5 because the large amount of intramuscular connective tissue in the wooden breasts has hardly changed even 5 days postmortem.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Tecido Conjuntivo , Músculo Esquelético , Mudanças Depois da Morte
10.
Gene ; 731: 144349, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935499

RESUMO

Gene expression is the process by which DNA is decoded to produce a functional transcript. The collection of all transcripts is referred to as the transcriptome and has extensively been used to evaluate differentially expressed genes in a certain cell or tissue type. In response to internal or external stimuli, the transcriptome is greatly regulated by epigenetic changes. Many studies have elucidated that antemortem gene expression (transcriptome) may be linked to an array of disease etiologies as well as potential targets for drug discovery; on the other hand, a number of studies have utilized postmortem gene expression (thanatotranscriptome) patterns to determine cause and time of death. The "transcriptome after death" involves the study of mRNA transcripts occurring in human tissues after death (thanatos, Greek for death). While antemortem gene expression can provide a wide range of important information about the host, the determination of the communication of genes after a human dies has recently been explored. After death a plethora of genes are regulated via activation versus repression as well as diverse regulatory factors such as the absence or presence of stimulated feedback. Even postmortem transcriptional regulation contains many more cellular constituents and is massively more complicated. The rates of degradation of mRNA transcripts vary depending on the types of postmortem tissues and their combinatorial gene expression signatures. mRNA molecules have been shown to persist for extended time frames; nevertheless, they are highly susceptible to degradation, with half-lives of selected mRNAs varying between minutes to weeks for specifically induced genes. Furthermore, postmortem genetic studies may be used to improve organ transplantation techniques. This review is the first of its kind to fully explore both gene expression and mRNA stability after death and the trove of information that can be provided about phenotypical characteristics of specific genes postmortem.


Assuntos
Morte , Vida , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Autopsia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918163

RESUMO

When adult flies are collected at indoor crime scenes, the question of their origin arises, i.e., whether they originated from the outdoors, coming in to oviposit on the body, or if they developed through the larval and pupal stages from eggs laid on the body. This is particularly important if no empty puparia were collected, potentially because they were overlooked, with a consequent impact on the accuracy of the minimum post-mortem interval estimation. This study used two methods to determine if flies sampled in various experimental conditions and at an actual crime scene were wild flies attracted to the body or had developed on the body, i.e., through the assessment of: (1) wing fray and; (2) sex ratio. A template was created to measure the amount of wing fray damage quantitatively in a simple, rapid and efficient manner. The experiments demonstrated that by combining the two methods it is possible to establish the origin of a population of adult flies at a crime scene.


Assuntos
Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Entomologia Forense/métodos , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Larva , Masculino , Microscopia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Pupa , Razão de Masculinidade
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 682-688, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999363

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of µ-calpain oxidation on Coregonus peled myofibrillar protein degradation. In the present study, a hydroxyl radical oxidation system was selected to investigate oxidative modification on µ-calpain activity and its degradation on C. peled myofibrillar protein. When subjected to oxidation, the carbonyl content of µ-calpain significantly increased with the increasing of oxidation levels, and oxidation modification promoted the µ-calpain activity. Incubation of C. peled myofibrillar protein with oxidized µ-calpain resulted in the enhanced degradation of myosin heavy chains, actin, and troponin T, but the degradation of desmin at higher levels of oxidation was slightly inhibited, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. This study suggests that oxidation treatment of µ-calpain could accelerate myofibrillar proteolysis through regulating the enzyme activity during postmortem aging. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Endogenous proteases, especially µ-calpain, are reported to be involved in fish softening during early postmortem storage, which is critical to muscle quality. The cysteine residues of proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidation. The investigation of the effect of oxidation on µ-calpain (a cysteine protease) activity allows for the monitoring of its role in the postmortem proteolysis of fish myofibrils and the associated softening of fish meat, in an attempt to minimize this softening.


Assuntos
Calpaína/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Carne/análise , Miofibrilas/química , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oxirredução , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Proteólise , Salmonidae
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110079, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812084

RESUMO

The utility of biochemical marker analysis in forensic autopsy cases is still uncertain due to the postmortem changes which they undergo. Thus, research is required to elucidate alternative samples and biochemical markers which are less affected by postmortem changes. Levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are known to be elevated in congestive heart failure (CHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and sepsis patients. Although NT-proBNP is reportedly excreted into the urine, no study has previously evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of urinary concentrations in a forensic setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of NT-proBNP concentration in urine obtained postmortem in a series of forensic autopsy cases. METHODS: Urinary NT-proBNP was measured in 36 AMI, 10 CHF, and 19 sepsis cases, and in 124 control cases (all with postmortem interval [PMI]<72h). RESULTS: Urinary NT-proBNP was significantly higher in AMI, CHF, and sepsis cases than in control cases. Cut-off values for diagnosing AMI, CHF, and sepsis-related fatalities were 98 (sensitivity, 55.6 %; specificity, 73.4 %), 1050 (sensitivity, 80.0 %; specificity, 94.4 %), and 363pg/mL (sensitivity, 84.2 %; specificity, 85.5 %), respectively. Furthermore, we subdivided the control cases according to the death process as either acute death (87 cases) or prolonged death cases (37 cases). Although urine NT-proBNP of CHF and sepsis cases were significantly higher compared with both cases, the concentration in the AMI cases were significantly high only when compared with the acute death cases. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to elucidate the diagnostic utility of NT-proBNP measurement in urine obtained postmortem in a series of causes of death. This study suggests the diagnostic efficacy for AMI, CHF, and sepsis-related fatality in cases in which the PMI was within 72h.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Medicina Legal , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/urina , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/urina , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Criança , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Líquido Pericárdico/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/metabolismo , Troponina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110033, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812085

RESUMO

Three vehicles with trunks containing pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben) carcasses which had been allowed to decompose for 30 days, were set alight in controlled burns to determine whether forensically valuable insect evidence could still be recovered. Each car trunk contained the remains of a carcass, together with its associated carrion insect fauna. An insect collection was performed prior to the fires. Each car was then set alight using a small amount of gasoline as an accelerant, poured onto the driver's seat, lit by a burning stick. The fire was allowed to reach its peak before being extinguished. In all cases, the fires completely destroyed the vehicles. The vehicles were examined the following day and insect evidence was collected. In all cases, large amounts of burned, charred and undamaged insect evidence remained, including identifiable prepuparial 3rd instar larvae, live pupae inside intact puparia and empty puparial cases. As well bones and unburned clothing were also intact. One car did not burn as well as the others with the fire not involving the trunk area as much as in the other cars. Once the fire was extinguished, it was clear that the reason for this was the presence of a steel fire wall, between the passenger compartment and the trunk. This reduced the spread of the fire to the trunk and increased evidence survival. However, in all vehicles, insect evidence survived, which could still be used to estimate the period of insect colonization and thereby infer the minimum elapsed time since death. The evidence was also a clear indicator that the decedent had not died in the fire. After the fire, the carcass remains were still attractive to blow fly adults (Diptera: Calliphoridae). In car fire cases it is important to consider that entomological evidence may still be just as useful in the investigation as in non-burned cases.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Espaços Confinados , Fogo , Entomologia Forense , Insetos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Queimaduras , Crime , Comportamento Alimentar , Larva , Modelos Animais , Pupa , Suínos
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 77-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816098

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effect exerted by oxidative stress on apoptosis-inducing factors (AIF)-mediated apoptosis and bovine muscle tenderness during postmortem aging. We investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, mitochondrial membrane permeability, AIF expression level, nucleus apoptosis, shear force, myofibril fragmentation index, pH, and energy level. According to the results, a rise in ROS content was accompanied by the rise in mitochondrial membrane permeability from 6 to 72 hr. In the meantime, the AIF expression in mitochondria was downregulated significantly within 72 hr. However, samples treated with N-acetylcysteine had significantly lower ROS content (6 to 72 hr) and mitochondrial membrane permeability (12 to 72 hr) than the control group. Moreover, during postmortem aging, the variations in AIF levels in mitochondria were closely associated with meat tenderization and nucleus apoptosis. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by ROS significantly promoted AIF release from mitochondria by enhancing the mitochondrial membrane permeability, and the released AIF mediated nucleus apoptosis that further enhanced bovine muscle tenderness. Besides, results suggest that in the early stage, the environmental factors (ATP content and pH) significantly decreased (0 to 72 hr), whereas ROS-induced oxidative stress had no significant effect on environmental factors. These observations further suggested that during postmortem aging, the decrease of pH and ATP consumption are required by AIF release. We conclude that ROS-induced oxidative stress and internal environment are vital for meat tenderization through the regulation of AIF-mediated apoptosis pathway. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: ROS-induced oxidative stress contributes to bovine muscle tenderization by promoting cell apoptosis. It is likely to lay a theoretical foundation for developing innovative tenderization techniques by altering the internal oxidation environment of postmortem muscles.


Assuntos
Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Apoptose , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Animais , Bovinos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110068, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816485

RESUMO

Evisceration following penetrating trauma or animal scavenging has the potential to affect the probative value of biological evidence and postmortem interval estimation. Autopsy presents an opportunity for controlled assessment of the rate of decomposition following evisceration. A balanced sample of twenty-six human cadavers was used to assess intergroup rate and trajectory of decomposition at the Forensic Investigation Research Station in Whitewater, Colorado. A linear mixed model using maximum likelihood estimates showed that the decomposition rate did not differ between autopsied and non-autopsied donors based on a comparison of slopes χ2(1)=0.223, p=0.637. The results demonstrate that penetrating trauma and the loss of systemic continuity following evisceration affect the pattern of decomposition, but not the rate. This suggests that the bloat phase may not be a major catalyst of decomposition, and that evisceration may not preclude the use of scopic methods for estimating postmortem interval, when sufficient peripheral tissue is retained.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Patologia Legal , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cadáver , Colorado , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Entomologia Forense , Humanos , Larva , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(2): 636-640, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573082

RESUMO

The determination of carbon monoxide (CO) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is of utmost importance in forensic toxicology to determine the cause of death in cases of CO poisoning, fire, and explosions. To this end, reliable and updated analytical methods are required. In this paper, four different methods for the determination of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood samples were compared: (i) the spectrophotometric determination of COHb applying the method proposed by Rodkey and modified by Beutler-West, (ii) the spectrophotometric determination of CO using a micro-diffusion-based method, (iii) the determination of CO by gas chromatography coupled to a TCD detector, and (iv) the determination of COHb by blood gas analysis. Three postmortem blood samples were analyzed with all methods, and the results were comparable. The applied methodologies showed different features depending on the sensitivity, sample preparation, and volume. The HS-GC/TCD method in our hand was the most appropriate, on postmortem samples, and versatile to apply. Unfortunately, only a limited number of postmortem blood samples were available for this study due to the rarity of that kind of intoxication in our jurisdiction.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Gasometria , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Espectrofotometria , Condutividade Térmica
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 323-326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381141

RESUMO

An 85-year-old man was found deceased floating in an irrigation ditch 18 days after his disappearance. During crime scene investigation, specimens of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were found in proximity of the body. The feeding activity of these nonendemic crayfishes contributed to the formation of specific injuries on the body and in the production of a large substance defects inside the corpse. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the scavenging activity of P. clarkii on a human body and highlight the potential postmortem artefacts caused by this species. This is the first report on a real case of postmortem injuries produced by P. clarkii crayfishes on a submerged human body. So far, crustaceans are not considered useful for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval. However, the important modifications on the corpses deriving from the activity of these animals should be kept in consideration.


Assuntos
Astacoidea , Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Afogamento , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte
19.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 327-329, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397891

RESUMO

Skeletal remains were retrieved from a cave in an arid desert environment. The submitted material consisted of dried grass, soil, and malodorous skeletal remains wrapped in leather. After examination, it was revealed that the smell had not been due to recent decomposition but to adipocere. The cause of death was listed as "undetermined" and a suggested date of death as "unknown." Although adipocere usually requires a damp environment or submersion in water to develop, this case provides further evidence for the rare possibility of adipocere formation in an otherwise very dry environment. Wrapping of the body in leather material had produced an impermeable barrier which had sequestrated and preserved bodily fluids allowing anaerobic decay with fat hydrolysis and adipocere formation. Microenvironments may have potentially significant and quite idiosyncratic effects on decompositional processes which may initially confuse investigations.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Clima Desértico , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Antropologia Forense , Patologia Legal , Humanos
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 276-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305956

RESUMO

A body of an unknown adult female was found within a shallow burial ground in Malaysia whereas the skull was exposed and visible on the ground. During autopsy examination, nine insect larvae were recovered from the interior of the human skull and subsequently preserved in 70% ethanol. The larvae were greyish in appearance, each with a posterior elongated breathing tube. A week after the autopsy, more larvae were collected at the burial site, and some of them were reared into adults. Adult specimens and larvae from the skull and from the burial site were sequenced to obtain DNA barcodes. Results showed all adult flies reared from the burial site, as well as the larvae collected from the skull were identified as Eristalinus arvorum (Fabricius, 1787) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Here, we report the colonization of E. arvorum larvae on a human corpse for the first time.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/fisiologia , Entomologia Forense , Crânio/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Sepultamento , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Malásia , Mudanças Depois da Morte
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