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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(32): 1331-1338, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750021

RESUMO

Intussusception is one of the most common abdominal emergencies in children. The understanding of its aetiology and management has changed significantly over the last decades. Earlier, the hypertrophic Peyer's patches and polyps were considered responsible, but with the knowledge obtained from the lipopolysaccharide-induced animal model of intussusception, the rotavirus vaccination, the seasonality and the postnatal changes of the enteric nervous system it became clear that the intestinal motility plays a key role in the aetiology. The efficacy of non-operative management is continuously improving. The radiologists initially moved from the hydrostatic X-ray-controlled reduction towards the air enema (pneumatic reduction), however, nowadays, there is a shift back to hydrostatic procedures but under ultrasound guidance to reduce radiation exposure. In many institutions, intussusception is managed as day-case rather than as an inpatient case. The role of medications like glucagon and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors used during reduction manoeuvres and prevention of recurrence is still controversial. Surgical management is shifting towards laparoscopy. The authors herein reviewed the current literature to present recent insights into understanding the pathogenesis and management updates. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(32): 1331-1338.


Assuntos
Enema/métodos , Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/terapia , Laparoscopia , Ultrassonografia , Criança , Enema/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/cirurgia , Radiografia , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(1): 24-34, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends oral amoxicillin for patients who have pneumonia with tachypnea, yet trial data indicate that not using amoxicillin to treat this condition may be noninferior to using amoxicillin. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled noninferiority trial involving children at primary health care centers in low-income communities in Karachi, Pakistan. Children who were 2 to 59 months of age and who met WHO criteria for nonsevere pneumonia with tachypnea were randomly assigned to a 3-day course of a suspension of amoxicillin (the active control) of 50 mg per milliliter or matched volume of placebo (the test regimen), according to WHO weight bands (500 mg every 12 hours for a weight of 4 to <10 kg, 1000 mg every 12 hours for a weight of 10 to <14 kg, or 1500 mg every 12 hours for a weight of 14 to <20 kg). The primary outcome was treatment failure during the 3-day course of amoxicillin or placebo. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 1.75 percentage points. RESULTS: From November 9, 2014, through November 30, 2017, a total of 4002 children underwent randomization (1999 in the placebo group and 2003 in the amoxicillin group). In the per-protocol analysis, the incidence of treatment failure was 4.9% among placebo recipients (95 of 1927 children) and 2.6% among amoxicillin recipients (51 of 1929 children) (between-group difference, 2.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.7). Results were similar in the intention-to-treat analysis. The presence of fever and wheeze predicted treatment failure. The number needed to treat to prevent one treatment failure was 44 (95% CI, 31 to 80). One patient (<0.1%) in each group died. Relapse occurred in 40 children (2.2%) in the placebo group and in 58 children (3.1%) in the amoxicillin group. CONCLUSIONS: Among children younger than 5 years of age with nonsevere pneumonia, the frequency of treatment failure was higher in the placebo group than in the amoxicillin group, a difference that did not meet the noninferiority margin for placebo. (Funded by the Joint Global Health Trials Scheme [of the Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, and Wellcome] and others; RETAPP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02372461.).


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Taquipneia , Falha de Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20885, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relapse is character of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The therapeutic goal is to reduce the risk of relapse. Factors associated with relapses can help to manage and prevent relapses. In addition, patients and doctors all pay attention to it. However, there are differences between studies. Our aim is to summarize factors associated with relapses in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, Cochrane library, CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, and VIP were searched to identify risk factors about relapses in RRMS, which should be in cohort or case-control studies. This article was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The quality of studies was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis, subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were all performed with Stata. This research has been registered on the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO, CRD42019120502). RESULTS: 43 articles were included. Infection, postpartum period, risk gene, stress, and vitamin D were risk factors for relapses in RRMS. Pregnancy period was the protective factor. Among those, infection increased the risk of relapses in infection period (relative risk [RR], 2.07 [confidence interval (CI), 1.64 to 2.60]). Women in the postpartum period increased the risk of relapses compared with women before pregnancy (RR, 1.43 [CI, 1.19 to 1.72]), or women in pregnancy period (RR, 2.07 [CI, 1.49 to 2.88]). Women in the pregnancy period decreased the risk of relapses (RR, 0.56 [CI, 0.37 to 0.84]) compared with women before pregnancy. However, fewer studies, heterogeneity, and sample size were the limitations. CONCLUSION: It is reliable to adopt results about infection, pregnancy period, and postpartum period.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue
4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(6): 493-496, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Safe cochlear implantation is challenging in patients with canal wall down mastoid cavities, and the presence of large meatoplasties increases the risk of external canal overclosure. This paper describes our results of obliteration of the mastoid cavity with conchal cartilage as an alternative procedure in cases of canal wall down mastoidectomy with very large meatoplasty. METHODS: The cases of seven patients with a canal wall down mastoidectomy cavity who underwent cochlear implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Post-operative complications were analysed. The mean follow-up duration was 4.5 years. RESULTS: There was no hint of cholesteatoma recurrence and all patients have been free of symptoms during follow up. Only one patient showed cable extrusion six months after surgery, and implantation of the contralateral ear was needed. CONCLUSION: Pseudo-obliteration of the mastoid cavity with a cartilage multi-layered palisade reconstruction covering the electrode may be a safe alternative in selected patients with a large meatoplasty.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/transplante , Meato Acústico Externo/cirurgia , Processo Mastoide/cirurgia , Mastoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Implante Coclear/métodos , Eletrodos Implantados/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Processo Mastoide/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Virol J ; 17(1): 97, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of patients infected with this virus, with several patients displaying symptoms of viral conjunctivitis. However, to our best knowledge, there is no in-depth report on the course of patients with COVID-19 complicated by relapsing viral conjunctivitis or keratoconjunctivitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man confirmed with COVID-19 developed symptoms of viral conjunctivitis in the left eye approximately 10 days after the onset of COVID-19. The results of a nucleic acid test were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the conjunctival sac of the left eye. The symptoms were relieved 6 days after treatment. However, the patient was subsequently diagnosed with viral keratoconjunctivitis in both eyes 5 days after the symptoms in the left eye were satisfactorily relieved. The disease progressed rapidly, with spot staining observed at the periphery of the corneal epithelium. Although SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected in conjunctival secretions, the levels of inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-6, were increased in both eyes. Both eyes were treated with glucocorticoids, and symptoms were controlled within 5 days. There was no recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In this case report, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcome of a case with COVID-19 complicated by relapsing viral keratoconjunctivitis is described, and the involvement of topical cytokine surge in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 as it relates to viral keratoconjunctivitis is reported.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Conjuntivite Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ceratoconjuntivite/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntivite Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Viral/patologia , Conjuntivite Viral/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ceratoconjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratoconjuntivite/patologia , Ceratoconjuntivite/virologia , Aparelho Lacrimal/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 500, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as an emerging public health threat by the World Health Organization. As various measures have been taken successfully to combat the epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a growing number of fully recovered patients have been discharged from hospitals. However, some of them have relapsed. Little is known about the causes that triggered the relapse. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 40 years old man who suffered from recurrent pulmonary infection with progression of lesions on chest computed tomography (CT), elevated levels of ferritin and IL2R, reduced lymphocyte count and positive oropharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 again after 5 days discharge from hospital. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody level of this patient was very low at the time of relapse, suggesting a weak humoral immune response to the virus. Total exon sequencing revealed mutations in TRNT1 gene, which may be responsible for B cell immunodeficiency. Therefore, uncleared SARS-CoV-2 at his first discharge was likely to lead to his recurrence. However, viral superinfection and non-infectious organizing pneumonia could not be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 relapse may occur in a part of discharged patients with low titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. These patients should be maintained in isolation for longer time even after discharge. A more sensitive method to detect SARS-CoV-2 needs to be established and serological testing for specific antibodies may be used as a reference to determine the duration of isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Formação de Anticorpos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Recidiva , Ventiladores Mecânicos
7.
BMJ ; 370: m2457, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether robotic ventral hernia repair is associated with fewer days in the hospital 90 days after surgery compared with laparoscopic repair. DESIGN: Pragmatic, blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Multidisciplinary hernia clinics in Houston, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 124 patients, deemed appropriate candidates for elective minimally invasive ventral hernia repair, consecutively presenting from April 2018 to February 2019. INTERVENTIONS: Robotic ventral hernia repair (n=65) versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (n=59). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was number of days in hospital within 90 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included emergency department visits, operating room time, wound complications, hernia recurrence, reoperation, abdominal wall quality of life, and costs from the healthcare system perspective. Outcomes were pre-specified before data collection began and analyzed as intention to treat. RESULTS: Patients from both groups were similar at baseline. Ninety day follow-up was completed in 123 (99%) patients. No evidence was seen of a difference in days in hospital between the two groups (median 0 v 0 days; relative rate 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 2.19; P=0.82). For secondary outcomes, no differences were noted in emergency department visits, wound complications, hernia recurrence, or reoperation. However, robotic repair had longer operative duration (141 v 77 min; mean difference 62.89, 45.75 to 80.01; P≤0.001) and increased healthcare costs ($15 865 (£12 746; €14 125) v $12 955; cost ratio 1.21, 1.07 to 1.38; adjusted absolute cost difference $2767, $910 to $4626; P=0.004). Among patients with robotic ventral hernia repair, two had an enterotomy compared none with laparoscopic repair. The median one month postoperative improvement in abdominal wall quality of life was 3 with robotic ventral hernia repair compared with 15 following laparoscopic repair. CONCLUSION: This study found no evidence of a difference in 90 day postoperative hospital days between robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, robotic repair increased operative duration and healthcare costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03490266.


Assuntos
Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Herniorrafia/efeitos adversos , Herniorrafia/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/economia , Tempo de Internação , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Reoperação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/economia
8.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609455

RESUMO

Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Despite their benign nature, they are often difficult to distinguish from squamous cell carcinoma and require excision. In cases in which excision is not successful or not desired, intralesional treatments may be considered. However, limited research exists on individual therapeutic efficacy. We present a 68-year-old man who developed multiple eruptive keratoacanthomas around the wound edge of a previous keratoacanthoma excision. Considering previous excisional failure, intralesional 5-fluorouracil was used as a treatment modality. Injections every 3-4 weeks over a course of 12 weeks induced clinical keratoacanthoma clearance with excellent cosmetic results. This case showcases that weekly intralesional 5-fluorouracil injections, as was the standard mode of treatment in previous case reports, may not be necessary. This less frequent injection strategy is more convenient for the patient and may lead to fewer treatments and less medication necessary. Although a case-by-case basis is needed for any alternative approach to keratoacanthoma treatment, this report is useful for the practicing clinician in showing that 5-fluorouracil may be efficacious in these difficult-to-treat patients.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Ceratoacantoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Braço/cirurgia , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Ceratoacantoma/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(1): 13-23, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the appropriate duration of treatment with antibiotic agents in children with pneumonia in low-resource settings in Africa is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial in Lilongwe, Malawi, to determine whether treatment with amoxicillin for 3 days is less effective than treatment for 5 days in children with chest-indrawing pneumonia (cough lasting <14 days or difficulty breathing, along with visible indrawing of the chest wall with or without fast breathing for age). Children not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were 2 to 59 months of age and had chest-indrawing pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin twice daily for either 3 days or 5 days. Children were followed for 14 days. The primary outcome was treatment failure by day 6; noninferiority of the 3-day regimen to the 5-day regimen would be shown if the percentage of children with treatment failure in the 3-day group was no more than 1.5 times that in the 5-day group. Prespecified secondary analyses included assessment of treatment failure or relapse by day 14. RESULTS: From March 29, 2016, to April 1, 2019, a total of 3000 children underwent randomization: 1497 children were assigned to the 3-day group, and 1503 to the 5-day group. Among children with day 6 data available, treatment failure had occurred in 5.9% in the 3-day group (85 of 1442 children) and in 5.2% (75 of 1456) in the 5-day group (adjusted difference, 0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.9 to 2.4) - a result that satisfied the criterion for noninferiority of the 3-day regimen to the 5-day regimen. Among children with day 14 data available, 176 of 1411 children (12.5%) in the 3-day group and 154 of 1429 (10.8%) in the 5-day group had had treatment failure by day 6 or relapse by day 14 (between-group difference, 1.7 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.7 to 4.1). The percentage of children with serious adverse events was similar in the two groups (9.8% in the 3-day group and 8.8% in the 5-day group). CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-uninfected Malawian children, treatment with amoxicillin for chest-indrawing pneumonia for 3 days was noninferior to treatment for 5 days. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02678195.).


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui , Masculino , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Sons Respiratórios , Taquipneia , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7): 881-889, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600138

RESUMO

AIMS: Conservative treatment of moderately displaced proximal humeral head fractures yields good clinical results, but secondary fragment displacement may occur. Identification of those fractures at risk of displacement may influence initial decision-making. METHODS: A total of 163 shoulders in 162 patients with conservatively treated isolated proximal humeral fractures were included. The fractures occurred between January 2015 and May 2018. The mean age of the patients was 69 years (26 to 100) and the mean follow-up was 144 days (42 to 779). The fractures were classified according to Neer. Scores for osteoporosis (Tingart, Deltoid Tuberosity Index (DTI)) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the glenohumeral joint were assessed. Translation of the head on follow-up radiographs of more than 10 mm was defined as displacement. Eccentric head index (EHI) describes the offset of the humeral head centre in relation to the diaphyseal axis. The ratio was estimated on anteroposterior (AP) and Neer views. Medial hinge was considered intact if the medial cortex proximal and distal to the fracture was in line on AP view. RESULTS: Secondary fracture displacement occurred in 41 patients (25.2%). Clinical risk factors were alcohol abuse (odds ratio (OR) 6.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 36; p = 0.025) and previously diagnosed osteoporosis (OR 4.6; 95% CI 0.6 to 34; p = 0.136). Age (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.1; p = 0.003) and sex (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.3 to 2.8; p = 0.867) were not independent factors. Radiological risk factors were OA grade 3 (OR 16.4; 95% CI 0.25 to 37.6; p = 0.107) and osteoporosis with the DTI (OR 10; 95% CI 0.8 to 250; p = 0.031) being more predictive than the Tingart score (OR 2.3; 95% CI 0.8 to 4.7; p = 0.041). A high EHI (AP/Neer > 0.4, OR 18.9; 95% CI 2.1 to 30.9/3.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 8.0; p = 0.002/p = 0.033) and a disrupted medial hinge (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6; p = 0.039) increased the risk of secondary displacement significantly. Neer classification had no influence. CONCLUSION: During conservative treatment, a quarter of patients showed secondary fracture displacement of at least 10 mm. Patients with alcohol abuse, severe OA, and osteoporosis are at risk. Newly defined EHI and disrupted medial hinge are relevant predictors for secondary displacement. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7):881-889.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador , Fraturas do Ombro/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoporose/complicações , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4059-4066, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To study the long-term clinical efficacy and tolerability of ibrutinib monotherapy in real-world relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RR-CLL) patients outside clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 171 RR-CLL patients treated with ibrutinib were collected within the observational study of the Polish Adult Leukemia Study Group. RESULTS: Median patient age was 64 years. Patients were pretreated with 3 (1-10) median lines of therapy, while 42 (24.6%) had 17p deletion. The median observation time was 40 months (range=1-59 months), while median ibrutinib monotherapy reached 37.5 months (range=0.4-59.2 months). Response was noted in 132 (77.2%) patients. The estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 61.1% (95%CI=49.3-70.9%) and 56.8% (95%CI=45.6-66.6%), respectively. At the time of analysis 97 (56.7%) remained under ibrutinib monotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ibrutinib is clinically effective and tolerable as a monotherapy in real-world RR-CLL patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 705-712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727999

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence linking plasma homocysteine levels and atrial fibrillation (AF). The association between an elevated level of plasma homocysteine and AF was examined by meta-analysis in this study.The PubMed and ScienceDirect databases until August 2019 were utilized to collect previous literature on homocysteine and the potential relation to AF. The pooled effects were evaluated depending on standardized mean differences (SMDs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and the calculation was performed using Stata 12 software.A total of 11 validated articles were included in the meta-analysis. For pooled effect, the results confirmed that AF patients had higher homocysteine levels than control subjects (SMD: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.09-1.06). Compared with control subjects, homocysteine levels were higher in paroxysmal AF (SMD: 0.45, 95%CI: 0.18-0.72) and persistent AF patients (SMD: 1.21, 95%CI: 0.50-1.92). The pooled analysis suggested that patients with elevated homocysteine levels had markedly higher risk of AF compared with lower homocysteine levels in the categorical variable (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.16-4.21) and continuous variable analyses (OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.00-1.27), respectively. In addition, the pooled analysis indicated that recurrent AF patients had significantly higher homocysteine levels than those without recurrence (SMD: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.42-0.88). The pooled analysis of the categorical variables indicated that elevated homocysteine levels were associated with increased risk of AF recurrence (OR: 3.81, 95%CI: 3.11-4.68). However, the association was weak in the pooled analysis of continuous variables (OR: 1.88, 95%CI: 0.74-4.81).Our meta-analysis identified that plasma homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in AF and recurrent AF patients. Elevated homocysteine is associated with increased risk of AF and AF recurrence.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Software
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20930, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664089

RESUMO

Surgical lung biopsy is regarded as the golden standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Here, we attempted to show the diagnostic accuracy of multidisciplinary classifications based on transbronchial pathology including transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) , bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration biopsy (EBUS-TBNA).Patients with suspected interstitial lung diseases admitted from June 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018 were involved. Patients with known causes of interstitial lung diseases and typical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis diagnosed through clinical, radiological information were excluded. Patients with atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and possible IIPs accepted transbronchial pathological evaluation. Initial multidisciplinary diagnosis (MDD) classifications were made depending on clinical, radiological and transbronchial pathological information by a multidisciplinary team (MDT). The final MDD classifications were confirmed by subsequent therapeutic effects. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months.A total of 70 patients were finally involved. The samples of lung parenchyma extracted through TBLC were enough for confirmation of pathological diagnoses in 68.6% (48/70) cases. Samples of 6 cases were extracted by EBUS-TBNA. Bacteriological diagnoses were positive in 1 case by BALF. Pathological diagnoses of 77.1% (54/70) cases were achieved through TBLC, EBUS-TBNA and BALF. During the follow up study, the pulmonary lesions of 60% patients were improved, 11.43% were relapsed when glucocorticoid was reduced to small dose or withdrawal, 14.29% were leveled off and 8.57% were progressed. The diagnoses of 4 patients with progressed clinical feature were revised. As a result, 94.3% initial MDD classifications based on transbronchial pathology were consistent with the final MDD, and the difference of diagnostic yield wasn't significant between initial and final MDD (Z = -1.414, P = .157).Classifications of IIPs based on transbronchial pathology were useful and quite agreed with final MDD.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/classificação , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/patologia , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Idoso , Biópsia/tendências , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Broncoscopia/tendências , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21067, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is an inflammatory and heterogeneous astrocyte disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), concerned because of its high pathogenicity, high risk of recurrence, and poor prognosis. Optic neuritis (ON) is the first manifestation in 30% to 50% of NMOSD patients, and eventually involved optic nerve in 70% of patients. The idiopathic ON associated with NMO is called NMO-associated ON(NMO-ON). There are substantial costs to the countries and individuals associated with treatment of NMO-ON. Intravenous corticosteroids (IVCSs), as the first-line therapy, leads to unsatisfactory outcomes for NMO-ON and is associated with potential adverse events (AEs). Emerging evidences have proved the important value and potential prospect of plasma exchange (PLEX) in NMO-ON. Although PLEX is increasingly used in NMO-ON, its therapeutic effect and safety are still controversial. There are no systematic reviews yet that evaluated the effects of PLEX against other therapies in patients with NMO-NO. It is therefore timely to perform a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of PLEX on current research for its potential use in clinical practice in treating NMO-ON. METHODS: The systematic review will include all of the randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the efficacy and safety of PLEX for NMO-ON. A relevant literature search by sensitive search strategies was conducted using the following electronic databases from their inception to November 30, 2019: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, China Science and Technology Journal database (VIP) and CBM. We will also search registers of clinical trials, potential gray literature, and conference abstracts. There are no limits on language and publication status. The literature screening, data extraction, and quality assessment will be conducted by 2 reviewers independently. The reporting quality and risk of bias will be assessed by other 2 researchers. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), annualized relapse rate (ARR), the frequency and extent of adverse events (AEs) will be evaluated as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes will include expanded disability status scales (EDSS), relapse-free rate, peri-papillary retinal nerve fibers layer (pRNFL) or macular volume, visual electrophysiology examinations, standard automated perimetry examinations, time to the next attack. Meta-analysis will be performed using RevMan5.3 software provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and Stata 12.0. RESULTS: This study will provide a comprehensive review based on current evidence of PLEX treatment for NMO-ON in several aspects, including BCVA, ARR, the frequency and extent of adverse events (AEs), EDSS, relapse-free rate, etc. CONCLUSION:: The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to determine whether PLEX is an effective and safe intervention for patients with NMO-ON. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: It is not necessary to obtain ethical approval for this study, given that this protocol is for a systematic review. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at conferences and will be shared on social media platforms. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD 42020162585.


Assuntos
Neurite Óptica/terapia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Neuromielite Óptica/terapia , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acuidade Visual
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21117, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: we report on the first case of a woman affected by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and recessive myotonia congenita (MC), treated with mexiletine. We aimed at describing the possible role of mexiletine in CIDP management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 44-year-old female affected by CIDP and MC, gained beneficial effects for CIDP symptoms (muscle weakness, cramps, and fatigue) and relapses, after mexiletine intake (200 mg twice a day). The patient presented with detrimental effects after mexiletine drop out, with a worsening of CIDP symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: The patient reported a nearly complete remission of muscle stiffness and weakness up to 3 years since mexiletine intake. Then, she developed an allergic reaction with glottis edema, maybe related to mexiletine intake, as per emergency room doctors' evaluation, who suggested withdrawing the drug. OUTCOMES: The patient significantly worsened after the medication drop out concerning both CIDP and MC symptoms. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the association of CIDP and MC in the same patient. Such diseases may share some clinical symptoms related to a persistent sodium currents increase, which maybe due either to the over-expression of sodium channels following axonal damage due to demyelination or to the chloride channel genes mutations. This is the possible reason why mexiletine maybe promising to treat CIDP symptoms.


Assuntos
Mexiletina/uso terapêutico , Miotonia Congênita/complicações , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Miotonia Congênita/diagnóstico , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/complicações , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico , Recidiva , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem/uso terapêutico , Suspensão de Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21132, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664143

RESUMO

Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI), and repeat infections are common. Identifying risk factors for delineating the trends in repeat syphilis are essential for STI and HIV prevention.This study is to investigate the dynamic of the syphilis epidemic among HIV-infected patients and to identify the risk factors associated with repeat syphilis.A population-based cohort design was used to analyze claim data between January 2000 and December 2010 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The Poisson regression test was used to identify risk factors for repeat syphilis.Of 13,239 HIV-infected patients, annual syphilis screen tests have been performed in 4,907 (37.1%) of these patients. Syphilis has been diagnosed in 956 (19.5%) patients, and 524 (10.7%) had repeat syphilis. The annual trend in repeat syphilis showed a significant increase in the study period (ß = 0.23, P < .001). Younger age (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 1.43; 95% CI 1.11-1.86), male gender (aIRR 11.14, 95% CI 4.16-29.79), a history of STIs (aIRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.21-1.59) were independently associated with repeat syphilis. The retention in HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy ≥85% ([aIRR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98; P < .001) were associated with a reduced risk of repeat syphilis.The incidence of repeat syphilis increased during 11 years of follow-up. The screening of syphilis for early diagnosis and retention in HIV care with medication adherence should be encouraged to minimize the risk of repeat syphilis in the targeted population.


Assuntos
Previsões , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(6): 665-672, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624541

RESUMO

In Japan, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for approximately 25% of all pediatric leukemias, with approximately 150 cases of newly diagnosed AML occurring annually. Approximately 10% of patients have primary induction failure and 30% of patients, who initially achieve remission in primary treatments, subsequently relapse. Novel treatment modalities need to be developed to further improve the prognosis of pediatric AML patients. AML is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by changes in the genome of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Recent studies that have made progress in research related to the pathogenesis of AML have suggested that genotype-specific treatment strategies are associated with increased efficacy. Potential new therapeutic alternatives for pediatric AML include: tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal or bispecific T-cell engager antibodies, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and metabolic agents. This review highlights the current landscape of novel therapeutic approaches for childhood AML, including the results of both preclinical and clinical trials, as well as introducing the results of several preceding adult clinical studies, which could potentially be translated into pediatric AML patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Criança , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Japão , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Recidiva
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20412, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629627

RESUMO

To explore the risk factors related to the recurrence of common bile duct stones (CBDS) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), so as to provide reference for reducing the recurrence of CBDS after ERCP.The clinical data of 385 patients with CBDS treated by ERCP from March 2012 to May 2016 were collected. According to the diagnostic criteria of recurrence of CBDS, the patients were divided into recurrence group and control group. The general information of the patients, personal history, past history, and surgical-related information were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed on the collected data to identify risk factors for recurrence of CBDS after ERCP.A total of 262 patients were included in the study, of which 51 had recurrence of CBDS, with a recurrence rate of 19.46%. Multivariate Logistic analysis () showed greasy diet (P = .436), history of cholecystectomy (P = .639) and gallstone size (P = .809) were not independent risk factor for recurrence of stones after ERCP in CBDS. But age ≥65 (P = .013), history of common bile duct incision (P = .001), periampullary diverticulum (P = .001), common bile duct diameter ≥1.5 cm (P = .024), ERCP ≥2 (P = .003), the number of stones ≥2 (P = .015), the common bile duct angle ≤120° (P = .002) and the placement of bile duct stent (P = .004) are important independent risk factor for recurrence of stones after ERCP in CBDS.This study confirmed that ag ≥65, history of choledochotomy, periampullary diverticulum, diameter of common bile duct (≥15 mm), multiple ERCP, the number of stones ≥2, stent placement and angle of common bile duct < 120° were independent risk factors for recurrence of CBDS after ERCP.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
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