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1.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(3): 362-364, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961273

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A free-ranging male bobcat (Lynx rufus) was evaluated because of signs of pelvic limb paralysis. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Physical examination of the anesthetized animal revealed tick infestation, normal mentation, and a lack of evidence of traumatic injuries. Radiography revealed no clinically relevant abnormalities. Hematologic analysis results were generally unremarkable, and serologic tests for exposure to feline coronavirus, FeLV, FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii were negative. Results of PCR assays for flea- and common tick-borne organisms other than Bartonella clarridgeiae were negative. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Ticks were manually removed, and the patient received supportive care and fipronil treatment. The bobcat made a full recovery within 72 hours after treatment for ticks, and a presumptive diagnosis of tick paralysis was made. Identified tick species included Dermacenter variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, and Ixodes scapularis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, tick paralysis has not previously been reported in felids outside Australia. This disease should be considered a differential diagnosis in felids, including exotic cats, with signs of neuromuscular disease of unknown etiopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Lynx , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Bartonella , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Paralisia por Carrapato/diagnóstico
3.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1784-1788, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161701

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tick paralysis has not been reported in horses in North America. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Two American Miniature horses were examined for progressive weakness and recumbency. Numerous ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) were found on both horses. Horse 1 was recumbent (grade 5/5 gait deficit) on presentation, whereas Horse 2 was standing but ataxic (grade 4/5 gait deficit) and tetraparetic. Both horses had decreased tongue and tail muscle tone, and had normal spinal reflexes. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology was normal. Equine herpesvirus-1 testing was negative. PERTINENT INTERVENTIONS: Ticks were removed within 24 hours of presentation. Both horses were treated topically with permethrin. Supportive care included fluid therapy, treatment for corneal ulceration, and frequent repositioning during recumbency. OUTCOME: Within 48 hours of tick removal, both horses were neurologically normal. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ours is the first reported case of presumptive tick paralysis in horses in North America. Although rare, tick paralysis should be considered in horses presented with acute-onset weakness progressing to recumbency.


Assuntos
Dermacentor/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Úlcera da Córnea/terapia , Úlcera da Córnea/veterinária , Feminino , Cavalos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Paralisia por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Paralisia por Carrapato/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 487, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From three days following host attachment, the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, secretes a neurotoxin that annually causes paralysis in approximately 10,000 domestic pets. Lotilaner, a novel isoxazoline formulated in a chewable flavoured tablet (CredelioTM), produces rapid onset of acaricidal activity in dogs, with an efficacy duration of at least one month. Two studies were performed to determine the efficacy of lotilaner against I. holocyclus infestations over 3 months. METHODS: Both studies included 16 dogs, ranked according to I. holocyclus counts on Day -5 (from infestations on Day -8) and blocked into pairs. One dog in each pair was randomized to be a sham-treated control, the other to receive lotilaner at a minimum dose rate of 20 mg/kg on Day 0. Dogs were dosed in a fed state. Infestations were performed in both studies on Days -8 (to determine the tick carrying capacity of each dog) -1, 28, 56, 70, 77 and 84, and additionally in Study 1 on Day 91, in Study 2 on Days 14 and 42. In Study 1, ticks were counted and assessed as alive or dead at 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial infestation and post-subsequent re-infestations. In study 2, ticks were counted at 24, 48 and 72 h post-dosing or post-re-infestation. Efficacy was determined by the percent reduction in live attached tick counts in the lotilaner group compared to control. RESULTS: Within 48 h post-treatment in Study 1 and within 72 h post-treatment in Study 2 all lotilaner-group dogs were free of live ticks. By 72 h post-infestation, efficacy in Study 1 remained at 100% through Day 87, except on Day 31 when a single tick was found on one dog, and through Day 59 in Study 2. Efficacy exceeded 95% through the final assessment in each study (Days 94 and 87 in Studies 1 and 2, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that lotilaner quickly kills existing I. holocyclus infestations. By providing 95.3-100.0% protection through at least 87 days post-treatment, lotilaner can be a valuable tool in reducing the risk of tick paralysis in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 366, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infestation of cats with the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus continues to be a threat because of the paralysis that can result from attachment of just a single tick. The outcome can be fatal, particularly if tick removal and treatment is not initiated soon after the onset of paralysis. However, there are no published studies to guide veterinarians and owners on preventive measures. A study was therefore initiated to determine the efficacy of a systemically-acting, spot-on formulation of fluralaner (Bravecto®) for cats against existing I. holocyclus infestations, and to investigate the duration of protection following a single administration. METHODS: Healthy domestic cats, short or long-hair, immunized against holocyclotoxin, were randomly allocated to two groups of 10 cats per group, to receive either a single topically applied fluralaner treatment or no treatment. Fluralaner treatments were administered on Day 0 at a dose rate of 40 mg/kg. All cats were infested with 10 adult unfed female I. holocyclus on Day -1 and on Days 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84. Ticks were assessed at 24 and 48 h after fluralaner treatment and 24, 48 and 72 hours after each subsequent re-infestation. Ticks were counted but not removed at the 24- and 48-h post-challenge assessments and were removed following the 72-h counts. RESULTS: The efficacy of fluralaner spot-on against an existing I. holocyclus infestation was 100% at 48 h post treatment. Following re-infestations, efficacy remained at 100% at the 72-h assessments for all challenges from Day 14 to Day 84. Differences between mean live tick counts on treated versus control cats were significant at all time points from the first post-treatment assessment (t-test: t(18) = 23.162; P < 0.0001) through the final challenge on Day 84 (t-test: t(18) = 21.153; P < 0.0001). No treatment-related adverse events were observed and there were no abnormal observations at the product application sites. CONCLUSIONS: A single treatment of fluralaner spot-on was well tolerated and provided 100% efficacy against I. holocyclus ticks for at least 84 days. Fluralaner spot-on can be a valuable tool to prevent tick infestation in cats, and to control the risk of I. holocyclus-induced paralysis.


Assuntos
Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Paralisia por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 72(1): 17-24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667376

RESUMO

Tick paralysis is caused by neurotoxins secreted by adult female ticks, primarily in North America and on the east coast of Australia. Sporadic illness is also recorded in Europe and Africa. In the European countries, including Poland, there are 6 species of ticks capable of causing tick paralysis. The disease occurs in people of all ages, but is most commonly diagnosed in children under 8 years of age. Paralysis can take different forms - from rare isolated cranial nerve infections to quadriplegia and respiratory muscles paralysis. After the tick remove, the symptoms resolve spontaneously. In severe cases with paralysis of respiratory muscles, when there is no possibility of mechanical ventilation, the disease may lead to death.


Assuntos
Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paralisia por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Paralisia por Carrapato/patologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 254: 72-77, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657015

RESUMO

In Australia, tick paralysis in dogs (caused by a toxin in the saliva of Ixodes species during feeding) is a serious, distressing condition, and untreated it is often fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between parkland (recreational or natural) in an urban area and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis. Brisbane, as a large urban centre located within the zone of paralysis tick habitat along the east coast of Australia, was selected as the study area. Postcodes selected for inclusion were those defined as being of an urban character (Australian Bureau of Statistics). The number of natural and recreational parkland polygons and total land area per postcode were derived. Tick paralysis case data for the selected postcodes were extracted from a national companion animal disease surveillance database. Between October 2010 and January 2017, 1650 cases of tick paralysis in dogs were reported and included in this study. Significant correlations were found between the number of reported cases per postcode and parklands: natural counts, 0.584 (P < 0.0001); natural area, 0.293 (P = 0.0075); recreational counts, 0.297 (P = 0.0151); and recreational area, 0.241 (P = 0.0286). Four disease clusters were also detected within the study area. All of these were located on the edges of the study area - either coastal or on the urban fringe; no clusters were identified within the core urban zone of the study area. Of the disease cases included in this study, strong seasonality was evidence: 68% of all cases were identified in spring. Within urban environments, areas of natural vegetation in particular appear to pose a risk for tick paralysis in dogs. This evidence can be used by veterinarians and dog owners to reduce the impact of tick paralysis by raising awareness of risk areas so as to enhance prevention via chemoprophylaxis and targeted searches of pet dogs for attached ticks.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Parques Recreativos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia
9.
Cutis ; 101(1): 19;20;36, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529110

RESUMO

Dermacentor ticks are hard ticks found throughout most of North America and are easily identified by their large size, ornate scutum, and prominent dorsal pits. They are important disease vectors and are implicated in transmission of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), Colorado tick fever, tularemia, and erlichiosis. They also are an important cause of fatal tick paralysis.


Assuntos
Dermacentor , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos , Febre do Carrapato do Colorado/diagnóstico , Febre do Carrapato do Colorado/transmissão , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Humanos , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/diagnóstico , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/transmissão , Paralisia por Carrapato/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Tularemia/diagnóstico , Tularemia/transmissão
10.
J Parasitol ; 104(3): 302-305, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412044

RESUMO

We report the importation into Connecticut, U.S.A., of an exotic tick, Hyalomma truncatum (Koch) (Acari: Ixodidae), on a human with recent travel history to Africa. The tick was identified using key morphological characters and through DNA sequencing. This case report highlights continuing risk associated with the importation of exotic tick vectors of medical and veterinary significance on international travelers returning to the United States from abroad.


Assuntos
Ixodidae/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/anatomia & histologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/classificação , Vetores Aracnídeos/ultraestrutura , Botsuana , Connecticut , Pé/parasitologia , Humanos , Ixodidae/anatomia & histologia , Ixodidae/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia , Viagem
11.
Int J Parasitol ; 48(1): 71-82, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989068

RESUMO

The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) secretes neuropathic toxins into saliva that induce host paralysis. Salivary glands and viscera were dissected from fully engorged female I. holocyclus ticks collected from dogs and cats with paralysis symptoms. cDNA from both tissue samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 100 bp pair end read technologies. Unique and non-redundant holocyclotoxin sequences were designated as HT2-HT19, as none were identical to the previously described HT1. Specific binding to rat synaptosomes was determined for synthetic HTs, and their neurotoxic capacity was determined by neonatal mouse assay. They induced a powerful paralysis in neonatal mice, particularly HT4 which produced rapid and strong respiratory distress in all animals tested. This is the first known genomic database developed for the Australian paralysis tick. The database contributed to the identification and subsequent characterization of the holocyclotoxin family that will inform the development of novel anti-paralysis control methods.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes/genética , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ixodes/genética , Neurotoxinas/genética , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Venenos de Artrópodes/química , Venenos de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Austrália , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Ixodes/química , Ixodes/classificação , Ixodes/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neurotoxinas/química , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
12.
J Feline Med Surg ; 20(6): 465-478, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994630

RESUMO

Objectives The objective of this study was to describe seasonality, demographics, presentations, treatments, complications and outcomes for cats with Ixodes holocyclus causing tick paralysis, and to identify risk factors for mortality. Methods This was a retrospective single cohort study with 2077 cases occurring between 2008 and 2016, and presenting to one of four emergency clinics in south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Case mortality at 5 days post-presentation could be determined for 1742 cases, and potential risk factors for mortality were assessed using random-effects logistic regression. Results Cases occurred all year round, but there was a marked seasonal pattern with more cases presenting in spring than any other season. Overall, 54/1742 cases (3%) died by 5 days after presentation. Five day mortality incidence for cases that received polyclonal canine tick antitoxin serum (TAS) and recommended treatment was 28/1410 (2%) vs 4/52 (8%) for cases that did not receive TAS ( P <0.001). Mechanical ventilation was recommended for 131/2077 cases (6%). Where mechanical ventilation was recommended but not implemented, mortality incidence was 15/17 (88%), whereas 4/22 cases (18%) that received mechanical ventilation died by day 5. From multivariable analyses, initial gait score (overall P = 0.047) and body temperature on presentation (overall P <0.001) were independently associated with mortality; cases with higher gait scores and those with body temperatures <35°C were at greater risk of death. Cases that had an adverse reaction to TAS were also more likely to die ( P = 0.002). Additional ticks were detected at coat clipping for 80/872 (9%) the cases that were clipped, and coat clipping was associated with a reduced risk of mortality ( P = 0.020). Risk of mortality did not differ significantly by time of year, clinic location, breed, sex, neuter status, age, weight, coat length or number of ticks found. Conclusions and relevance The overall mortality risk for cats treated for tick paralysis caused by I holocyclus is low. Risk factors for mortality include advanced gait and respiratory scores, and hypothermia at presentation. Coat clipping and TAS reduce the risk of mortality, whereas the occurrence of a TAS reaction increases the risk. Mechanical ventilation reduces mortality risk in cats with respiratory failure due to tick paralysis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/mortalidade , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Gatos , Estudos de Coortes , Paralisia Facial/veterinária , Feminino , Ixodes , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Paralisia por Carrapato/mortalidade
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 247: 42-48, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080763

RESUMO

Tick paralysis has a major impact on pet dog and cat populations in southeastern Australia. It results from envenomation by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus ticks, the role of Ixodes cornuatus in the epidemiology of this disease in Australia being unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the geographical distribution of tick paralysis cases in southeastern Australia using data from a national disease surveillance system and to compare characteristics of "endemic" cases with those reported outside this endemic zone ("sporadic" cases). Data were collated and a proportional symbol map of all cases by postcode was created. A 15-case isopleth was developed based on descriptive spatial statistics (directional ellipses) and then kernel smoothing to distinguish endemic from sporadic cases. During the study period (January 2010-December 2015) 12,421 cases were reported, and 10,839 of these reported by clinics located in 434 postcodes were included in the study. Endemic cases were predominantly reported from postcodes in coastal southeastern Australia, from southern Queensland to eastern Victoria. Of those cases meeting selection criteria, within the endemic zone 10,767 cases were reported from 351 (88%) postcodes and outside this zone 72 cases were reported from 48 (12%) postcodes. Of these latter 48 postcodes, 18 were in Victoria (26 cases), 16 in New South Wales (28 cases), 7 in Tasmania (9 cases), 5 in South Australia (7 cases) and 2 in Queensland (2 cases). Seasonal distribution in reporting was found: 62% of endemic and 52% of sporadic cases were reported in spring. The number of both endemic and sporadic cases reported peaked in October and November, but importantly a secondary peak in reporting of sporadic cases in April was found. In non-endemic areas, summer was the lowest risk season whilst in endemic areas, autumn was the lowest risk season. Two clusters of sporadic cases were identified, one in South Australia (P=0.022) during the period 22 May to 2 June 2012 and another in New South Wales (P=0.059) during the period 9 October to 29 November 2012. Endemic and sporadic cases did not differ with respect to neuter status (P=0.188), sex (P=0.205), case outcome (P=0.367) or method of diagnosis (P=0.413). However, sporadic cases were 4.2-times more likely to be dogs than cats (P<0.001). The endemic tick paralysis zone described is consistent with previous anecdotal reports. Sporadic cases reported outside this zone might be due to a history of pet travel to endemic areas, small foci of I. holocyclus outside of the endemic zone, or in the case of southern areas, tick paralysis caused by I. cornuatus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Ixodes/fisiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia
16.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 17(12): 821-824, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations. METHODS: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were generated to characterize tick paralysis cases in BC, including tick species implicated, seasonality of disease, and regional differences. RESULTS: From 1993 to 2016, there were 56 cases of suspected tick paralysis with at least one tick specimen submitted for testing at the BCCDC PHL. Humans and animals were involved in 43% and 57% of cases, respectively. The majority of cases involved a Dermacentor andersoni tick (48 cases or 86%) and occurred between the months of April and June (49 cases or 88%). Among known locations of tick acquisition, the Interior region of BC was disproportionately affected, with 25 cases (69%) of tick bites occurring in that area. CONCLUSIONS: Tick paralysis is a rare condition in BC. The region of highest risk is the Interior, particularly during the spring and summer months. Increasing awareness of tick paralysis among healthcare workers and the general public is paramount to preventing morbidity and mortality from this rare disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Ixodidae , Picadas de Carrapatos/veterinária , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Adulto , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Camelídeos Americanos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia
17.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 73(1): 103-107, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849543

RESUMO

For the first time, infestation of the Australian emu by a native tick is recorded based on an engorged adult female specimen of the southern paralysis tick (Ixodes cornuatus) taken from a captive emu at Healesville sanctuary, Victoria, Australia. Tick paralysis in Australian birds is discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Dromaiidae , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia , Vitória
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 228: 77-84, 2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692336

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the ticks of the Anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the Anatolian wild sheep. Ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the Anatolian wild sheep breeding area. While PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in blood samples, CCHF virus was screened in the tick samples in addition to the above-mentioned pathogens. Theileria spp. was detected in blood samples of 45 wild sheep. A total of 3494 ticks were collected from 52 Anatolian wild sheep, 5 hares, 5 guinea fowls, 2 chickens, and 1 turkey whereas 98 ticks were collected from the ground. B. ovis and T. ovis were detected in tick pools (Rh. bursa and H. excavatum) that were collected from the wild sheep. The paralysis was diagnosed in both of the hind legs of the newborn lambs infested with a great number of ticks. We also report that the tick species (H. excavatum and Rh. bursa) are determined to cause tick paralysis and tick toxicosis, which are associated with mortality especially in lambs. T. ovis and B. ovis were detected and studied for the first time in Anatolian wild sheep and in their ticks. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that T. ovis and B. ovis isolates are genetically very close to the isolates that were previously obtained from the domestic small ruminants. We show that the Anatolian wild sheep can play the role of a reservoir for T. ovis. The presence of the CCHF virus has also been clearly shown and it has been observed that this virus, which is very pathogenic for humans, is anywise circulating in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Paralisia por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/veterinária , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Theileria/genética , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/mortalidade , Paralisia por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/virologia , Carrapatos/genética
19.
J Emerg Med ; 51(5): e109-e114, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are blood-sucking arachnids that feed on all classes of vertebrates, including humans. Ixodes holocyclus, also known as the Australian Paralysis Tick, is capable of causing a myriad of clinical issues in humans and companion animals, including the transmission of infectious agents, toxin-mediated paralysis, allergic and inflammatory reactions, and mammalian meat allergies in humans. The Australian Paralysis Tick is endemic to Australia, and only two other exported cases have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We report the third exported case of tick paralysis caused by I. holocyclus, which was imported on a patient into Singapore. We also discuss the clinical course of the patient, the salient points of management, and the proper removal of this tick species. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: With increasing air travel, emergency physicians need to be aware of and to identify imported cases of tick paralysis to institute proper management and advice to the patient. We also describe the tick identification features and proper method of removal of this tick species.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Ixodes/patogenicidade , Paralisia por Carrapato/complicações , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Ácido Clavulânico/farmacologia , Ácido Clavulânico/uso terapêutico , Cloxacilina/farmacologia , Cloxacilina/uso terapêutico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Paralisia Facial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Paralisia por Carrapato/etiologia , Paralisia por Carrapato/fisiopatologia , Viagem
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29446, 2016 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389875

RESUMO

Ticks are important vectors of pathogens and secreted neurotoxins with approximately 69 out of 692 tick species having the ability to induce severe toxicoses in their hosts. The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is known to be one of the most virulent tick species producing a flaccid paralysis and fatalities caused by a family of neurotoxins known as holocyclotoxins (HTs). The paralysis mechanism of these toxins is temperature dependent and is thought to involve inhibition of acetylcholine levels at the neuromuscular junction. However, the target and mechanism of this inhibition remain uncharacterised. Here, we report that three members of the holocyclotoxin family; HT-1 (GenBank AY766147), HT-3 (GenBank KP096303) and HT-12 (GenBank KP963967) induce muscle paralysis by inhibiting the dependence of transmitter release on extracellular calcium. Previous study was conducted using extracts from tick salivary glands, while the present study is the first to use pure toxins from I. holocyclus. Our findings provide greater insight into the mechanisms by which these toxins act to induce paralysis.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes/toxicidade , Ixodes/metabolismo , Placa Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Paralisia por Carrapato/induzido quimicamente , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Placa Motora/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Temperatura , Paralisia por Carrapato/metabolismo
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