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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(12): 1744-1750, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714077

RESUMO

Many studies have reported the risk factors for exacerbations in patients with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). This study aims to perform the meta-analysis of risk factors for the exacerbation of the novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP). PubMed, Embase and Google scholar have been searched. We included the cohort studies involving risk factors for the exacerbation of NCIP. This meta-analysis compared the risk factors of patients between intensive care (ICU) group and non-ICU group. Two cohort studies were included in this study. After comparing the patients between intensive care (ICU) group and non-ICU group, several important factors were found to significantly increase the risk of exacerbations in patients with NCIP, and they included hypertension (RR=2.34; 95% CI=1.21 to 4.51; P=0.01), cardiovascular diseases (RR=2.28; 95% CI=1.13 to 4.58; P=0.02), COPD (RR=7.65; 95% CI=1.24 to 47.13; P=0.03), dyspnea (RR=2.89; 95% CI=2.05 to 4.08; P<0.00001), myalgia or fatigue (RR=1.24; 95% CI=1.01 to 1.52; P=0.04), but several factors such as gender, Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market exposure, diabetes, chronic liver disease, malignancy, fever, cough, expectoration, headache and diarrhoea appeared to have no obvious effect on the exacerbation of pneumonia. In addition, as the exacerbation of pneumonia, some complications had the high probability to occur according to the meta-analysis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR=13.95; 95% CI=6.20 to 31.41; P<0.00001), shock (RR=24.29; 95% CI=4.66 to 126.69; P=0.0002), acute cardiac injury (RR=10.32; 95% CI=3.05 to 34.96; P=0.0002) and acute kidney injury (RR=5.90; 95% CI=1.32 to 26.35; P=0.02) between two groups. Several risk factors were confirmed to significantly improve the risk of exacerbation in patients with NCIP, which was very important for the exacerbation prediction and treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Choque/epidemiologia , Choque/etiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas
2.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(5): 401-410, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611911

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with its early origin from Wuhan city in China has evolved into a global pandemic. Maximal precautionary measures and resources have been put forward by most nations in war footing to mitigate transmission and decrease fatality rates. This article was aimed to review the evidence on clinical management and to deal with the identification of high-risk groups, warning signs, appropriate investigations, proper sample collection for confirmation, general and specific treatment measures, strategies as well as infection control in the healthcare settings. Advanced age, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer have been found to be the risk factors for severe disease. Fever lasting for >five days with tachypnoea, tachycardia or hypotension are indications for urgent attention and hospitalization in a patient with suspected COVID-19. At present, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the upper respiratory tract samples is the diagnostic test of choice. While many drugs have shown in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are insufficient clinical data to promote or dissuade their usage. Among the currently available drugs, hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir may be considered for patients with severe COVID-19 infection, awaiting further clinical trials. Stringent droplet and contact precautions will protect healthcare workers against most clinical exposures to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Pandemias , Gravidade do Paciente , Choque/terapia , Manejo de Espécimes , Avaliação de Sintomas , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20998, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702840

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic inflammatory disease. Standard imaging features of KD include interstitial and lobular inflammatory lesions in the lungs, while KD shock syndrome (KDSS), complicated with substantial consolidation and atelectasis in the lung, is rarely reported. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Herein, we report a single case of a 5-year-old female patient who manifested KDSS on the seventh day of the course of KD. Chest enhanced computed tomography indicated large-area consolidation in the lower lobes of the bilateral lungs. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with KDSS complicated with non-infective lung consolidation. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received human intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and aspirin (30-50 mg/kgd), methylprednisolone, a vasoactive agent, and albumin. Infective factors were excluded. OUTCOMES: The consolidation in the lower lobe of the bilateral lungs was completely recovered after 3 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Children with KDSS may present with pulmonary lesions such as substantial consolidation and atelectasis; thus, infective factors should be excluded. If there is no etiological evidence, antibiotics should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Choque/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/terapia , Choque/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(22): e210, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508069

RESUMO

We report a rapidly deteriorating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient, a-58-year-old woman, with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock with hyperpyrexia up to 41.8°C, probably due to the cytokine storm syndrome. Considering extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as the last resort, we applied therapeutic temperature modulation for management of hyperpyrexia. The patient demonstrated rapid improvement in oxygenation and shock after achieving normothermia, and fully recovered from COVID-19 three weeks later. Therapeutic temperature modulation may have successfully offloaded the failing cardiorespiratory system from metabolic cost and hyperinflammation induced by hyperpyrexia. The therapeutic temperature modulation can safely be applied in a specific group of patients with cytokine storm syndrome and hyperpyrexia, which may reduce the number of patients requiring ECMO in the global medical resource shortage.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Crioterapia/métodos , Febre/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Choque/terapia
5.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(5): 370-377, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456374

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the influence of inhalation injury on fluid resuscitation of massive burn patients during shock stage. Methods: A total of 74 massive burn patients (65 males and 9 females, aged 21 to 65 years) admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University (n=57) and Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital (n=17) from May 2009 to December 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Patients were divided into inhalation injury group (n=56) and non-inhalation injury group (n=18) based on clinical symptoms, vital signs, and results of bronchofibroscopy. Then 26 patients in inhalation injury group and 13 patients in non-inhalation injury group were 1∶2 matched by case-control matching based on the difference of total burn surface area. The total fluid replacement coefficient, crystalloid replacement coefficient, colloid replacement coefficient, glucose input volume, ratio of crystalloid to colloid, urine volume, and cumulative ratio of input to output volume during the first 24 h post injury, the second 24 h post injury, and the third 24 h post injury, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and hematocrit (HCT) at post injury hour (PIH) 24, 48, and 72 were recorded and compared between the two groups. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement and Bonferroni correction, t test, Fisher's exact probability test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: (1) After matching, during the first to third 24 h post injury, the total fluid replacement coefficient and glucose input volume of patients in inhalation injury group were significantly higher than those in non-inhalation injury group (F=4.202, 10.671, P<0.05 or P<0.01). During the first, second, and third 24 h post injury, the total fluid replacement coefficient, crystalloid replacement coefficient, colloid replacement coefficient, and ratio of crystalloid to colloid were similar between the patients in two groups(t=-1.336, -1.452, -1.998; -0.148, 0.141, 0.561; 0.916, -0.046, -0.509; -1.024, 0.208, 0.081, P>0.05). During the first, second, and third 24 h post injury, the glucose input volume of patients in inhalation injury group were respectively (2 996±1 176), (2 659±1 030), and (2 680±1 509) mL, which were significantly higher than (2 125±898), (1 790±828), and (1 632±932) mL in non-inhalation injury group (t=-2.334, -2.639, -2.297, P<0.05). (2) After matching, in overall comparison between groups, during the first to third 24 h post injury, the urinary output volumes and cumulative ratios of input to output volume of patients in inhalation injury group were significantly lower or higher than those in non-inhalation injury group, respectively (F=12.158, 9.111, P<0.01). At PIH 24, 48, and 72, heart rate of patients in inhalation injury group were significantly higher than those in non-inhalation injury group (F=4.675, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, MAP, and HCT between patients in the two groups at PIH 24 and 48 (t=-0.039, -1.688, 1.399, 1.299, -1.741, 0.754, -0.677, 0.037, P>0.05). During the first and second 24 h post injury, the urine volume and cumulative ratio of input to output volume of patients in inhalation injury group were respectively significantly lower and higher than those in non-inhalation injury group (t(urine volume)=2.421, 2.876, t(cumulative ratio of input to output volume)=-2.687、-2.943, P<0.05 or P<0.01). At PIH 72, the heart rate and HCT of patients in inhalation injury group ( (114±13) times/min, 0.42±0.06) were significantly higher than those in non-inhalation injury group ( (98±18) times/min, 0.38±0.06, t=-3.182, -2.123, P<0.05 or P<0.01), there were no statistically significant differences in respiratory rate and MAP between the patients in two groups (t=0.359, 1.722, P>0.05). During the third 24 h post injury, there were no statistically significant differences in urine volume and cumulative ratio of input to output volume between the patients in two groups (t=1.664, -1.895, P>0.05). Conclusions: The presence of inhalation injury can lead to increased fluid requirement in massive burn patients during shock stage. An appropriate increase of fluid volume in the fluid resuscitation of burn patients combined with inhalation injury would be beneficial for maintaining ideal urine output.


Assuntos
Queimaduras por Inalação/terapia , Queimaduras , Hidratação/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque , Adulto , Idoso , Queimaduras por Inalação/complicações , Coloides , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(18): 1372-1375, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392985
7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(3): 287-293, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the progress of microcirculation research in shock and sepsis from 2000 to 2019 based on knowledge visualization analysis. METHODS: The literatures related to microcirculation of shock and sepsis published in Web of Science and Wanfang databases were collected from 2000 to 2019. Then, data collected was sorted out and used to make bar charts and curves reflecting the growth trend of the literatures using Excel software. The information about country, institution and author were extracted by CiteSpace 5.0 R1 for generating co-occurring network, to find the main research power and each cooperative relation. This software was also used to analyze the related-keywords and cited reference, so that the map of co-citation reference was drawn subsequently to explore the frontiers and hot spots in this field. RESULTS: There were a total of 2 000 Chinese "papers" or "dissertations", 1 823 English "articles" or "reviews", collected preliminarily. The Chinese literatures were only statistically described for the amounts, institutions and authors, however, all retrieved English literatures were enrolled in the visualization analysis eventually. From 2009 to 2019, the number of English literatures rose steadily; however, the number of Chinese literatures had been sliding since 2011. On terms of quality, the impact factors of most literatures were under 6, lacking high quality ones, and the number remained stable every year. According to the analysis of English literatures, the top three countries that published related papers around the world were Germany (n = 430), the United States (n = 401) and Netherlands (n = 223). In the aspect of research institutions, the University of Amsterdam (Netherlands) ranked first in the Web of Science (n = 113), while the institution in China with the most publications was the Southern Medical University (n = 71). According to the analysis of co-occurring author network, there were three major globe scientific groups in which Can Ince, Daniel De Backer and Jean-Louis Vincent contributed most to this research field. The top three authors who published most Chinese papers were Niu Chunyu (n = 20), Zhao Zigang (n = 18) and Duan Meili (n = 13). By generating the co-occurring keyword mapping, the research hot spots mainly focused on "blood flow", "nitric oxide", "hemorrhagic shock" and "perfusion". However, these burst keywords, including "cardiogenic shock", "acute kidney injury", "fluid resuscitation", "sublingual microcirculation", "mortality", "oxidative stress", and "critically ill patient", represented the frontiers in microcirculation research of shock and sepsis field. Finally, the results of co-citation reference analysis showed that "sublingual microcirculation" and "mottling score" were most active, indicating that the research of microcirculation monitoring technology could be considered as a hot spot and also the frontier in this field, which was consistent with the results of co-occurring keywords network. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge visualization analysis can visually exhibit the hot spot and trend of microcirculation research in shock and sepsis. The power was mainly focused on a few developed countries in Europe, and the trend was more inclined to the related microcirculation monitoring technology.


Assuntos
Microcirculação , Sepse , Choque , China , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G9-G15, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380474

RESUMO

COVID-19 has changed the nature of medical consultations, emphasizing virtual patient counseling, with relevance for patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) or hyponatraemia. The main complication of desmopressin treatment in DI is dilutional hyponatraemia. Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. Patients should measure their body weight daily. Patients with DI admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 have a high risk for mortality due to volume depletion. Specialists must supervise fluid replacement and dosing of desmopressin. Patients after pituitary surgery should drink to thirst and measure their body weight daily to early recognize the development of the postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). They should know hyponatraemia symptoms. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in patients with pneumonia due to COVID-19 is not yet known, but seems to be low. In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU, from different multifactorial reasons, for example, due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics. Hypernatraemic dehydration may contribute to the high risk of acute kidney injury in COVID-19. IV fluid replacement should be administered with caution in severe cases of COVID-19 because of the risk of pulmonary oedema.


Assuntos
Antidiuréticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Hipernatremia/terapia , Hiponatremia/terapia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desidratação/terapia , Diabetes Insípido/complicações , Diabetes Insípido/terapia , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Soluções Hipotônicas/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia
13.
N Engl J Med ; 382(21): 2012-2022, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community transmission of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) was detected in the state of Washington in February 2020. METHODS: We identified patients from nine Seattle-area hospitals who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical data were obtained through review of medical records. The data reported here are those available through March 23, 2020. Each patient had at least 14 days of follow-up. RESULTS: We identified 24 patients with confirmed Covid-19. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 64±18 years, 63% were men, and symptoms began 7±4 days before admission. The most common symptoms were cough and shortness of breath; 50% of patients had fever on admission, and 58% had diabetes mellitus. All the patients were admitted for hypoxemic respiratory failure; 75% (18 patients) needed mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients (17) also had hypotension and needed vasopressors. No patient tested positive for influenza A, influenza B, or other respiratory viruses. Half the patients (12) died between ICU day 1 and day 18, including 4 patients who had a do-not-resuscitate order on admission. Of the 12 surviving patients, 5 were discharged home, 4 were discharged from the ICU but remained in the hospital, and 3 continued to receive mechanical ventilation in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 3 weeks of the Covid-19 outbreak in the Seattle area, the most common reasons for admission to the ICU were hypoxemic respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation, hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment, or both. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Radiografia , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Choque/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Washington/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Med Sci ; 359(6): 334-338, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emphysematous pancreatitis (EP) is an unusual medical emergency that presents with intraparenchymal pancreatic air in the setting of necrotizing infection. We aimed to determine the differences in the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, symptoms and outcome of EP between elderly and nonelderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using the keywords "emphysematous pancreatitis," "gas-forming pancreatitis" and "pancreatitis and pneumoperitoneum" from March 1959 to February 2019. Forty-two EP articles with 58 patients were enrolled in our study. We divided the patients into ≥65 (elderly, n = 25) and <65-year age groups (non-elderly, n = 33). Data on patient age, sex, comorbidities, symptoms, clinical findings, etiologies, laboratory results, treatments, outcomes and mortality were collected and analyzed using the Student's t test and chi-square test using IBM SPSS 20. P values < 0.05 (2-tailed) indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: Alcohol- and biliary pancreatitis-related EP were 4.95- and 4-fold, respectively, more frequent in the elderly than in the nonelderly (36% versus [vs.] 9.1%, P < 0.05). Fever was more frequent in the nonelderly than in the elderly (69.7% vs. 36%, P < 0.05). The elderly presented with more severe shock status (68% vs. 33.3%, P < 0.05) and received more surgical interventions than the nonelderly (60% vs. 30.3%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Biliary pancreatitis is the most common type of EP in the elderly and has an atypical presentation with less fever, more severe shock, and more surgical interventions. In treating elderly patients with pancreatitis, immediate administration of adequate antibiotics, assisted drainage and early surgical intervention are needed to prevent shock.


Assuntos
Enfisema/diagnóstico , Enfisema/cirurgia , Pâncreas/microbiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enfisema/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/mortalidade , Choque/complicações
15.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 585-591, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293831

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stands out as the major pandemic that we have experienced in the last century. As it affects every social structure, it brought the importance of intensive care support once again to the agenda of healthcare system after causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. The precautions to be taken against this virus, where our knowledge is extremely small, intensive care units take an indispensable place in pandemic planning. In this review, we aimed to emphasize the crucial points regarding intensive care management of COVID-19 patients, which we have written not only for intensivists but also for all healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias , Terapia Respiratória , Sepse/complicações , Choque/complicações
16.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(4): 277-281, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294811

RESUMO

The treatment of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) faces compelling challenges. In this issue, we'd like to share our first-line treatment experience in treating COVID-19. Hemodynamics need be closely monitored and different types of shock should be distinguished. Vasoconstrictor drugs should be used rationally and alerting of complications is of the same importance. The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) needs to be assessed, and effective prevention should be carried out for high-risk patients. It is necessary to consider the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with sudden onset of oxygenation deterioration, respiratory distress, reduced blood pressure. However, comprehensive analysis of disease state should be taken into the interpretation of abnormally elevated D-Dimer. Nutritional support is the basis of treatment. It's important to establish individual therapy regimens and to evaluate, monitor and adjust dynamically. Under the current epidemic situation, convalescent plasma can only be used empirically, indications need to be strictly screened, the blood transfusion process should be closely monitored and the curative effect should be dynamically evaluated.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Transfusão de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/terapia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
17.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Choque/terapia
18.
Lancet ; 395(10235): 1517-1520, 2020 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311318

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), clinicians have tried every effort to understand the disease, and a brief portrait of its clinical features have been identified. In clinical practice, we noticed that many severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients developed typical clinical manifestations of shock, including cold extremities and weak peripheral pulses, even in the absence of overt hypotension. Understanding the mechanism of viral sepsis in COVID-19 is warranted for exploring better clinical care for these patients. With evidence collected from autopsy studies on COVID-19 and basic science research on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV, we have put forward several hypotheses about SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis after multiple rounds of discussion among basic science researchers, pathologists, and clinicians working on COVID-19. We hypothesise that a process called viral sepsis is crucial to the disease mechanism of COVID-19. Although these ideas might be proven imperfect or even wrong later, we believe they can provide inputs and guide directions for basic research at this moment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pulmão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Sepse/virologia , Autopsia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Endotélio , Epitélio , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque/etiologia
19.
Am J Surg ; 219(5): 869-873, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234241

RESUMO

Injury severity scores (ISS) and shock index (SI) are popular trauma scoring systems. We assessed ISS and SI in combat trauma to determine the optimal cut-off values for mortality and trauma outcomes. Retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry, 2008-2016, was performed. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were calculated for ISS and SI on mortality, massive volume transfusion (MVT), and emergent surgical procedure (ESP). Optimal cut-off values were defined using the Youden index (YI). 22,218 patients (97.1% male), median ages 25-29 years, ISS 9.4 ± 0.07, with 58.1% penetrating injury were studied. Overall mortality was 3.4%. AUROCs for ISS on mortality, MVT, and ESP were 0.882, 0.898, and 0.846, while AUROCs for SI were 0.727, 0.864, and 0.711 respectively. The optimal cut-off values for ISS on mortality, MVT, and ESP were 12.5 (YI = 0.634), 12.5 (YI = 0.666), and 12.5 (YI = 0.819), with optimal values for SI being 0.94 (YI = 0.402), 0.88 (YI = 0.608), and 0.81 (YI = 0.345) respectively. Classic values for severe ISS underrepresent combat injury while the SI values defined in this study are consistent with civilian data.


Assuntos
Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Choque/classificação , Guerra , Ferimentos e Lesões/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
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