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2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968008

RESUMO

Stress is prevalent in modern society and can affect human health through its effects on appetite. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms by which acute stress affects appetite in healthy, non-obese males during fasting. In total, 22 volunteers participated in two experiments (stress and control conditions) on different days. The participants performed a stress-inducing speech-and-mental-arithmetic task under both conditions, and then viewed images of food, during which, their neural activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the stress condition, the participants were told to perform the speech-and-mental-arithmetic task again subsequently to viewing the food images; however, another speech-and-mental-arithmetic task was not performed actually. Subjective levels of stress and appetite were then assessed using a visual analog scale. Electrocardiography was performed to assess the index of heart rate variability reflecting sympathetic nerve activity. The findings showed that subjective levels of stress and sympathetic nerve activity were increased in the MEG session in the stress condition, whereas appetite gradually increased in the MEG session only in the control condition. The decrease in alpha band power in the frontal pole caused by viewing the food images was greater in the stress condition than in the control condition. These findings suggest that acute stress can suppress the increase of appetite, and this suppression is associated with the frontal pole. The results of the present study may provide valuable clues to gain a further understanding of the neural mechanisms by which acute stress affects appetite. However, since the stress examined in the present study was related to the expectation of forthcoming stressful event, our present findings may not be generalized to the stress unrelated to the expectation of forthcoming stressful event.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Jejum/psicologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101874, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669822

RESUMO

AIM: Workplace violence in the health sector is one of the common problems of both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes of violence against doctors in the health sector and to evaluate the effect of violence on burnout. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The questionnaire forms were delivered to doctors working in Ordu via internet between 01.03.2018 and 31.03.2018. Preliminary questionnaire form consisting of 20 questions and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were used in the study. RESULTS: It was observed that the scores of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were statistically significantly higher in physicians who were subjected to verbal and physical violence (p < 0.05). On the other hand, increase in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores and decrease in personal achievement scores were found to be statistically significant in those exposed to psychological violence (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: It was found that doctors who were exposed to violence at work were exposed to verbal and psychological violence more than physical violence and especially psychological violence had a significant negative effect on burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Despersonalização/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226939, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While fatigue is ubiquitous in old age and visibly interferes with mobility, studies have not yet examined the effects of self-reported fatigue on healthy older adults' gait. As a model that simulates this daily phenomenon, we systematically reviewed eleven studies that compared the effects of experimentally induced muscle and mental performance fatigability on gait kinematics, variability, kinetics, and muscle activity in healthy older adults. METHODS: We searched for studies in databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using Fatigue, Gait, and Clinical conditions as the main terms and extracted the data only from studies that experimentally induced fatigue by sustained muscle or mental activities in healthy older adults. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. After muscle performance fatigability, six of nine studies observed increases in stride length, width, gait velocity (Effect Size [ES] range: 0.30 to 1.22), inter-stride trunk acceleration variability (ES: 2.06), and ankle muscle coactivation during gait (ES: 0.59, n = 1 study). After sustained mental activity, the coefficient of variation of stride outcomes increased (ES: 0.59 to 0.67, n = 1 study) during dual-task but not single-task walking. CONCLUSION: Muscle performance fatigability affects spatial and temporal features of gait and, mainly, inter-stride trunk acceleration variability. In contrast, sustained mental activity tends only to affect step variability during dual tasking. A critical and immediate step for future studies is to determine the effects of self-reported fatigue on gait biomechanics and variability in healthy older adults to verify the viability of experimentally induced fatigue as a model for the study of gait adaptability in old age.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 9374802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885534

RESUMO

In this paper, we evaluate a semiautonomous brain-computer interface (BCI) for manipulation tasks. In such a system, the user controls a robotic arm through motor imagery commands. In traditional process-control BCI systems, the user has to provide those commands continuously in order to manipulate the effector of the robot step-by-step, which results in a tiresome process for simple tasks such as pick and replace an item from a surface. Here, we take a semiautonomous approach based on a conformal geometric algebra model that solves the inverse kinematics of the robot on the fly, and then the user only has to decide on the start of the movement and the final position of the effector (goal-selection approach). Under these conditions, we implemented pick-and-place tasks with a disk as an item and two target areas placed on the table at arbitrary positions. An artificial vision (AV) algorithm was used to obtain the positions of the items expressed in the robot frame through images captured with a webcam. Then, the AV algorithm is integrated into the inverse kinematics model to perform the manipulation tasks. As proof-of-concept, different users were trained to control the pick-and-place tasks through the process-control and semiautonomous goal-selection approaches so that the performance of both schemes could be compared. Our results show the superiority in performance of the semiautonomous approach as well as evidence of less mental fatigue with it.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Robótica/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potencial Evocado P300 , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/etiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Health Organ Manag ; 33(6): 649-655, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The nature of public healthcare highlights not only the need of understanding the role of emotional exhaustion in the relationship between employees' job demands and desirable employees' job attitudes, but also to adequate the combination of certain job resources and other organisational variables to moderate the employees' feelings of emotional exhaustion. The paper aims to discuss this issue. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This viewpoint designs the theoretical approach that aims to understand the mediating role of emotional exhaustion among healthcare professionals and the capacity of certain variables to moderate it. The nature of the variables considered and the design of the theoretical model proposed highlights structural equation modelling as an optimal methodology to be used among a sample of European healthcare professionals. FINDINGS: Managers should be able to design strategies to mitigate, eliminate and prevent the causes of emotional exhaustion in public healthcare with the objective to improve the health and quality of life of healthcare professionals, and consequently the quality of the service provided to patients and their families. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This viewpoint highlights the importance of analysing the influence of employees' emotional exhaustion on their attitudes in public healthcare. Direct relationships between emotional exhaustion and certain antecedents or consequences have been studied previously; however, studies analysing the mediating role of emotional exhaustion are very scarce and show mixed results. There are also few studies analysing the moderating role of certain job resources and other organisational variables in the relationships between employees' job demands, employees' emotional exhaustion and employees' job attitudes.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Fadiga Mental , Angústia Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional , Saúde Pública
7.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(11): 3011-3021, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520099

RESUMO

Fatigue arises during everyday activities, diminishes movement performance, and increases injury risk. Physical (PE) and cognitive exertion (CE) can induce similar feelings of fatigue, but it is not clear whether these also similarly affect movement performance. Therefore, this study examined the influence of PE and CE on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of trunk muscles, which are feedforward mechanisms that contribute to motor control and controlled movement. Rapid arm movement tasks (RAM) were used to induce APAs of the trunk muscles prior and following three experimental conditions in 20 healthy adults: seated rest without exertion (NE), a combined isometric modified Biering-Sörensen and static abdominal curl to induce PE, and a modified incongruent Stroop colour-word task to induce CE. Fatigue was assessed using self-reported measures, and APA onset latencies of the trunk muscles with surface electromyography. Statistical analyses revealed that neither PE nor CE influence APAs of the trunk. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the influence of fatigue on movement performance might not be through altered motor control, but rather by reduced motivation. However, the possibility that fatigue might influence other mechanisms which contribute to trunk motor control, such as APA amplitude and variability, cannot be excluded and need further examination.


Assuntos
Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletromiografia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 248(4): 261-272, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434813

RESUMO

After the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, there was confusion among the public caused by uncoordinated information about radiation provided by diverse channels. We explored the association between information sources regarding reconstruction progress after the disaster and mental fatigue in Fukushima. We used data from the annual public opinion survey by the Fukushima Prefectural Government on its policies from 2013 to 2015, which contained survey responses from 1,300 community residents randomly selected from the 28 municipalities in the Fukushima Prefecture. The survey contained a question assessing mental fatigue: "How often do you usually feel mentally tired or depressed?" In total, 2,130 participants (758 participants in 2013, 699 participants in 2014, and 673 participants in 2015) were analyzed. The respondents were classified as two categories, "high mental fatigue" and "low mental fatigue," based on their responses to this question. Overall, the proportion of participants with high mental fatigue was 13.2%. There was no association between the year of survey or occupation and high mental fatigue. Cluster analysis was performed to classify information sources. Then, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between clusters of information sources and high mental fatigue. We found that unreliable information sources, such as "Internet" and "a combination of TV, radio, and word of mouth," were significantly associated with high mental fatigue, compared with reliable information sources, such as "municipal public relations in addition to major media (newspaper, TV, and radio)." These findings provide important insights into how information sources affect mental fatigue following a disaster.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Fadiga Mental/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 17(3): 327-335, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449051

RESUMO

Caregivers in dependent elderly people facilities may develop a burn-out, but few studies have been conducted on the subject. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feelings of professional stress and social support, coping strategies and caregivers' burn-out including nurses, caregivers and medical psychologists, to identify the different coping strategies according to the burn-out level, and to analyze the links between burn-out, perceived work stress and perceived social support. Seven facilities were contacted, but only three sent back valid response questionnaires. Twenty-one caregivers completed the questionnaires (socio-demographic data, MBI, Brief Cope, SSQ6, JSS). Results showed a low level of burn-out and perceived stress and a satisfactory perceived social support. Functional coping strategies were used, especially by caregivers with lower burn-out level (positive reinterpretation) unlike caregivers with moderate or high burn-out level that used more dysfunctional strategies (substance abuse). Significant links were found between perceived work stress and emotional exhaustion, and between personal accomplishment, perceived social support and emotional exhaustion, and between perceived work stress and perceived social support. These results show the relevance of creating working groups for caregivers in stress situations. The groups help to develop or maintain functional coping strategies and provide adequate social support for the healthcare team. Taking into account burn-out improves caregivers' job satisfaction and care quality for the residents.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde , Grupos de Autoajuda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: "Karoshi" (death due to overwork) of doctors occurred frequently and attracted increasing attention in recent years in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of work-related accumulated fatigue of doctors and its associated factors in tertiary hospitals of China. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 1729 full-time doctors employed by 24 tertiary hospitals across eastern developed, central developing, and western underdeveloped regions of China. Accumulated fatigue was categorized into four levels using the "Self-diagnosis Checklist for Assessment of Workers' Accumulated Fatigue" rated on a scale matrix considering both overwork and fatigue symptoms. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with work-related accumulated fatigue. RESULTS: About 78.8% of respondents reported a "high level" of work-related accumulated fatigue, including 42.0% at a "very high" level. Male doctors and those aged between 30 and 45 years and who had a professional title were found to have higher levels of accumulative fatigue than others. Low salary and poor working conditions (in the western region) were also significantly associated with high levels of work-related accumulated fatigue (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High levels of work-related accumulated fatigue are prevalent in doctors working in tertiary hospitals in China. Male doctors establishing their early- and mid-careers are the high-risk group. Poor working conditions are associated with work-related accumulated fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga Mental/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência
11.
Am J Audiol ; 28(2S): 483-494, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461329

RESUMO

Purpose Many perceptual processing processes, such as cognition, vision, sensation, and audition, are affected due to fatigue. Musicians are prone to fatigue because of long working hours and demanding profession. The research on assessing working memory abilities in musicians is heterogeneous, as none of the studies has controlled the effect of fatigue. This study was thus designed to assess the effect of fatigue on working memory and auditory perception in trained instrumental musicians. Method Twenty-six trained instrumental musicians and 25 nonmusicians participated in this study. The effect of fatigue was assessed by administering the working memory and auditory perception tests in prefatigue and postfatigue conditions. The fatigue was assessed using a 100-point visual analog scale. The working memory was assessed using Operation Span, Reading Span, and Digit Span (Forward and Backward) tests (Knutson et al., 1991). Auditory perception was assessed using speech-perception-in-noise and temporal integration tests. Results Working memory and speech perception were affected due to fatigue. Musicians, despite having better working memory abilities than nonmusicians, are equally prone to fatigue-related distress. Conclusion The advantage of music training for the working memory abilities may be reduced due to fatigue; hence, measures to reduce fatigue should be employed by the musicians. Fatigue should also be treated as a variable in all future research related to assess cognitive processing in musicians.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Música , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 601-611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347074

RESUMO

Fatigue is a common and poorly understood problem that impacts approximately 45% of the United States (US) population. Fatigue has also been associated with fatigue-related driving accidents, school absences, decline in school performance and negative health outcomes. Fatigue has been linked to many diseases and is consistently underreported in medical care. Despite these high financial and societal costs, fatigue is a poorly understood problem and there is no consensus on how to measure fatigue. Proteomics is one of the most unbiased approach to measure differences in the protein levels from various biological fluids in two conditions, i.e. before and after mental exercise, aka fatigue. There are, however, challenges associated with such analyses: proteomics experiments are usually expensive and time consuming and also require a large number of participants. Here, we performed a proteomics experiment of three (pre- and post-fatigue) samples and also three matched controls (pre- and post-non-fatigue). We found no particular protein that has significant changes in fatigue sample upon treatment. We did note a potential association between changes in mental energy and Annexin A1. However, the study has value simply because it is an extra study in the field of fatigue, but also allows other to correlate our results with their results.


Assuntos
Fadiga Mental , Proteômica , Humanos
13.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000885, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168409

RESUMO

Objectives: To report on fatigue in patients from the United Kingdom primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) registry identifying factors associated with fatigue and robust to assignable causes such as comorbidities and medications associated with drowsiness. Methods: From our cohort (n = 608), we identified those with comorbidities associated with fatigue, and those taking medications associated with drowsiness. We constructed dummy variables, permitting the contribution of these potentially assignable causes of fatigue to be assessed. Using multiple regression analysis, we modelled the relationship between Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort physical and mental fatigue scores and potentially related variables. Results: Pain, depression and daytime sleepiness scores were closely associated with both physical and mental fatigue (all p ≤ 0.0001). In addition, dryness was strongly associated with physical fatigue (p ≤ 0.0001). These effects were observed even after adjustment for comorbidities associated with fatigue or medications associated with drowsiness. Conclusions: These findings support further research and clinical interventions targeting pain, dryness, depression and sleep to improve fatigue in patients with pSS.This finding is robust to both the effect of other comorbidities associated with fatigue and medications associated with drowsiness.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga Mental/epidemiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fadiga Mental/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga Mental/etiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Exame Físico , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sjogren/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(7): 499-505, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain injury causes multiple symptoms. Among these, visual disturbances are common; 50-70% of patients experience some change in vision after injury/illness. Other very common and disabling symptoms are fatigue, anxiety and depression. This study examines whether levels of fatigue, anxiety and depression are increased if the patients also experience vision disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 123 patients enrolled in day care rehabilitation unit for medium-to-severe brain injury completed questionnaires about self-experienced fatigue, anxiety, depression and self-experienced level and type of visual disturbances. Symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and depression were compared with the occurrence of visual disturbances. Analyses were performed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: An association was found between visual symptoms and fatigue, but not between visual symptoms and anxiety/depression. However, some visual symptoms, such as glare, blurred vision and reading difficulties, showed great differences between patients with or without anxiety/depression. CONCLUSION: Vision rehabilitation may be a tool for mitigating fatigue after acquired brain injury.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Depressão/etiologia , Fadiga Mental/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(4): e13064, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166038

RESUMO

To explore the effects of home-based music intervention (HBMI) on symptom severity, pain intensity and perceived fatigue among patients with breast cancer. In this randomised controlled trial, patients with breast cancer were randomly assigned into an HBMI or control group. The HBMI group was administered 24-week HBMI involving five 30-min sessions per week. The primary outcome was symptom severity; the secondary outcomes were pain and fatigue. A generalised estimating equation was employed to compare the effects after 6, 12 and 24 weeks of intervention between the two groups. A total of 60 patients were recruited. After 6, 12 and 24 weeks, HBMI significantly reduced symptom severity, pain intensity, overall fatigue, general fatigue, emotional fatigue and vigour (p < 0.05). Additionally, HBMI significantly reduced physical fatigue after 6 (p = 0.003) and 12 (p = 0.013) weeks and mental fatigue after 6 weeks (p = 0.001). After 6, 12 and 24 weeks, HBMI reduced symptom severity, pain intensity and overall fatigue. Furthermore, HBMI instantaneously reduced physical and mental fatigue. We recommend that HBMI be administered to patients with breast cancer to reduce their negative thoughts associated with cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Dor do Câncer/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Fadiga Mental/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 28(5): 1042-1052, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231965

RESUMO

Burnout is a common problem among mental health nurses. High levels of burnout result in job dissatisfaction, rapid turnover of staff, physical and psychological discomfort, and a reduction in the quality of patient care. While there is an abundance of research relating to burnout per se, research regarding the impact of burnout prevention programmes is lacking. This study aimed to measure the effects of a burnout prevention programme on mental health nurses working in Saudi Arabia (SA). A quasi-experimental design was used to test the effectiveness of a two-day burnout prevention workshop. The sample consisted of an intervention group (n = 154) and a control group (n = 142). Data collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) measured the effects of the workshop at 1-, 3-, and 6-month intervals after completion of the programme. Data were analysed using the latest version of SPSS. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages were used to describe the sample and levels of burnout. A t-test, ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and chi-squared were used to measure the effect of the workshop before and at the three time points after exposure. Findings indicate the programme was effective with a significant reduction being reported 1 month after the intervention. However, although not returning to baseline scores, burnout scores had increased at 6 months. In conclusion, while the overall efficacy of the burnout reduction programme is evident, mental health nurses would benefit from having opportunity to use some of the strategies on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/métodos , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/organização & administração , Arábia Saudita
17.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigates the effect of a mentally demanding response inhibitory task on time trial performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. METHODS: Ten under 23 road cyclists completed two separate testing sessions during which they performed two different cognitive tasks before completing a 30-min time trial on the cycle ergometer. In the experimental condition, 30 min of a standard cognitive task (Stroop task) was used to elicit mental fatigue; in the control condition, a non-demanding activity was carried out. Subjective workload and mood were measured before and after the treatments, and motivation was recorded before the time-trial. During the time trial, power, cadence, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion were assessed. Blood lactate concentrations and heart rate variability (using the root mean square of the successive differences) were measured before and after the time trial. RESULTS: The Stroop task was rated more mentally (P < 0.001) and temporally (P < 0.001) demanding, effortful (P < 0.001), and frustrating (P = 0.001) than the control task; fatigue (P = 0.002) and vigor (P = 0.018) after the cognitive tasks were respectively higher and lower than in the control task. Mean power output (P = 0.007) and cadence (P = 0.043) were negatively affected by the Stroop task, while heart rate (P = 0.349), rating of perceived exertion (P = 0.710), blood lactate concentration (P = 0.850), and root mean square of the successive differences (P = 0.355) did not differ between the two conditions. CONCLUSION: A mentally demanding activity reduced the subsequent physical performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. Thus, avoiding cognitive efforts before training and races could improve performance of high-level athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Atletas , Ciclismo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217825, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that cognitive load (low vs. high load) during a 20 min self-paced cycling exercise affects physical performance. DESIGN: A pre-registered (https://osf.io/qept5/), randomized, within-subject design experiment. METHODS: 28 trained and experienced male cyclists completed a 20 min self-paced cycling time-trial exercise in two separate sessions, corresponding to two working memory load conditions: 1-back or 2-back. We measured power output, heart rate, RPE and mental fatigue. RESULTS: Bayes analyses revealed extreme evidence for the 2-back task being more demanding than the 1-back task, both in terms of accuracy (BF10 = 4490) and reaction time (BF = 1316). The data only showed anecdotal evidence for the alternative hypothesis for the power output (BF10 = 1.52), moderate evidence for the null hypothesis for the heart rate (BF10 = 0.172), anecdotal evidence for RPE (BF10 = 0.72) and anecdotal evidence for mental fatigue (BF10 = 0.588). CONCLUSIONS: Our data seem to challenge the idea that self-paced exercise is regulated by top-down processing, given that we did not show clear evidence of exercise impairment (at the physical, physiological and subjective levels) in the high cognitive load condition task with respect to the low working memory load condition. The involvement of top-down processing in self-pacing the physical effort, however, cannot be totally discarded. Factors like the duration of the physical and cognitive tasks, the potential influence of dual-tasking, and the participants' level of expertise, should be taken into account in future attempts to investigate the role of top-down processing in self-paced exercise.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
19.
J Psychol ; 153(8): 759-783, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188721

RESUMO

This investigation assessed the impact of three cognitively demanding tasks on cognitive performance, subjective, and physiological indicators of mental fatigue. Following familiarization, participants completed four testing sessions, separated by 48 h. During each session, participants watched a 45-min emotionally neutral documentary (control) or completed one of the following computer tasks: Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT); AX-Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT); or Stroop Task. Mental fatigue was assessed before and at regular periods for 60 min following the 45-min treatments. Cognitive performance was assessed using 3-min PVT, and task performance. Subjective assessments were conducted using the Brunel Mood Scale, and visual analog scales (VAS). Physiological indicators of mental fatigue included electroencephalography (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue increased from pre to 0-min post in all-treatments, but not the documentary (p < 0.05). Subjective fatigue (VAS) remained higher (p < 0.05) than pretreatment values for 20-, 50-, and 60-min following the PVT, Stroop, and AX-CPT respectively. The cognitively demanding tasks had unclear effects on 3-min PVT, EEG, and HRV assessments. Tasks requiring response inhibition appear to induce fatigue for longer durations than a simple vigilance task. Simple VAS appear to be the most practical method for assessing mental fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(3): 232-249, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120276

RESUMO

Racial diversity in juries, meant to ensure representation of minority voices, can also reduce racial bias in verdicts and improve group performance during deliberation (Sommers, 2006). Although jury diversity might increase cognitive depletion because it involves interracial interactions (Richeson & Shelton, 2003), it might also reduce racial disparity in verdicts and deliberation quality by improving the quality of deliberation for Black defendants. In 6-person juries that included 2 White or 2 Black confederates, White jurors viewed trial evidence including a defendant race manipulation (White, Black) and completed measures of cognitive depletion and case facts recall. Deliberation transcripts were coded for the number of total, correct, and new case facts mentioned by jurors. As predicted, jurors in diverse versus all-White juries were more depleted after deliberation, but depletion was not related to deliberation performance. For the Black defendant, jurors on diverse (vs. homogeneous) juries discussed more case facts; for the White defendant, the effect was not significant. Jurors on all-White juries discussed more case facts when they judged a White (vs. Black) defendant, but this difference was not significant for jurors on diverse juries. Thus, jury diversity reduced racial disparity in the quality of deliberation. Before and after deliberation, jurors were less likely to convict the Black (vs. White) defendant regardless of jury composition. These findings reinforce the importance of constructing racially diverse juries, given that they may be better equipped to evaluate trial evidence for both Black and White defendants despite the cognitive demand of deliberating within a diverse group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Julgamento , Função Jurisdicional , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Fatores Raciais , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Direito Penal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Racismo , Adulto Jovem
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