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1.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 109-119, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tofersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that mediates the degradation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) messenger RNA to reduce SOD1 protein synthesis. Intrathecal administration of tofersen is being studied for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to SOD1 mutations. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1-2 ascending-dose trial evaluating tofersen in adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations. In each dose cohort (20, 40, 60, or 100 mg), participants were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive five doses of tofersen or placebo, administered intrathecally for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were safety and pharmacokinetics. The secondary outcome was the change from baseline in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SOD1 concentration at day 85. Clinical function and vital capacity were measured. RESULTS: A total of 50 participants underwent randomization and were included in the analyses; 48 participants received all five planned doses. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. Elevations in CSF white-cell count and protein were reported as adverse events in 4 and 5 participants, respectively, who received tofersen. Among participants who received tofersen, one died from pulmonary embolus on day 137, and one from respiratory failure on day 152; one participant in the placebo group died from respiratory failure on day 52. The difference at day 85 in the change from baseline in the CSF SOD1 concentration between the tofersen groups and the placebo group was 2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 27) for the 20-mg dose, -25 percentage points (95% CI, -40 to -5) for the 40-mg dose, -19 percentage points (95% CI, -35 to 2) for the 60-mg dose, and -33 percentage points (95% CI, -47 to -16) for the 100-mg dose. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations, CSF SOD1 concentrations decreased at the highest concentration of tofersen administered intrathecally over a period of 12 weeks. CSF pleocytosis occurred in some participants receiving tofersen. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. (Funded by Biogen; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02623699; EudraCT number, 2015-004098-33.).


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/administração & dosagem , Superóxido Dismutase-1/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais/efeitos adversos , Filamentos Intermediários , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/efeitos adversos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacocinética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Capacidade Vital
2.
Neurol Sci ; 41(8): 2029-2031, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurological manifestations can occur during coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Several pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized, without conclusive results. In this study, we evaluated the most frequent neurological symptoms in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and also investigated the possible relationship between plasmatic inflammatory indices and olfactory disorders (ODs) and between muscle pain and creatine kinase (CK). METHODS: We consecutively enrolled hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A structured questionnaire concerning typical and neurological symptoms, focusing on headache, dizziness, ODs, taste disorders (TDs), and muscle pain, was administrated by telephone interviews. RESULTS: Common neurological symptoms were reported in the early phase of the disease, with a median onset ranging from 1 to 3 days. Headache showed tension-type features and was more frequently associated with a history of headache. Patients with ODs less frequently needed oxygen therapy. Inflammatory indices did not significantly differ between patients with and without ODs. Muscle pain did not show any association with CK level but was more frequently associated with arthralgia and headache. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, ODs were an early symptom of COVID-19, more frequently reported by patients with milder forms of disease. Headache in association with arthralgia and muscle pain seems to reflect the common symptoms of the flu-like syndrome, and not COVID-19 infection-specific.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cefaleia/virologia , Mialgia/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667464

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cephalalgia is one of the most common somatic complaints related to health problems in childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVE: To measure the cephalalgia prevalence in adolescents from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional population-based study, carried out in 2015, with 539 adolescents of both sexes, aged between 15 and 19 years. The information was collected in a household survey, and the participants were selected from probabilistic sampling. Frequencies, χ2 test and logistic regression analysis were used in the study, and significance level was 5%. RESULTS: the estimated prevalence of cephalalgia was 38.2% (95%CI 33.8 - 42.7), and 7.8% (95%CI 5.6 - 10.7), migraine. The associated factors for cephalalgia were: female sex (OR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.4 - 3.4), Common Mental Disorder (OR = 2.8; 95%CI 1.7 - 4.9), vision impairment (OR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.6 - 4.2), besides back pain (OR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.3 - 3.5), sinusitis (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2 - 3.4) and incomplete elementary education (OR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.6 - 5.6). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of headache among adolescents in the city of São Paulo represented more than 1/3 (one third) of this population. The main associated factors were sex, low schooling and the following comorbidities: common mental disorder and vision impairment.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678557

RESUMO

Migraine is the most common chronic neurological disease. Migraine is in the top 5 causes that reduce the quality of life. In recent years, neuromodulation techniques are successfully used with primary headaches. Several variants of non-invasive neuromodulation have been shown to be effective in various forms of migraine. This review analyzes clinical trials and case reports of the effectiveness and safety of non-invasive stimulation of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve in migraine.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Cefaleia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Neurol India ; 68(3): 560-572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643664

RESUMO

COVID-19, in most patients, presents with mild flu-like illness. Elderly patients with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, are more likely to have severe disease and deaths. Neurological complications are frequently reported in severely or critically ill patients with comorbidities. In COVID-19, both central and peripheral nervous systems can be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes the disease COVID-19 and has the potential to invade the brain. The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the brain either via a hematogenous route or olfactory system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme two receptors, present on endothelial cells of cerebral vessels, are a possible viral entry point. The most severe neurological manifestations, altered sensorium (agitation, delirium, and coma), are because of hypoxic and metabolic abnormalities. Characteristic cytokine storm incites severe metabolic changes and multiple organ failure. Profound coagulopathies may manifest with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Rarely, SARS-CoV-2 virus encephalitis or pictures like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or acute necrotizing encephalopathy have been reported. Nonspecific headache is a commonly experienced neurological symptom. A new type of headache "personal protection equipment-related headache" has been described. Complete or partial anosmia and ageusia are common peripheral nervous system manifestations. Recently, many cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19 patients have been observed, and a postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory process was held responsible for this. Guillain-Barré syndrome does respond to intravenous immunoglobulin. Myalgia/fatigue is also common, and elevated creatine kinase levels indicate muscle injury. Most of the reports about neurological complications are currently from China. COVID-19 pandemic is spreading to other parts of the world; the spectrum of neurological complications is likely to widen further.


Assuntos
Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Coma/etiologia , Coma/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/etiologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/sangue , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/imunologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013665, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some people with SARS-CoV-2 infection remain asymptomatic, whilst in others the infection can cause mild to moderate COVID-19 disease and COVID-19 pneumonia, leading some patients to require intensive care support and, in some cases, to death, especially in older adults. Symptoms such as fever or cough, and signs such as oxygen saturation or lung auscultation findings, are the first and most readily available diagnostic information. Such information could be used to either rule out COVID-19 disease, or select patients for further diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms to determine if a person presenting in primary care or to hospital outpatient settings, such as the emergency department or dedicated COVID-19 clinics, has COVID-19 disease or COVID-19 pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: On 27 April 2020, we undertook electronic searches in the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the University of Bern living search database, which is updated daily with published articles from PubMed and Embase and with preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible if they included patients with suspected COVID-19 disease, or if they recruited known cases with COVID-19 disease and controls without COVID-19. Studies were eligible when they recruited patients presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. Studies including patients who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection while admitted to hospital were not eligible. The minimum eligible sample size of studies was 10 participants. All signs and symptoms were eligible for this review, including individual signs and symptoms or combinations. We accepted a range of reference standards including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), clinical expertise, imaging, serology tests and World Health Organization (WHO) or other definitions of COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently selected all studies, at both title and abstract stage and full-text stage. They resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently extracted data and resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias using the QUADAS-2 checklist. Analyses were descriptive, presenting sensitivity and specificity in paired forest plots, in ROC (receiver operating characteristic) space and in dumbbell plots. We did not attempt meta-analysis due to the small number of studies, heterogeneity across studies and the high risk of bias. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 16 studies including 7706 participants in total. Prevalence of COVID-19 disease varied from 5% to 38% with a median of 17%. There were no studies from primary care settings, although we did find seven studies in outpatient clinics (2172 participants), and four studies in the emergency department (1401 participants). We found data on 27 signs and symptoms, which fall into four different categories: systemic, respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular. No studies assessed combinations of different signs and symptoms and results were highly variable across studies. Most had very low sensitivity and high specificity; only six symptoms had a sensitivity of at least 50% in at least one study: cough, sore throat, fever, myalgia or arthralgia, fatigue, and headache. Of these, fever, myalgia or arthralgia, fatigue, and headache could be considered red flags (defined as having a positive likelihood ratio of at least 5) for COVID-19 as their specificity was above 90%, meaning that they substantially increase the likelihood of COVID-19 disease when present. Seven studies carried a high risk of bias for selection of participants because inclusion in the studies depended on the applicable testing and referral protocols, which included many of the signs and symptoms under study in this review. Five studies only included participants with pneumonia on imaging, suggesting that this is a highly selected population. In an additional four studies, we were unable to assess the risk for selection bias. These factors make it very difficult to determine the diagnostic properties of these signs and symptoms from the included studies. We also had concerns about the applicability of these results, since most studies included participants who were already admitted to hospital or presenting to hospital settings. This makes these findings less applicable to people presenting to primary care, who may have less severe illness and a lower prevalence of COVID-19 disease. None of the studies included any data on children, and only one focused specifically on older adults. We hope that future updates of this review will be able to provide more information about the diagnostic properties of signs and symptoms in different settings and age groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The individual signs and symptoms included in this review appear to have very poor diagnostic properties, although this should be interpreted in the context of selection bias and heterogeneity between studies. Based on currently available data, neither absence nor presence of signs or symptoms are accurate enough to rule in or rule out disease. Prospective studies in an unselected population presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings, examining combinations of signs and symptoms to evaluate the syndromic presentation of COVID-19 disease, are urgently needed. Results from such studies could inform subsequent management decisions such as self-isolation or selecting patients for further diagnostic testing. We also need data on potentially more specific symptoms such as loss of sense of smell. Studies in older adults are especially important.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Avaliação de Sintomas , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/etiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Mialgia/etiologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Exame Físico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viés de Seleção , Avaliação de Sintomas/classificação , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012824, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges, the layers that protect the brain and spinal cord. Acute meningitis is an emergent disease that develops over the course of hours to several days. Delay in treatment can lead to serious outcomes. Inflammation of the meninges is assessed by analysing cerebrospinal fluid. Identifying the pathogen in cerebrospinal fluid is another way to diagnose meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid is collected by doing a lumbar puncture, which is an invasive test, and can be avoided if a physical examination excludes the diagnosis of meningitis. However, most physical examinations, such as nuchal rigidity, Kernig's test, and Brudzinski's test, are not sufficiently sensitive to exclude meningitis completely. Jolt accentuation of headache is a new and less well-recognised physical examination, which assesses meningeal irritation. It is judged as positive if the headache is exacerbated by rotating the head horizontally two or three times per second. A 1991 observational study initially reported high sensitivity of this examination to predict pleocytosis. Pleocytosis, an abnormally high cerebrospinal fluid sample white cell count, is an accepted indicator of nervous system infection or inflammation. Jolt accentuation of headache may therefore accurately rule out meningitis without the use of lumbar puncture. However, more recent cross-sectional studies have reported variable diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of jolt accentuation of headache for detecting acute meningitis in emergency settings. Secondary objectives: to investigate the sources of heterogeneity, including study population, patient condition, and types of meningitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), and Embase (Elsevier) to 27 April 2020. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Ichushi-Web Version 5.0 to 28 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cross-sectional studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of jolt accentuation of headache for people with suspected meningitis in emergency settings. We included participants of any age and any severity of illness. Meningitis should be diagnosed with any reference standard, such as cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, proof of causative agents, or autopsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently collated study data. We assessed methodological quality of studies using QUADAS-2 criteria. We used a bivariate random-effects model to determine summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity where meta-analysis was possible. We performed sensitivity analyses to validate the robustness of outcomes. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine studies (1161 participants). Five studies included only adults. Four studies included both adults and children; however, the proportion was not reported in three of these studies. The youngest child reported in the studies was aged 13 years. There was no study including only children. The reference standard was pleocytosis in eight studies, and the combination of pleocytosis and increased protein in the cerebrospinal fluid in one study. Two studies also used smear or positive culture of cerebrospinal fluid. Risk of bias and concern about applicability was high in the participant selection domain for all included studies and the consciousness subgroup. Overall, pooled sensitivity was 65.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.3 to 85.6), and pooled specificity was 70.4% (95% CI 47.7 to 86.1) (very low-certainty evidence). We established the possibility of heterogeneity from visual inspection of forest plots. However, we were unable to conduct further analysis for study population, types of meningitis, and participants' condition, other than disturbance of consciousness (a secondary outcome). Amongst participants whose consciousness was undisturbed (8 studies, 921 participants), pooled sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% (95% CI 54.3 to 88.6) and 60.8% (95% CI 43.4 to 75.9), respectively (very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Jolt accentuation for headache may exclude diagnoses of meningitis in emergency settings, but high-quality evidence to support use of this test is lacking. Even where jolt accentuation of headache is negative, there is still the possibility of acute meningitis. This review identified the possibility of heterogeneity. However, factors that contribute to heterogeneity are incompletely understood, and should be considered in future research.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Meningite/diagnóstico , Exame Físico/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , Intervalos de Confiança , Procedimentos Clínicos , Progressão da Doença , Emergências , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Cefaleia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Leucocitose/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite/complicações , Rotação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Neurol Sci ; 41(7): 1667-1671, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483687

RESUMO

RESULTS: Various neurological manifestations have been reported in the literature associated with COVID-19, which in the current study are classified into Central Nervous System (CNS) related manifestations including headache, dizziness, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) related manifestations such as hyposmia/anosmia, hypogeusia/ageusia, muscle pain, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. CONCLUSION: During the current context of COVID-19 pandemic, physicians should be aware of wide spectrum of neurological COVID-19 sign and symptoms for early diagnosis and isolation of patients. In this regard, COVID-19 has been associated with many neurological manifestations such as confusion, anosmia, and ageusia. Also, various evidences support the possible CNS roles in the COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this regard, further investigation of CNS involvement of SARS-COV-2 is suggested.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cefaleia/complicações , Cefaleia/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
10.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 42-45, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532937

RESUMO

In addition to the conventional respiratory symptoms, patients with COVID-19 can exhibit neurological complications. In this concise review, we aim to report the most frequent neurologic manifestations related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. SARS-CoV2 can reach the central nervous system from the bloodstream or olfactory pathway by binding ACE-2 receptor and the spike protein protease TMPRSS2. Headache is reported in more than 10% of affected patients and loss of smell and taste disturbance are reported in a slightly smaller percentage of cases. Acute cerebrovascular events are diagnosed in less than 3% of COVID-19 patients, but those with more severe manifestations have cerebrovascular events in more than 6% of the cases, as reported by two retrospective studies from Italy and China. Moreover, five cases of large-vessel stroke have been described in low-symptomatic COVID-19 patients aging less than 50 years suggesting that SARS-CoV2 can be associated with an increase of the risk of stroke in relatively young people. Peripheral nerve diseases can be observed after an apparently uneventful SARS-CoV2. Based on a literature review, nine patients experienced Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and 6 of these needed mechanical ventilation. Two more cases have been described with Miller-Fisher syndrome or polyneuritis cranialis, both had rapidly resolving symptoms. In conclusion, nervous system symptoms can be observed during SARS-CoV2 infection of which headache and smell and taste disturbance are the main symptoms reported. Cerebrovascular complications can complicate the course of COVID-19 in apparently low-risk patients. GBS is a life-threatening manifestation of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Miller Fisher/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S101-S103, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515379

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has turned out to be a formidable pandemic. Upcoming evidence from confirmed cases of COVID-19 suggests an anticipated incursion of patients with neurological manifestations in the weeks to come. An expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2 over the glial cells and neurons have made the brain a potential target. Neurotoxicity may occur as a result of direct, indirect and post-infectious complications. Attention to neurological deficits in COVID-19 is fundamental to ensure appropriate, timely, beneficial management of the affected patients. Most common neurological manifestations seen include dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, ataxia, and seizures. Anosmia and ageusia have recently been hinted as significant early symptoms in COVID-19. As cases with neurological deficits in COVID-19 emerge, the overall prognosis is yet unknown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cefaleia/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Transtornos das Sensações/virologia , Ataxia/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Mialgia/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/virologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20362, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481330

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Late complement deficiency increases susceptibility to meningococcal disease and recurrent infections. In Korea, 5 case reports have described meningococcal disease with complement deficiency. However, C6 deficiency has not been described previously. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 21-year-old police trainee presented with recurrent meningococcal meningitis. He was housed in communal living quarters until 20 days before the initial symptom onset. DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis with C6 deficiency. INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. An additional dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine was administered after discharge. OUTCOMES: He was discharged without complications. LESSONS: Screening for complement deficiency is necessary in patients with a history of recurrent meningococcal infections to provide appropriate care and prevent recurrent infections.


Assuntos
Complemento C6/deficiência , Meningite Meningocócica/diagnóstico , Complemento C6/imunologia , Exantema/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Meningite Meningocócica/imunologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/normas , Vacinas Meningocócicas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(6)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540882

RESUMO

A 41-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with acute behavioural disruption on the background of a 1-day history of severe headache and a 10-day history of dry cough and fever. He was sexually disinhibited with pressured speech and grandiose ideas. His behaviour worsened, necessitating heavy sedation and transfer to intensive care for mechanical ventilation despite no respiratory indication. Investigations confirmed that he was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Neuroimaging and a lumbar puncture were normal. Initial screening for SARS-CoV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid was negative although no validated assay was available. The patient's mental state remained abnormal following stepdown from intensive care. Psychiatric assessment found features consistent with acute mania, and he was detained under the Mental Health Act. This case indicates the need to consider COVID-19 in a wider series of clinical presentations and to develop a validated assay for SARS-CoV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Clonazepam/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Olanzapina/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Agitação Psicomotora , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/tratamento farmacológico , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(05-06): 213-216, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579312

RESUMO

The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo-gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu-rysm and "normal aneurysm wall" was described. The brain stem haemorrhage - Duret bleeding - was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/irrigação sanguínea , Hematoma Subdural/etiologia , Hematoma Subdural/cirurgia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Angiografia Cerebral , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Neurologia ; 35(6): 372-380, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on healthcare systems. Spain, where headache is the main reason for outpatient neurology consultation, is one of the countries with the most reported cases of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on headache units in Spain and to evaluate how neurologists see the future of these units. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of headache units during the sixth week of the state of alarm declared in Spain in response to the pandemic. RESULTS: The response rate was 74%, with the participation of centres with different characteristics and from all Autonomous Communities of Spain. Limitations in face-to-face activity were reported by 95.8% of centres, with preferential face-to-face consultation being maintained in 60.4%, and urgent procedures in 45.8%. In 91.7% of centres, the cancelled face-to-face activity was replaced by telephone consultation. 95.8% of respondents stated that they would use personal protection equipment in the future, and 86% intended to increase the use of telemedicine. The majority foresaw an increase in waiting lists (93.8% for initial consultations, 89.6% for follow-up, and 89.4% for procedures) and a worse clinical situation for patients, but only 15% believed that their healthcare structures would be negatively affected in the future. CONCLUSIONS: As a consequence of the pandemic, headache care and research activity has reduced considerably. This demonstrates the need for an increase in the availability of telemedicine in our centres in the near future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cefaleia/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Previsões , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Espanha/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
16.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(696): e444-e449, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) are being treated empirically with oseltamivir, but there is little evidence from randomised controlled trials to support the treatment of coronavirus infections with oseltamivir. AIM: To determine whether adding oseltamivir to usual care reduces time to recovery in symptomatic patients who have tested positive for coronavirus (not including SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN AND SETTING: Exploratory analysis of data from an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial during three influenza seasons, from 2016 to 2018, in primary care research networks, in 15 European countries. METHOD: Patients aged ≥1 year presenting to primary care with influenza-like illness (ILI), and who tested positive for coronavirus (not including SARS-CoV-2), were randomised to usual care or usual care plus oseltamivir. The primary outcome was time to recovery defined as a return to usual activities, with minor or absent fever, headache, and muscle ache. RESULTS: Coronaviruses (CoV-229E, CoV-OC43, CoV-KU1 and CoV-NL63) were identified in 308 (9%) out of 3266 randomised participants in the trial; 153 of these were allocated to usual care and 155 to usual care plus oseltamivir; the primary outcome was ascertained in 136 and 147 participants, respectively. The median time to recovery was shorter in patients randomised to oseltamivir: 4 days (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6) versus 5 days (IQR 3-8; hazard ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.66; P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Primary care patients with ILI testing positive for coronavirus (not including SARS-CoV-2) recovered sooner when oseltamivir was added to usual care compared with usual care alone. This may be of relevance to the primary care management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Cefaleia/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482781
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 378, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain abscesses are the rare and most severe form of actinomycosis, which usually manifests as abscesses of the occipital or parietal lobe due to direct expansion from an adjacent area, the oral cavity. In the medical literature, there are only a few reported cases of brain abscess caused by Actinomyces meyeri. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient who experienced an insidious headache and left-sided weakness and was diagnosed with an Actinomyces meyeri brain abscess. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Nepalese man came to our institute with the primary complaint of insidious onset of headache and left-sided weakness. His physical examination was remarkable for the left-sided weakness with power 2/5 on both upper and lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia and positive Babinski sign, with intact sensory function. Cardiac examination revealed systolic murmur with regular S1 and S2, and lung examination was normal. The patient had poor dental hygiene. Biochemistry and haematology panel were normal. Urinalysis, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram revealed no abnormality. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation. However, there was no evidence of valvular vegetation. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed, which showed a bi-lobed rim enhancing lesion with a conglomeration of two adjoining round lesions in the right parietal parasagittal region. Perilesional oedema resulting in mass effect over the right lateral ventricle and mid-right uncal herniation with midline shift was noted. Craniotomy was performed, and the lesion was excised. Gram staining of the extracted sample revealed gram variable filamentous rods. Creamy white, moist, confluent colonies were observed after performing anaerobic culture in chocolate agar. On the gram staining, they showed gram-positive filamentous rods. Actinomyces meyeri was identified based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology. Based on the susceptibilities, he was successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Actinomyces should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain abscess in patients with poor dental hygiene, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to better results.


Assuntos
Actinomyces/isolamento & purificação , Actinomicose/microbiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Actinomyces/genética , Actinomyces/fisiologia , Actinomicose/diagnóstico , Actinomicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Radiografia
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