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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5269, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667417

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate aspects of eating behavior, presence of non-food substance consumption and negative urgency in women from an on-line support group for eating disorders. Methods Participants (n=147) completed questionnaires for binge eating assessment, Intuitive Eating, negative urgency, cognitive restraint and a question of non-food substance consumption. Participants were separated according to criteria for bulimic symptoms and compulsive symptoms. Results The consumption of non-food substances was 4.8% (n=7). The Bulimic Group (n=61) showed higher values for binge eating (p=0.01), cognitive restraint (p=0.01) and negative urgency (p=0.01) compared with the Compulsive Group (n=86). Only the Compulsive Group showed an inverse correlation between scores for binge eating and Intuitive Eating (p=0.01). In both groups, binge eating was inversely correlated with the subscale of body-food choice congruence of Intuitive Eating scale. As expected, the Bulimic Group reached higher values for measures of disordered behaviors such as cognitive restraint and binge eating, and lower scores for Intuitive Eating. Conclusion The aspects of Intuitive Eating are inversely associated with compulsive and bulimic symptoms and the correlation analyses for binge eating and negative urgency agreed with models reported in published literature about negative urgency.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pica/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 32-39, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340835

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to quantify the association between perceived everyday discrimination and binge eating among Latinas in the United States. METHODS: Participants included 1014 Latinas from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study. Modified Poisson models with robust standard errors were used to estimate sociodemographic-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of binge eating associated with overall and attribution-specific discrimination. RESULTS: Approximately 7% of Latinas reported binge eating. Increased frequency of discrimination was associated with a higher prevalence of binge eating (aPR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.23-2.06), and Latinas reporting frequencies of discrimination in the top tertile had the greatest prevalence elevation (aPR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-10.00). There were important differences by discrimination attribution: Latinas experiencing primarily height/weight-based or skin color-based discrimination had the greatest prevalence elevation relative to those reporting no discrimination (aPR, 10.24; 95% CI, 2.95-35.51; and aPR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.08-37.54, respectively), whereas Latinas reporting primarily race-based discrimination had the lowest prevalence elevation (aPR, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.47-5.69). CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination may be an important social determinant of Latinas' binge eating. Future research should incorporate expanded conceptual models that account for Latinas' complex social environment, focusing on intersecting dimensions of identity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bulimia/etnologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Meio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101337, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorder symptoms change in a predictable pattern over the menstrual cycle such that changes in symptoms are triggered by changes in the ovarian hormones estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). To date, work in this area has focused exclusively on young adult women. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of E2 and P4 on eating disorder symptom change in midlife women during early perimenopause. METHOD: Participants included women aged 42-52 in early perimenopause (n=8). In-home self-assessments were completed for one menstrual cycle or 40-days, whichever occurred first. In-home self-assessments included collecting saliva samples each morning for E2 and P4 assays and completing online study questionnaires at the end of each day. Multilevel regression models examined the associations of E2 and P4 with daily symptoms of binge eating and body dissatisfaction. RESULTS: E2 was positively associated with binge eating when P4 was high, but not when P4 was low. E2 was inversely associated with body dissatisfaction when P4 was low, but positively associated with body dissatisfaction when P4 was high. However, the simple slopes for the effect of E2 at both high and low P4 were not significant for body dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the pilot nature of this study, results are broadly consistent with the young adult literature indicating that P4 levels shape the impact of E2 on eating disorder symptoms. Larger studies with the inclusion of key moderators to account for individual heterogeneity are needed to confirm and extend these findings.


Assuntos
Bulimia/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Menopausa/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 426-435, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767803

RESUMO

The authors summarize their experiences collected from psychotherapeutic treatment of anorectic and bulimic patients treated at the outpatient and inpatient clinics of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University in the period of 1984-2008. The introduction provides an overview of the literature, that represents a theoretical background to their therapeutic strategies. Afterwards, insights are given about the authors own treatment strategies, that varied, although only slightly in different time periods. Therapeutic outcomes are summarized separately for groups of restrictive and purging anorexia patients, bulimia patients and bulimia patients suffering from other impulse control problems. Results are evaluated on the basis of clinical assessments, symptomatic reductions of eating disorders after treatment, and based on two years follow-up data. Finally results are analysed critically, concerning the used methods and further opportunities for relapse prevention.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/história , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Psiquiatria/história , Universidades/história , Anorexia Nervosa/história , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia/história , Bulimia/terapia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Psicoterapia/história
6.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 31(12): 741-746, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Binge eating (BE) has been linked to the development of eating disorders and obesity, and it has been reported in college women. Few studies investigate BE by weight category. The purpose of this study was to examine BE in "normal" weight college women. METHODS: Secondary analysis of Web-based survey at a private university in the northeastern United States. RESULTS: Sample was 317 female subjects, 75.4% were White. Binge eating was reported by 99 women (31.2%); 7.6% of binge eaters were underweight, 73.5% normal weight, 15.3% overweight, and 4.1% obese. Normal weight binge eaters were more likely to purge (x = 6.830; p = .033) and overexercise (x = 15.179, p = .019). All binge eaters reported feeling sad, guilty, or distressed after eating and weight dissatisfaction. Normal weight binge eaters reported negative affect before (x = 33.187; p < .001) and after eating (x = 36.329; p < .001) more frequently than normal weight non-binge eaters. Normal weight binge eaters more often described themselves as overweight when compared with normal weight non-binge eaters (x = 9.267; p = .026). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nearly one third of college women report BE, the majority are of normal weight. These women are more likely to engage in compensatory mechanisms and have distorted body image and a negative affective state with eating. Findings highlight the importance of screening for BE in college women regardless of weight.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudantes/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Bulimia/enfermagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary factors have significant effects on the brain, modulating mood, anxiety, motivation and cognition. To date, no attention has been paid to the consequences that the combination of ethanol (EtOH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) have on learning and mood disorders during adolescence. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biochemical and behavioral consequences of ethanol binge drinking and an HFD consumption in adolescent mice. METHODS: Animals received either a standard diet or an HFD (ad libitum vs. binge pattern) in combination with ethanol binge drinking and were evaluated in anxiety and memory. The metabolic profile and gene expression of leptin receptors and clock genes were also evaluated. RESULTS: Excessive white adipose tissue and an increase in plasma insulin and leptin levels were mainly observed in ad libitum HFD + EtOH mice. An upregulation of the Lepr gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus was also observed in ad libitum HFD groups. EtOH-induced impairment on spatial memory retrieval was absent in mice exposed to an HFD, although the aversive memory deficits persisted. Mice bingeing on an HFD only showed an anxiolytic profile, without other alterations. We also observed a mismatch between Clock and Bmal1 expression in ad libitum HFD animals, which were mostly independent of EtOH bingeing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the bidirectional influence that occurs between the composition and intake pattern of a HFD and ethanol consumption during adolescence, even when the metabolic, behavioral and chronobiological effects of this interaction are dissociated.


Assuntos
Bulimia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Etanol/toxicidade , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Proteínas CLOCK/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtornos do Humor/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(11): 1874-1882, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amphetamine was formerly used as a treatment to combat obesity, but amphetamine's use as an appetite suppressant was discontinued because of its significant abuse potential. Most of the rewarding and reinforcing effects of amphetamine differ by sex, with females showing higher levels of drug intake and amphetamine-induced motivation, relapse, and locomotion, but it is unknown whether amphetamine's effects on feeding also differ by sex. Furthermore, previous research on the anorectic effects of amphetamine has been focused primarily on its effects on baseline homeostatic feeding, but it is unknown whether amphetamine also affects hedonic, reward-related feeding, which is an important factor driving the rise in obesity levels. METHODS: This study tested whether amphetamine alters food intake in a sex-dependent manner in two reward-related feeding paradigms: a sucrose two-bottle choice test and a high-fat/high-sugar binge intake model. RESULTS: Amphetamine altered food intake equally in males and females in both paradigms, with higher doses significantly inhibiting feeding and low doses of amphetamine increasing feeding at later time points. CONCLUSIONS: Amphetamine's effects on feeding and drug reward may be mediated by distinct mechanisms, which could allow for the development of new approaches to combat obesity with limited abuse and addiction-related side effects.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/farmacologia , Bulimia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Animais , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Bulimia/induzido quimicamente , Bulimia/metabolismo , Bulimia/prevenção & controle , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(6): 1063-1070, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: "Making weight" behaviors are unhealthy weight control strategies intended to reduce weight in an effort to meet weight requirements. This study aimed to examine a brief measure of making weight and to investigate the relationship between making weight and weight, binge eating, and eating pathology later in life. METHODS: Participants were veterans [N = 120, mean age 61.7, mean body mass index (BMI) 38.0, 89.2% male, 74.2% Caucasian] who were overweight/obese and seeking weight management treatment. Participants completed the making weight inventory (MWI), a measure of making weight behaviors engaged in during military service, and validated measures of eating behavior. Analyses compared participants who engaged in at least one making weight behavior (MWI+) versus those who did not (MWI-). RESULTS: The MWI had good internal consistency. One-third of participants were MWI+ and two-thirds were MWI-. The most frequently reported behavior was excessive exercise, reported in one-quarter of the sample, followed by fasting/skipping meals, sauna/rubber suit, laxatives, diuretics, and vomiting. MWI+ participants were significantly more likely to be in a younger cohort of veterans, to be an ethnic/racial minority, and to engage in current maladaptive eating behaviors, including binge eating, vomiting, emotional eating, food addiction, and night eating, compared to the MWI- group. Groups did not differ on BMI. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of veterans who were overweight/obese screened positive for engaging in making weight behaviors during military service. Findings provide evidence that efforts to "make weight" are related to binge eating and eating pathology later in life. Future research and clinical efforts should address how to best eliminate unhealthy weight control strategies in military service while also supporting healthy weight management efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Militares , Veteranos , Perda de Peso , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Diuréticos , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laxantes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Banho a Vapor , Vômito
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 944-946, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474079

RESUMO

To explore the mediating role of psychological resilience to childhood abuse and binge eating. This study assessed the childhood abuse, binge eating and psychological resilience of 3 453 middle school students in Harbin city, Heilongjiang Province. SPSS PROCESS macro program, combined with Bootstrap method, was employed to explore the mediating effect of psychological resilience. The incidence of middle school students experiencing at least one type of abuse in their childhood was 81.3% (2 807/3 453). Childhood abuse, psychological resilience and binge eating were all significantly different in terms of gender, household registration and whether they were only child (all P values<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between childhood abuse and binge eating. Psychological resilience was negatively associated with childhood abuse and binge eating. Childhood abuse could not only directly predict the binge eating behavior of adolescents, but also could indirectly affect it via psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(11): e13401, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While physical activity (PA) is known to have positive effects on psychological and physical health, little is understood about the association between non-compensatory PA (ie, not compulsive or intended to control weight or shape) and psychopathology among individuals with eating-disorder features. The present study explored associations between non-compensatory PA and psychopathology among adults categorised with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED). We further explored the association between compensatory PA and psychopathology among those who engaged in that form of "purging." METHOD: Participants were recruited through Mechanical Turk, an online recruitment platform. Individuals categorised with core features of BED (N = 138) and BN (N = 138) completed measures of eating-disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire [EDE-Q] and Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - 5), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire - 2) and PA (both non-compensatory and compensatory, measured using the EDE-Q and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire). RESULTS: Engagement in non-compensatory PA was associated with lower frequency of binge-eating episodes, lower overvaluation of shape/weight and lower dissatisfaction with shape/weight (Ps < .05). Engagement in compensatory PA was related to greater frequency of binge-eating episodes and greater restraint (Ps < .05). DISCUSSION: Non-compensatory PA was associated with lower eating-disorder psychopathology. This suggests that PA is an important, though understudied, health behaviour among persons with features of BED and BN. Future research should examine the potential role of non-compensatory PA in interventions for individuals with core features of these eating disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 144: 40-46, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415796

RESUMO

Individuals with eating disorders have exhibited both positive and negative emotional responses to food when assessed via self-report and psychophysiology. These mixed findings may be explained by a lack of association between self-report and physiological measures, and the degree of association may differ based on core eating disorder symptoms like dietary restriction and binge eating. Women from the community (N = 82) were recruited based on the presence or absence of dietary restriction and binge eating. We examined the startle eyeblink reflex, a physiological measure of defensive motivation, in relation to self-reported valence, arousal, and craving ratings of emotional (positive, neutral, negative) and food (high- and low-calorie) images. Dietary restriction and binge eating were investigated as moderators of self-report/physiology relationships. Replicating extant literature, valence ratings of emotional images were correlated with startle blink reflex magnitude, with more unpleasant ratings related to higher startle eyeblink reflex magnitudes. Increased craving, but not valence, ratings of food images were related to lower startle blink reflex magnitudes. Dietary restriction and binge eating did not moderate the relationship between self-report ratings and startle blink magnitude to food. Our findings suggest that self-reported appetitive motivation towards food relates to a decrease in physiologically measured aversion towards food. Future research should examine the extent to which self-report ratings correlate with physiological indices of positive emotion (e.g., postauricular reflex, zygomaticus major) during the viewing of food images in both patients with eating disorders and healthy controls.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Alimentos , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 451-462, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling disorder (GD) and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) may commonly co-occur. Yet, the psychiatric correlates of these co-occurring disorders are an untapped area of empirical scrutiny, limiting our understanding of appropriate treatment modalities for this dual-diagnosed population. This study examined the demographic and clinical correlates of CSB in a sample of treatment-seeking individuals with GD (N = 368) in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Psychiatrists and psychologists conducted semi-structured clinical interviews to identify rates of CSB and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire was administered to assess additional addictive behaviors. The TCI and BIS-11 were used to assess facets of personality. Demographic and gambling variables were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 24 (6.5%) met diagnostic criteria for comorbid CSB (GD + CSB). Compared to those without compulsive sexual behaviors (GD - CSB), individuals with GD + CSB were more likely to be younger and male. No differences in gambling involvement emerged. Individuals with GD + CSB tended to have higher rates of psychiatric disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and bulimia nervosa) and engage in more addictive behaviors (problematic alcohol use, drug use, and exercise) compared to GD - CSB. Those with GD + CSB evidenced less self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, and greater motor impulsivity. Logistic regression showed that the predictors of GD + CSB, which remained in the final model, were being male, a diagnosis of bulimia, greater gambling severity, and less self-transcendence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Given those with GD + CSB evidence greater psychopathology, greater attention should be allocated to this often under studied comorbid condition to ensure adequate treatment opportunities.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1598-1605, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A substantial amount of literature has suggested that weight stigma impairs health. Evidence on gender differences in weight stigma has been mixed, but studies of weight stigma within men have been primarily absent from the literature. METHODS: In two samples of men recruited nationally from across the United States (N = 1,753), participants completed self-report measures assessing their height, weight, demographics, weight stigma (experienced and internalized), psychological well-being (depression), health behaviors (sleep, alcohol, smoking, binge eating, dieting, physical activity), and self-rated health. RESULTS: Regression analyses showed that, independent of race, socioeconomic status, and BMI, experienced weight stigma and weight bias internalization among men were associated with poor health, including greater depressive symptoms, increased dieting, lower self-reported health, and increased odds of binge eating. Neither internalized nor experienced weight stigma was consistently associated with physical activity, smoking, drinking, or trouble sleeping. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both experienced and internalized weight stigma are associated with several indices of poor health in men. It may be informative for future work to examine how men cope with weight stigma, particularly if certain coping responses to stigma involve behaviors that contribute to poorer health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Estigma Social , Preconceito de Peso , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Preconceito de Peso/psicologia , Preconceito de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(8)2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451453

RESUMO

This report discusses a case of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome in a previously healthy 15-year-old boy with no weight loss or other common risk factors. The patient presented to the emergency department with acute bilious vomiting and epigastric pain after acute consumption of a meal and excessive quantities of water. The patient was diagnosed with SMA syndrome based on the findings of contrasted CT of the abdomen. In early puberty, boys have a significant increase in lean body mass and a concomitant loss of adipose tissues. These pubertal changes lead to a narrowing of the aortomesenteric space. The acute consumption of food and water caused a transient obstruction at the already-narrowed space, which resulted in the manifestation of SMA syndrome. This case demonstrates that pubertal growth spurt is a risk factor for SMA syndrome, and acute excessive ingestion can trigger SMA syndrome among those in puberty.


Assuntos
Bulimia/complicações , Puberdade/fisiologia , Síndrome da Artéria Mesentérica Superior , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Síndrome da Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Artéria Mesentérica Superior/etiologia , Síndrome da Artéria Mesentérica Superior/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Artéria Mesentérica Superior/prevenção & controle , Vômito/diagnóstico , Vômito/etiologia
16.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(4): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379379

RESUMO

AIM: To provide a review of the clinically relevant evidence pertaining to the use of trazodone in major depressive disorder. METHODS: Medline and Cochrane Library searches were searched using the keywords 'trazodone' AND 'depression', to identify the most relevant literature pertinent to the pharmacological properties of trazodone and its use in clinical practice. Articles that were selected included basic pharmacology papers, clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, and reviews. Related references were cross checked. European and United States prescribing information was reviewed as well. An effort was made to give weight to the information that was most relevant for daily clinical practice. RESULTS: Trazodone is an antidepressant with a mechanism of action that remains innovative and with a favorable profile for the treatment of depression. The appropriate antidepressant doses are usually 150-300 mg/day and are often higher than the doses that are used when trazodone is prescribed to augment the antidepressant effect of another medication, for instance when trazodone is prescribed to address insomnia in a patient treated with an SSRI. Trazodone is usually well tolerated and has a low risk of anticholinergic side effects, weight gain and sexual side effects. DISCUSSION: Trazodone is an established medication that is efficacious for the treatment of a broad array of depressive symptoms, including symptoms that are less likely to respond to other antidepressants (e.g. SSRI), such as insomnia. As an antidepressant, trazodone has proven as efficacious as the tricyclic and second-generation antidepressants and is tolerated relatively well. Trazodone may be helpful for patients with major depression and comorbid insomnia, anxiety or psychomotor agitation. CONCLUSIONS: Trazodone is efficacious antidepressants with a relatively low risks of side effects such as weight gain, sexual or anticholinergic effects (such as constipation, urinary retention, dry mouth). In addition to being able to control a wide range of depressive symptoms, trazodone may improve sleep and be particularly helpful for patients whose symptoms of depression include insomnia.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Trazodona , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/metabolismo , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Bulimia/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Interações Medicamentosas , Fibromialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Trazodona/efeitos adversos , Trazodona/metabolismo , Trazodona/farmacologia , Trazodona/uso terapêutico
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1617-1626, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Binge-eating disorder is associated with diminished self-control, emotional distress, and obesity. In this context, women are nearly twice as likely to develop binge-eating disorder and depression relative to men. Here, the physiological, psychological, and endocrine parameters were characterized in female rats subjected to a binge-eating protocol. METHODS: Nonrestricted female Long Evans rats (n = 8/group) received 2-hour restricted access to a high-fat diet (HFD) (4.54 kcal/g) every day or every third day. The progression of estrous cycling, the functional relevance of estrogen signaling for binge feeding, and binge-induced changes in food motivation were measured. RESULTS: Female rats developed a binge pattern of feeding that included alternation between caloric overconsumption and compensatory voluntary restriction without impacting estrous cycling. Notably, rats that received daily HFD exposure progressively decreased binge meals. Estrogen replacement in normal cycling or ovariectomized rats mimicked the reduction in body weight in female rats that received daily HFD access. Operant responding was unaffected by binge feeding; however, estrogen augmented operant performance in HFD-exposed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that estrogen protects against binge-induced increases in body weight gain without affecting food motivation in female rats.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulimia/fisiopatologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bulimia/patologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Refeições , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319502

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for severe obesity, though post-surgical outcomes are variable with respect to long-term weight loss and eating-related psychopathology. Attachment style is an important variable affecting eating psychopathology among individuals with obesity. To date, studies examining eating psychopathology and attachment style in bariatric surgery populations have been limited to pre-surgery samples and cross-sectional study design. The current prospective study sought to determine whether attachment insecurity is associated with binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss outcomes at 2-years post-surgery. Patients (n = 108) completed questionnaires on attachment style (ECR-16), binge eating (BES), emotional eating (EES), depression (PHQ-9), and anxiety (GAD-7). Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between attachment insecurity and 2-years post-surgery disordered eating and percent total weight loss. Female gender was found to be a significant predictor of binge eating (p = 0.007) and emotional eating (p = 0.023) at 2-years post-surgery. Avoidant attachment (p = 0.009) was also found to be a significant predictor of binge eating at 2-years post-surgery. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore attachment style as a predictor of long-term post-operative eating pathology and weight outcomes in bariatric surgery patients.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Bulimia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 27(6): 628-640, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether obese patients with binge eating (BE) have higher alexithymic features; to explore the different relationships between psychological features (alexithymia, depression, and anxiety) and BE. METHOD: Three hundred sixty one obese BE-patients were evaluated for alexithymia, psychological distress, and BE. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); BE was assessed with the BE Scale (BES), and depression and anxiety symptoms were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Patients with BE reported significantly higher TAS-20 total scores than those without BE (p < .001). The SEM analysis showed that the difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF) and difficulty in describing feelings (DDF) components of alexithymia affected BE along different pathways. DIF was found as a major factor influencing altered eating both directly (p = .20*) and above all through the mediation of psychological distress (p = .19***), whereas DDF affected BE only through psychological distress at a lesser extent (p = .09**). DISCUSSION: Alexithymic difficulties in affective awareness may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of BE, especially when patients experienced anxiety and depression symptoms. Clinicians involved in the management of obesity should address the combination of alexithymic traits and emotional distress by planning effective client-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(8): 46, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250219

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present current data on the coexistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults and children and to discuss possible mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data suggest that risk factors for obesity and insulin resistance such as diabetes during pregnancy and intrauterine growth failure may also have a role in the development of ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD and obesity share lifestyle factors, such as abnormal eating patterns, binge eating, and a sedentary lifestyle. ADHD is a risk factor for components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and also hypertension, both in adults and youth. Associations of ADHD with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been ascertained, and various mechanisms have been proposed. Research is needed to decipher the shared genetic, pharmacological, and lifestyle risk factors. Individuals with ADHD should be treated as a high-risk group for cardiometabolic complications.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Bulimia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos
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