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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525946

RESUMO

Artificial gravity elicited through short-arm human centrifugation combined with physical exercise, such as jumping, is promising in maintaining health and performance during space travel. However, motion sickness symptoms could limit the tolerability of the approach. Therefore, we determined the feasibility and tolerability, particularly occurrence of motion sickness symptoms, during reactive jumping exercises on a short-arm centrifuge. In 15 healthy men, we assessed motion sickness induced by jumping exercises during short-arm centrifugation at constant +1Gz or randomized variable +0.5, +0.75, +1, +1.25 and +1.5 Gz along the body axis referenced to center of mass. Jumping in the upright position served as control intervention. Test sessions were conducted on separate days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. All participants tolerated jumping exercises against terrestrial gravity and on the short-arm centrifuge during 1 Gz or variable Gz at the center of mass without disabling motion sickness symptoms. While head movements markedly differed, motion sickness scores were only modestly increased with jumping on the short-arm centrifuge compared with vertical jumps. Our study demonstrates that repetitive jumping exercises are feasible and tolerable during short-arm centrifugation. Since jumping exercises maintain muscle and bone mass, our study enables further development of exercise countermeasures in artificial gravity.


Assuntos
Centrifugação/efeitos adversos , Gravidade Alterada/efeitos adversos , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Voo Espacial , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Centrifugação/instrumentação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Gravitação , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/fisiopatologia , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/prevenção & controle , Contramedidas de Ausência de Peso , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 373(2): 248-260, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165443

RESUMO

It has been identified that arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin receptor 2(V2R), and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) signaling pathway in the inner ear play important roles in hearing and balance functions through regulating the endolymph equilibrium; however, the contributions of this signaling pathway to the development of motion sickness are unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the activation of the AVP-V2R-AQP2 signaling pathway in the inner ear is involved in the induction of motion sickness and whether mozavaptan, a V2R antagonist, could reduce motion sickness. We found that both rotatory stimulus and intraperitoneal AVP injection induced conditioned taste aversion (a confirmed behavioral index for motion sickness) in rats and activated the AVP-V2R-AQP2 signaling pathway with a responsive V2R downregulation in the inner ears, and AVP perfusion in cultured epithelial cells from rat endolymphatic sacs induced similar changes in this pathway signaling. Vestibular training, V2R antagonist mozavaptan, or PKA inhibitor H89 blunted these changes in the V2R-AQP2 pathway signaling while reducing rotatory stimulus- or DDAVP (a V2R agonist)-induced motion sickness in rats and dogs. Therefore, our results suggest that activation of the inner ear AVP-V2R-AQP2 signaling pathway is potentially involved in the development of motion sickness; thus, mozavaptan targeting AVP V2Rs in the inner ear may provide us with a new application option to reduce motion sickness. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Motion sickness affects many people traveling or working. In the present study our results showed that activation of the inner ear arginine vasopressin-vaspopressin receptor 2 (V2R)-aquaporin 2 signaling pathway was potentially involved in the development of motion sickness and that blocking V2R with mozavaptan, a V2R antagonist, was much more effective in reducing motion sickness in both rat and dog; therefore, we demonstrated a new mechanism to underlie motion sickness and a new candidate drug to reduce motion sickness.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 2/fisiologia , Arginina Vasopressina/fisiologia , Orelha Interna/fisiologia , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Receptores de Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Animais , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Hormônios Antidiuréticos/uso terapêutico , Arginina Vasopressina/sangue , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
3.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 218-226, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531854

RESUMO

Postoperative nausea and vomiting is the most common side-effect of opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Apfel's simplified risk score is popular but it has some limitations. We developed and validated a dynamic predictive model for nausea or vomiting up to 48 postoperative hours, available as an online web application. Fentanyl was used by 22,144 adult patients for analgesia after non-cardiac surgery under general anaesthesia: we randomly divided them into development (80%) and validation (20%) cohorts, repeated 100 times. We used linear discriminant analysis to select variables for multivariate logistic regression. The incidences of postoperative nausea or vomiting were: 0-48 h, 5691/22,144 (26%); 0-6 h, 2749/22,144 (12%); 6-12 h, 2687/22,144 (12%); 12-18 h, 2624/22,144 (12%); 18-24 h, 1884/22,144 (9%); and 24-48 h, 1082/22,144 (5%). The median (95%CI) area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.72 (0.71-0.73) up to 48 postoperative hours compared with 0.65 (0.64-0.66) for the Apfel model, p < 0.001. The equivalent areas for 0-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-18 h, 18-24 h and 24-48 h were: 0.70 (0.69-0.72); 0.71 (0.69-0.73); 0.69 (0.68-0.71); 0.70 (0.67-0.72); and 0.69 (0.66-0.71), respectively. Our web application allows clinicians to calculate incidences of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving intravenous fentanyl for patient-controlled analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Analgésicos Opioides , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/epidemiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
4.
Phys Ther ; 100(1): 192-200, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is challenging because of a lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. It is vital for clinicians to know normative responses to suggested clinical tests to help them develop the method and interpretation of these tests and maximize their diagnostic value for CGD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine normative responses to the clinical application of the cervical torsion test and the head-neck differentiation test, with consideration of different age groups and sex. DESIGN: This was an observational study. METHODS: One hundred forty-seven people who were healthy and asymptomatic served as controls and performed both tests, which involved 3 components: cervical torsion, cervical rotation, and en bloc rotation (head and trunk rotation together). RESULTS: Thirty-five (23.81%) of the 147 participants reported some symptoms (mild dizziness, visual disturbances, unusual eye movements on opening eyes after the test, motion sickness, or nausea) on 1 or more of the 3 test components in either test. The specificity when using a positive response to torsion alone (ie, a negative response to the rotation or en bloc component) was high (for the cervical torsion test, 98.64%; for the head-neck differentiation test, 89.8%), as participants with likely global sensorimotor sensitivity were eliminated. The combined specificity was 100%, as no participants presented with exclusive positive torsion results in both tests. Age and sex did not influence the results. LIMITATIONS: There were several examiners who were not blinded. CONCLUSIONS: Confirmation of the high specificity of these clinical tests with the method used in this study to conduct and interpret the results will allow future research to determine the sensitivity of these clinical measures in a population with CGD and specificity in those with dizziness of other origins.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Tontura/diagnóstico , Movimento/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Tontura/etiologia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Pescoço , Rotação/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 209: 151-159, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the safety of VR 3D headset (virtual reality 3-dimensional binocular-stereoscopic near-eye display) use in young children. Product safety warnings that accompany VR headsets ban their use in children under age 13 years. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional, before-and-after study. METHODS: Recordings were obtained in 50 children (29 boys) aged 4-10 years (mean 7.2 ± 1.8 years). Minimum binocular corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/50 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] 0.4) and stereoacuity 800 seconds of an arc or better. A Sony PlayStation VR headset was worn for 2 sequential play sessions (of 30 minutes each) of a first-person 3D flying game (Eagle Flight) requiring head movement to control flight direction (pitch, yaw, and roll axes). Baseline testing preceded VR exposure, and each VR session was followed by post-VR testing of binocular CDVA, refractive error, binocular eye alignment (strabismus), stereoacuity, and postural stability (imbalance). Visually induced motion sickness was probed using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire modified for pediatric use (Peds SSQ). Visual-vestibulo-ocular reflex (V-VOR) adaptation was also tested pre- vs post-trial in 5 of the children. Safety was gauged as a decline or change from baseline in any visuomotor measure. RESULTS: Forty-six of 50 children (94%) completed both VR play sessions with no significant change from baseline in measures of binocular CDVA (P = .89), refractive error (P = .36), binocular eye alignment (P = .90), or stereoacuity (P = .45). Postural stability degraded an average 9% from baseline after 60 minutes of VR exposure (P = .06). Peds SSQ scores increased a mean 4.7%-comparing pretrial to post-trial-for each of 4 symptom categories: eye discomfort (P = .02), head/neck discomfort (P = .03), fatigue (P = .03), and motion sickness (P = .01). None of the children who finished both trial sessions (94%) asked to end the play, and the majority were disappointed when play was halted. V-VOR gain remained unaltered in the 5 children tested. Three children (6% of participants) discontinued the trial during the first 10 minutes of the first session of VR play, 2 girls (aged 5 and 6 years) and 1 boy (aged 7 years). The girls reported discomfort consistent with mild motion sickness; the boy said he was bored and the headset was uncomfortable. No child manifested aftereffects ("flashbacks") in the days following the VR exposure. CONCLUSION: Young children tolerate fully immersive 3D virtual reality game play without noteworthy effects on visuomotor functions. VR play did not induce significant post-VR postural instability or maladaption of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The prevalence of discomfort and aftereffects may be less than that reported for adults.


Assuntos
Enjoo devido ao Movimento/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular/fisiologia , Refração Ocular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual
6.
Appl Ergon ; 82: 102946, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumer virtual reality (VR) devices are becoming more prevalent in the market, but cybersickness induced by VR devices limits their potential application and promotion. Acustimulation has been found effective in reducing cybersickness symptoms. However, in previous forms, the more effective way of acustimulation is either intrusive or electrical which is hard to be applied to daily VR use. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to find a both simple and more effective acustimulation approach, acupressure plus acupaste (AcP+) to reducing the adverse effects caused by cybersickness from VR applications. METHOD: In this study, we set three conditions: acupressure plus acupaste (AcP+) (main condition of interest), acupressure with fake acupaste (AcP), and a no acustimulation condition (NoAcP). In AcP and AcP + conditions, we applied acupressure or acupressure with true acupaste on P6 point before conducting video-watching tasks using VR headsets, while in NoAcP condition, participants received no special treatment before video-watching tasks. We used questionnaires to measure symptoms of cybersickness and compared the results between these 3 conditions, especially between acupressure plus acupaste (AcP+) and acupressure (AcP) to examine the effect of AcP+, and compared AcP and AcP+ with NoAcP to confirm the effect of acustimulation. RESULT: Participants reported significant fewer symptoms of cybersickness nausea feelings in both acustimulation methods, compared with NoAcP; and AcP+ was more effective than AcP against cybersickness on visual oculomotor aspect, and facilitated cybersickness recovery. IMPLICATION: It would be promising to develop acupressure equipment and apply stimulation before VR application to reduce cybersickness.


Assuntos
Acupressão/métodos , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Appl Ergon ; 82: 102958, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563798

RESUMO

Cybersickness, i.e. visually induced motion sickness, remains as a negative effect that is detrimental to the user experience of VEs (virtual environments) developed for VR (virtual reality) consumers. As the VR technology evolves, it is rather triggered by application aspects rather than hardware limitations. For this reason, there is still a need for a measurement method to assess and compare VEs for cybersickness effects. SSQ (Simulation Sickness Questionnaire) is used for measuring users' level of sickness symptoms and is highly appreciated in VR research. However, it is criticized for its psychometric qualities and applicability in VR, as a measure of cybersickness. Recently, two variants of SSQ were offered for measuring cybersickness, CSQ (Cybersickness Questionnaire) and VRSQ (Virtual Reality Sickness Questionnaire). There is also another variant with a different factor structure, which we call FSSQ, that is based on French translation of SSQ. Our study compares SSQ and these variants for their psychometric qualities; construct validity, discriminant validity, internal reliability, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to distinguish application aspects of VEs that are related to cybersickness. Using a within-subjects experiment design, we evaluated 7 different VEs with 32 participants through 9 sessions, resulting with 288 responses to the 16-item SSQ. Results suggested that both VRSQ and CSQ were valid and reliable measures of cybersickness, as well as being sensitive to application aspects such as translational and rotational movements required by users for navigation in VEs. Compared to SSQ and FSSQ; the cybersickness questionnaires, CSQ and VRSQ, revealed better indicators of validity. On the other hand, we assume that the development of the two cybersickness scales had limitations in sample size to represent VR consumers and limitations in stimuli to represent the applications aspects of consumer VEs. We suggest further evaluation of cybersickness symptoms with larger samples and broader range of applications to identify the symptoms and the construct of a subjective measurement tool.


Assuntos
Enjoo devido ao Movimento/diagnóstico , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Psicometria/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(11): 917-924, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666152

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rapid onset, noninjection methods are required to provide "as needed" therapy for motion sickness. Intranasal scopolamine (IN SCOP) is attractive because it can be fast acting and work when gastric motility is slowed. Intranasal administration can provide a time to maximal concentration (Tmax) of drugs (e.g., naloxone and midazolam) of 30 min or less. We evaluated the efficacy, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of IN SCOP in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study, and compared pharmacokinetic outcomes against other published results.METHODS: There were 18 healthy adult volunteers (10 M, 8F) who received placebo, low dose (0.2 mg), and high dose (0.4 mg) IN SCOP intranasally using a pump device and a gel formulation. Participants rode in an off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) chair 1.25 h after dose administration and completed neurocognitive tests to evaluate secondary drug impacts. Pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) were assessed in eight subjects. PK data were compared to results from previously published studies.RESULTS: Low and high dose IN SCOP increased chair time significantly compared to placebo. No significant sleepiness or cognitive impairment was seen, likely due to the small sample size. Tmax was long for both dosages (High dose 75.0 ± 49.4 min, Low dose 61.9 ± 37.1 min), compared to other intranasally administered drugs and some previous studies with IN SCOP. Average Tmax was not superior to previously published values for dose-matched (0.4-0.5 mg), orally-delivered SCOP.DISCUSSION: IN SCOP has potential as a rapid administration route for relieving MS symptoms, but more work is needed to identify optimal intranasal formulation and dispensing methods.KEYWORDS: Motion sickness, pharmacokinetics, scopolamine, intranasal administration.Stankovic AS, Alvarenga DL, Daniels VRC, Simmons RG, Buckey JC, Putcha L. Intranasal scopolamine for motion sickness. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(11):917-924.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/tratamento farmacológico , Escopolamina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(665): 1737-1739, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580016

RESUMO

The Mal de Débarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is characterized by a persistent (> 1 month) sensation of self-motion, most of the time initially motion-triggered (i.e. boat, car, airplane travel). The symptoms are markedly diminished during a new exposure to passive motion. Female are more often affected. The vestibular functional assessment and cerebral imaging are normal. Chronic fatigue, headache, hypersensitivity to visual stimuli are other classical features of MdDS. The impact of MdDS on quality of life is significant. Maladaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, abnormal functional connectivity as well as gonadal hormones imbalance are possible causes of the MdDS. Exposure to optokinetic stimulations, and transcranial magnetic stimulations open therapeutic perspectives.


Assuntos
Enjoo devido ao Movimento/fisiopatologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Feminino , Humanos , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Viagem
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 323, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transport stress not only causes physiological changes but also induces behavioral responses, including anxiety-like and depression-like behavioral responses in animals. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a pivotal role in transport stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute transport stress on the expression of nNOS and the distribution of nNOS-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus in rats and to explore the neuroendocrine mechanism of transport stress. RESULTS: In this study, for the first time, we investigated the effects of transport stress on nitric oxide (NO)-NOS in the hypothalamus. After simulated stress, rats exhibited behavioral changes in the open field test (OFT), increased serum corticosterone (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and increased NO content in the hypothalamus. In addition, nNOS expression in the hypothalamic PVN was upregulated, and its distribution was altered in stressed rats compared with that of unstressed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that simulated transport stress increases nNOS expression and alters its distribution in the PVN of the rat hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/sangue , Neurônios/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Norepinefrina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Appl Ergon ; 81: 102889, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422261

RESUMO

We investigated whether motion sickness analogous to carsickness can be studied in a moving base simulator, despite the limited motion envelope. Importantly, to avoid simulator sickness, vision outside the simulator cabin was restricted. Participants (N = 16) were exposed blindfolded to 15-min lateral sinusoidal motion at 0.2 Hz and 0.35 Hz on separate days. These conditions were selected to realize optimal provocativeness of the stimulus given the simulator's maximum displacement and knowledge on frequency-acceleration interactions for motion sickness. Average motion sickness on an 11-point scale was 2.21 ±â€¯1.97 for 0.2 Hz and 1.93 ±â€¯1.94 for 0.35 Hz. The motion sickness increase over time was comparable to that found in studies using actual vehicles. We argue that motion base simulators can be used to incite motion sickness analogous to carsickness, provided considerable restrictions on vision. Future research on carsickness, potentially more prevalent in autonomous vehicles, could benefit from employing simulators.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Athl Train ; 54(9): 939-944, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454287

RESUMO

CONTEXT: High school athletes with a history of motion sickness susceptibility exhibit higher baseline vestibular and ocular-motor scores than those without a history of motion sickness susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of motion sickness susceptibility on baseline vestibular and ocular-motor functioning, neurocognitive performance, and symptom scores. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Preseason concussion testing. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of high school athletes (N = 308, age = 15.13 ± 1.21 years) involved in a variety of sports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening, computerized neurocognitive assessment, symptom scale, and Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire-Short Form (MSSQ-S). RESULTS: Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on a median split of the scores (eg, NONE, LOW, and HIGH). The LOW (n = 95) and HIGH (n = 92) groups (ie, MSSQ-S score > 0) were 2.64 times more likely (χ21,257 = 7.94, P = .01, 95% confidence interval = 1.32, 5.26) to have baseline Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening scores larger than the clinical cutoffs for the NONE group (n = 70). No between-groups main effects were present for the NONE (n = 52), LOW (n = 89), and HIGH (n = 90) MSSQ-S groups for verbal (F2,230 = .09, P = .91, η2 = .001) and visual (F2,230 = .15, P = .86, η2 = .001) memory, processing speed (F2,230 = .78, P = .46, η2 = .007), or reaction time (F2,230 = 2.21, P = .11, η2 = .002). The HIGH group exhibited higher total baseline symptom scores than the LOW (U = 3325.50, z = -1.99, P = .05, r = .15) and NONE (U = 1647.50, z = -2.83, P = .005, r = .24) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Motion sickness should be considered a preexisting risk factor that might influence specific domains of the baseline concussion assessment and postinjury management.


Assuntos
Atletas , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Função Vestibular
15.
J Psychosom Res ; 125: 109808, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nausea is a common complaint, known to respond to the placebo effect. Existing research has employed deception when administering placebos for nausea, limiting therapeutic translation on ethical grounds. We therefore examined the potential of non-deceptive open-label placebos (OLPs) to reduce nausea. METHODS: Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) and Virtual Reality (VR) were employed to model nausea in healthy volunteers across two experiments. In both experiments nausea was elicited with and without sham treatment (peppermint vapor and brain stimulation, respectively). In Exp. 1, participants (n = 61) were randomized to deceptive placebo, semi-open placebo, fully-open placebo, or control. In Exp. 2, participants (n = 93) were randomized to deceptive placebo, semi-open placebo, or control. RESULTS: Exp. 1 found limited evidence for a placebo effect (F(1, 56) = 1.15, p = .29, ηp2 =0.02), even following deceptive treatment (F(1, 56) = 1.92, p = .17, ηp2=0.03). In Exp. 2, deceptive placebo reduced nausea relative to control (F(1, 89) = 6.91, p = .010, ηp2=0.07) and OLP (F(1, 89) = 5.47, p = .022, ηp2=0.06). Pooled Bayesian analysis across experiments provided strong evidence that deceptive placebos reduce nausea relative to control (BF10 = 30.91) and anecdotal evidence for the benefit of deceptive treatment over non-deceptive (BF10 = 2.46) and no benefit of OLP over control (BF10 = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: No positive evidence for OLP effects in nausea were observed. However, a deceptive effect in VR was observed. These findings raise questions regarding the efficacy of open-label intervention in nausea.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Decepção , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/psicologia , Náusea/psicologia , Efeito Placebo , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/tratamento farmacológico , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/etiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Realidade Virtual
16.
Ergonomics ; 62(10): 1357-1371, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282785

RESUMO

As automation transforms drivers into passengers, the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) has the potential to greatly increase the incidence of motion sickness. A study was conducted to quantify motion sickness response of front-seat passengers performing ecologically relevant passenger activities during conditions consistent with driving on public roadways. Fifty-two adults with a large range of self-reported levels of motion sickness susceptibility and age participated in data collection on a closed test track in a passenger sedan. Motion sickness ratings increased with task vs. no-task and moderate vs. low acceleration test conditions. Increased motion sickness susceptibility was associated with higher motion sickness ratings. In comparison to older participants (age > 60), younger participants (age < 60) experienced increased motion sickness. This is the first in-vehicle study that systematically compared normative passenger activities and acceleration magnitudes typical of normative driving conditions on motion sickness response for a large, diverse sample of passengers, enabling the exploration of the effects of covariates. Practitioner summary: The data demonstrate that a relatively large range of motion sickness response can be expected to result from passengers performing visual tasks in passenger vehicles. Measurement and modelling efforts should seek to elucidate relationships among the factors contributing to motion sickness for the purpose of informing and prioritising future countermeasures for automated vehicles (AVs). Abbreviations: AV(S): automated vehicles; BMI: body mass index; BVP: blood volume pulse; EDA: electrodermal activity; FMS: fast motion sickness scale; GPS: global positioning system; IMU: inertial measurement unit; ISO: International Organization for Standardization; MISC: misery scale; MSDV: motion sickness dose value; NDS: naturalistic driving study; SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers International; UMTRI: The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Key Aspect of Research: Motion sickness may be an important barrier to widespread adoption of automated vehicles @UMTRI.


Assuntos
Automação , Condução de Veículo , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330938

RESUMO

In the era of technological advances and innovations in transportation technologies, application of driving simulators for the investigation and assessment of the driving process provides a safe and suitable testing environment. Although driving simulators are crucial for further improvements in transportation, it is important to resolve one of their main disadvantages-simulator sickness. Therefore, suitable methods for the assessment of simulator sickness are required. The main aim of this paper was to present a non-invasive method for assessing simulator sickness by recording gastric myoelectrical activity-electrogastrography. Open-source hardware for electrogastrography together with recordings obtained in 13 healthy volunteers is presented, and the main aspects of signal processing for artifact cancellation and feature extraction were discussed. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that slow-wave electrical gastric activity can be recorded during driving simulation by following adequate recommendations and that proposed features could be beneficial in describing non-ordinary electrogastrography signals.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/fisiopatologia , Estômago/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Eletromiografia/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
19.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(4): 318-323, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare vestibular dysfunction at 1 to 10 and 11 to 20 days following sport/recreation-related concussion (SRC) in athletes with and without history of motion sickness susceptibility. Secondary aims of this study were to investigate differences in neurocognitive performance and affective symptoms in these groups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Concussion Specialty Clinic. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-four adolescents and adults (82 males, 42 females) aged 14 to 26 (16.36 ± 2.10) years, diagnosed with SRC in the past 10 (4.56 ± 2.54) days; 47 participants composed the sample for quartile analyses. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire short form score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Computerized neurocognitive test scores, vestibular/oculomotor screening scores (VOMS), and symptom factor scores from a standardized concussion symptom inventory. RESULTS: There was no association between history of motion sickness susceptibility and VOMS scores (above or below clinical cutoff) at 1 to 10 days after injury, although at 11 to 20 days after injury there was an association between high motion sickness susceptibility and symptoms above clinical cutoff on 5 of the 6 VOMS items (P values 0.01-0.04). The high motion sickness group had more affective symptoms on the symptom inventory than the no motion sickness group (P = 0.002) at 1 to 10 days after injury. Groups did not differ on computerized neurocognitive testing (P = 0.11). CONCLUSION: Athletes with a preexisting history of motion sensitivity may exhibit more prolonged vestibular dysfunction following SRC, and may experience more affective symptoms early in recovery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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