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1.
Toxicon ; 177: 96-108, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972175

RESUMO

Mycotoxin residues are transferred from feed to animal products, yet, less attention has been paid to it in developing countries. There is a need to find alternative alleviation material for reducing the impact of mycotoxin. This review is meant to elucidate different additives that can reduce mycotoxin residue in animal products in the world, especially in developing countries. There is evidence of relationship between mycotoxin residue in breast milk of nursing mothers and mycotoxin exposure through crop and animal product (egg and milk) intake, especially in Asia, Africa, Middle East, Latin America, and some parts of Europe. Younger livestock tends to have more toxin residues in their tissue compared to older ones. Grazing animal are also exposed to mycotoxin intake which corresponds to high level of mycotoxins in their products including meat and milk. This review shows that phytogenic, probiotic, and prebiotic additives can decrease mycotoxin residues in milk, eggs, meat liver and other tissues of livestock. Specifically, bentonites, difructose anhydride III, yeast (Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans), Bacillus spp., or their biodegradable products can reduce mycotoxin residue in animal products. In addition, Ally isothiocyanates from mustard seed were able to mitigate mycotoxins in silo-simulated system. Evidence shows that there are now low-cost, accessible, and eco-friendly additives, which could alleviate the effect of mycotoxin in feed and food. In addition, there is need for aggressive public awareness and farmers' education on the prevalence, and danger caused by mycotoxins, as well as detoxification strategies that can reduce toxin absorption into animal products.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Micotoxicose/epidemiologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , África , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Carne , Leite , Prevalência
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998943

RESUMO

Fescue toxicosis is a syndrome that results when cattle consume toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. The objective of this study was to compare the response in physiological variables, sweat gland function, hair follicle cycling, and gene expression to feeding a total mixed ration that included tall fescue haylage and tall fescue seed containing a toxic endophyte (EI) or tall fescue haylage containing a nontoxic novel endophyte (EN) in beef heifers (Angus × Senepol heifers, n = 31) with 2 different hair genotypes. Numbers in each subgroup were as follows: novel endophyte, heterozygous slick (EN-S; n = 8), novel endophyte, homozygous hairy (wild type, EN-W; n = 7), endophyte-infected, heterozygous slick (EI-S; n = 10), and endophyte-infected, homozygous hairy (wild type, EI-W; n = 6). Physiological measurements were taken weekly for 7 wk. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS including dietary fescue treatment (EN vs. EI) and hair genotype (S vs. W) as main effects, day as a repeated measure, and temperature-humidity index (THI) as a covariate. Skin biopsies were taken before treatment initiation and on day 37 of treatment. Average surface temperature (ST) increased as the THI increased (P < 0.0001). Average ST was greater (P < 0.01) for animals fed EI than for animals fed the EN fescue diet, and greater (P < 0.01) for animals with the W genotype compared with animals with the S genotype. The difference between heifers with the S and W genotype was greater at greater THI (genotype × day interaction, P < 0.01). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was greater (P < 0.05) for animals with the S genotype compared with the W genotype and greater (P < 0.05) for heifers with the S genotype than for heifers with the W genotype when fed EI (36.7, 38.5, 30.0, and 38.7 g/m2 per hour for EN-W, EN-S, EI-W, and EI-S, respectively). The fraction of follicles in telogen in plucked hair samples for heifers fed EI was greater for animals with the S genotype than the W genotype (fraction in telogen: 0.456, 0.565, 0.297, 0.702 for EN-W, EN-S, EI-W, and EI-S, respectively; diet × genotype interaction, P < 0.05). Fraction of follicles in anagen was the opposite. EI fescue resulted in increased ST, changes in hair follicle cycling that support greater hair growth, and decreased TEWL for heifers with the W genotype compared with S genotype, suggesting greater heat stress in response to EI.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Festuca/microbiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Cabelo , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Micotoxicose/microbiologia , Micotoxicose/fisiopatologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/fisiopatologia , Glândulas Sudoríparas/fisiologia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109712, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654867

RESUMO

Mycotoxicosis is the second most important problem faced by the Pakistan poultry industry, after high feed prices. The present experimental study was designed to investigate the toxicopathological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial broiler chicks and its amelioration with locally produced mycotoxin binder. Total of 125 broiler chicks was divided into five equal groups (A-E). Group A served as negative control, group B (300 µg AFB1/kg feed) as positive control, group C (300 µg AFB1/kg + Local Mycotoxin Binder (LMB), 1 g/kg feed), group D (300 µg AFB1/kg + 2 g LMB/kg feed), and group E (300 µg AFB1/kg + Commercial Mycotoxin Binder (CMB), 2 g/kg of feed). Parameters studied included mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, absolute and relative organ weights, and gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. Clinical signs including alertness, fecal consistency, and feather shine were significantly lower in group B compared with control group A. The feed intake of 2 g/kg LMB treated group was significantly higher than that of the positive control group B. Also mean bodyweights of group D birds was higher than that of group B birds indicating an ameliorative effect of LMB. Histopathological results showed that moldy feed produced necrotic changes in the liver and kidneys in group B birds. However, in group D and E birds, the hepatic and renal parenchyma was normal, showing a protective effect of LMB. In the present study, a higher dose of LMB (2 g/kg) in group D showed higher bodyweights and feed intake. In group D, birds hepatic and renal parenchyma was also normal. The results suggested that local mycotoxin binder ameliorated the toxicopathological effects of AFB1 in mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, organ weights and, gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. These ameliorative effects of LMB were dose-dependent. The results of the present study concluded that AFB1 intoxication leads to decrease in bodyweights, feed intake in dose-related manner. The mortality was also dose-dependent. Gross and microscopic changes in the aflatoxin groups were more pronounced, however, all these deleterious effects were ameliorated in higher dose of LMB (group D) and CMB (group E). In group C, these deleterious effects were partially ameliorated. Local mycotoxin binder is an economical solution for aflatoxicosis problem, making poultry production more cost-effective.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aflatoxina B1/química , Animais , Bentonita/administração & dosagem , Bentonita/química , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Tamanho do Órgão , Paquistão , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química
4.
Mutat Res ; 782: 108285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843139

RESUMO

Mycotoxins, produced by fungi, are secondary metabolites causing adverse, toxic and pathological effects on human and animals. Studies about the association between mycotoxins and microRNAs (miRNAs) were developed since miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a critical role in many developmental processes for regulating messenger RNA (mRNA). As published studies showed, dozens of miRNAs were influenced by mycotoxins, indicating that miRNAs can play important roles in the occurrence and development of mycotoxicosis. Besides, a hypothesis called competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) was reported to indirectly modulate the expression of mRNA via miRNA response elements (MREs) to consequently regulate cell functions. As a result, four common miRNAs were focused to predict the corresponding ceRNAs based on their own characteristics and the effects of mycotoxins on them, in hope of providing potential ways or directions of miRNAs regulation for mycotoxicosis, and expanding the research field about mycotoxicosis from ceRNA.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Micotoxicose/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos
5.
J Comp Pathol ; 172: 22-26, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690410

RESUMO

Stillbirth and perinatal mortality with neurological signs and lesions were diagnosed in two calves following ingestion by their dams of corn infected with Stenocarpella maydis during the third trimester of gestation. Grossly, the brain and spinal cord were unremarkable. Microscopically, diffuse severe status spongiosis of the white matter was detected in the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, spinal cord and cerebellum. To the best of our knowledge this is the first pathological description of congenital disease in calves associated with the consumption of S. maydis-infected corn; the findings resemble those reported for the naturally occurring and experimentally induced disease in lambs.


Assuntos
Micotoxicose/veterinária , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Sordariales/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Feminino , Micotoxicose/embriologia , Micotoxicose/patologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Gravidez , Zea mays/microbiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569703

RESUMO

Among the array of structurally and toxicologically diverse mycotoxins, aflatoxins have attracted the most interest of scientific research due to their high toxicity and incidence in foods and feeds. Despite the undeniable progress made in various aspects related to aflatoxins, the ultimate goal consisting of reducing the associated public health risks worldwide is far from being reached due to multiplicity of social, political, economic, geographic, climatic, and development factors. However, a reasonable degree of health protection is attained in industrialized countries owing to their scientific, administrative, and financial capacities allowing them to use high-tech agricultural management systems. Less fortunate situations exist in equatorial and sub-equatorial developing countries mainly practicing traditional agriculture managed by smallholders for subsistence, and where the climate is suitable for mould growth and aflatoxin production. This situation worsens due to climatic change producing conditions increasingly suitable for aflatoxigenic mould growth and toxin production. Accordingly, it is difficult to harmonize the regulatory standards of aflatoxins worldwide, which prevents agri-foods of developing countries from accessing the markets of industrialized countries. To tackle the multi-faceted aflatoxin problem, actions should be taken collectively by the international community involving scientific research, technological and social development, environment protection, awareness promotion, etc. International cooperation should foster technology transfer and exchange of pertinent technical information. This review presents the main historical discoveries leading to our present knowledge on aflatoxins and the challenges that should be addressed presently and in the future at various levels to ensure higher health protection for everybody. In short, it aims to elucidate where we come from and where we should go in terms of aflatoxin research/development.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Microbiologia de Alimentos/história , Micotoxicose/história , Venenos/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aflatoxinas/química , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Mudança Climática , Países em Desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , História do Século XVII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Micotoxicose/diagnóstico , Micotoxicose/etiologia , Micotoxicose/terapia , Venenos/análise , Venenos/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública/história , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1162-1172, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270307

RESUMO

The metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that destroys hepatocytes. Meanwhile, astaxanthin (AX) is known to have stronger antioxidative activity than other carotenoids. This study aimed to investigate hepatoprotective role of AX from AFB1-induced toxicity in rat by histopathological study and immunohistochemistry of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) which acts as the first enzyme in antioxidative reaction against cell injury from ROS. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control and AFB1 groups were gavaged by water for 7 days followed by a single DMSO and 1 mg/kg AFB1, respectively. The AXL+ AFB1 and AXH+ AFB1 groups were given of 5 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg AX for 7 days before 1 mg/kg AFB1 administration. The result showed significantly elevated liver weight per 100 g body weight in AFB1 group. The histopathological finding revealed vacuolar degeneration, necrosis, megalocytosis and binucleation of hepatocytes with bile duct hyperplasia in AFB1 group. The severities of pathological changes were sequentially reduced in AXL+AFB1 and AXH+AFB1 groups. Most rats in AXH+AFB1 group owned hypertrophic hepatocytes and atypical proliferation of cholangiocytes which are adaptive responses to severe hepatocyte damage. The SOD1 expression was also significantly higher in AXH+AFB1 group than solely treated AFB1 and AXL+AFB1 groups. In conclusion, AX alleviated AFB1-induced liver damage in rat by stimulating SOD1 expression and transdifferentiation of cholangiocytes in dose dependent manner.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/patologia , Micotoxicose/tratamento farmacológico , Micotoxicose/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Xantofilas/uso terapêutico
8.
Toxicon ; 167: 1-5, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173793

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most toxic member of fumonisins, is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and food. It has been shown to produce pleiotropic toxicities in animals including neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, and with highly potential impact on human health. Proposed mechanisms include disruption of sphingolipid metabolism, induction of oxidative stress, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and MAPKs, modulation of autophagy and alteration of DNA methylation. These mechanistic findings provide the theoretical basis for effectively managing FB1-induced adverse health effects. In this review, we will summarize the present understanding of the molecular basis underlying FB1-mediated toxicities, discuss the feasibility of developing mechanism-based approach to prevent FB1-induced toxicities, and suggest the issues that need to be addressed in the future in the field of FB1 toxicity-related studies.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Micotoxicose/tratamento farmacológico , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumonisinas/química , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
9.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 25(4): 8-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202204

RESUMO

No Abstract Available.


Assuntos
Doença de Lyme , Micotoxicose , Humanos
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035349

RESUMO

Susceptibility and/or resistance to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a threshold trait governed principally by glutathione S transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification. In poultry, domesticated turkeys are highly sensitive to AFB1, most likely due to dysfunction in hepatic GSTs. In contrast, wild turkeys are comparatively resistant to aflatoxicosis due to the presence of functional hepatic GSTAs and other possible physiological and immunological interactions. The underlying genetic basis for the disparate GST function in turkeys is unknown as are the broader molecular interactions that control the systemic response. This study quantifies the effects of dietary AFB1 on gene expression in the turkey spleen, specifically contrasting genetically distinct domesticated (DT, susceptible) and Eastern wild (EW, resistant) birds. Male turkey poults were subjected to a short-term AFB1 treatment protocol with feed supplemented with 320 ppb AFB1 beginning on day 15 of age and continuing for 14 days. Spleen tissues were harvested and subjected to deep RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis. Analysis of differential gene expression found the effects of AFB1 treatment on the spleen transcriptomes considerably more prominent in the DT birds compared to EW. However, expression of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was directionally biased, with the majority showing higher expression in EW (i.e., down-regulation in DT). Significantly altered pathways included FXR/RXR and LXR/RXR activation, coagulation system, prothrombin activation, acute phase response, and atherosclerosis signaling. Differential extra-hepatic expression of acute phase protein genes was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the original experiment and additional turkey lines. Results demonstrate that wild turkeys possess a capacity to more effectively respond to AFB1 exposure.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Micotoxicose/genética , Baço/metabolismo , Perus
11.
Toxicon ; 166: 66-75, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125619

RESUMO

The amelioration of aflatoxicosis in ducklings was examined by feeding molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule [5, 7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC)] as a smart and novel toxin binder in comparison to a commercial toxin binder (CTB). MIP was characterized with some techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) that showed morphology and thermal resistance of MIP, respectively. The SEM showed that more pores and big cavities were formed in the network of the MIP. TGA plots of MIP showed dehydration at temperatures of about 31 °C-200 °C and gradual decomposition until 300 °C. The in vitro and in vivo ability of MIP and CTB to adsorb some minerals (Ca, Cu, Mg, P and Zn) was evaluated. The in vivo efficacy of MIP as an aflatoxins (AFs) binder in duckling exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feed from 4 to 18 d of age was also compared to that of the CTB. A total of 240 4-d-old ducklings were assigned to experimental diets. Each diet was replicated four times with 10 birds in each pen, and the initial body weight classes were considered as blocks. The experimental treatment diets included: 1- Control (basal diet without any additive or AFs), 2- MIP (5 g/kg diet), 3- CTB (5 g/kg diet), 4- AFs (0.2 mg/kg diet), 5- AFs + MIP (0.2 mg/kg + 5 g/kg diet), and 6- AFs + CTB (0.2 mg/kg + 5 g/kg diet). In vitro study may clearly reflect the possibility of adsorbing minerals by CTB as compared to MIP whilst the results were not confirmed by in vivo study and it seems that reduction in plasma levels of minerals is related to the adverse effects of AFs. Livers showed histopathological alterations, with bile-duct proliferation of all aflatoxin fed ducklings. Macroscopic study indicated liver of birds fed diets containing AFs showed abnormal signs including yellowish, friable and rounded shape without protective effect of MIP and CTB. The results obtained from in vivo study indicate the partial alleviation of the adverse effects of AFs in ducklings by dietary supplementation of MIP and CTB (5 g/kg) on plasma albumin, Zn, Mg and Ca.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Patos , Minerais/química , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Polímeros/química , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/sangue , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Albumina Sérica
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052282

RESUMO

Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium species, is a widespread and destructive fungal disease. In addition to the substantial yield and revenue losses, diseased grains are often contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, making them unsuitable for human consumption or use as animal feed. As a vital food and feed ingredient in China, the quality and safety of wheat and its products have gained growing attention from consumers, producers, scientists, and policymakers. This review supplies detailed data about the occurrence of Fusarium toxins and related intoxications from the 1980s to the present. Despite the serious situation of toxin contamination in wheat, the concentration of toxins in flour is usually lower than that in raw materials, and food-poisoning incidents have been considerably reduced. Much work has been conducted on every phase of toxin production and wheat circulation by scientific researchers. Regulations for maximum contamination limits have been established in recent years and play a substantial role in ensuring the stability of the national economy and people's livelihoods.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas/análise , Triticum/microbiologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fusarium/genética , Humanos , Micotoxicose , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/química
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 155: 101-107, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857619

RESUMO

The mycotoxigenic phytopathogenic fungus such as Fusarium moniliforme contamination in maize kernels may not only affect seed germination but also negatively cause mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. There is no effective fungicides to control the growth of F. moniliforme on maize kernels. Hence, effective bioactive compounds are needed to prevent plant and animal diseases associated with F. moniliforme contamination in cereals. Surfactin is an well-known antimicrobial lipopeptide has strong antifungal activities against several phytopathogenic fungi and may have potential uses in agriculture. So, in this present study the antifungal activity of surfactin extracted from Brevibacillus brevis KN8(2) was investigated against F. moniliforme, further its impact in seed germination and mycotoxicosis was also studied. Our results showed that surfactin inhibited and damaged the hyphae of F. moniliforme in in vitro. The agarose gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE analysis and biochemical assay presented that surfactin damaged the DNA, protein and reduced the GSH content in F. moniliforme. Furthermore, surfactin prevent maize seed germination problem and mycotoxicosis in animal model associated with F. moniliforme via prevention of F. moniliforme contamination on maize kernels. These findings revealed that surfactin could be an effective bio-fungicide in the plant disease management.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxicose/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621122

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin found in food and feed, is immunotoxic to animals and poses significant threat to the food industry and animal production. The primary target of AFB1 is the liver. To overcome aflatoxin toxicity, probiotic-mediated detoxification has been proposed. In the present study, to investigate the protective effects and molecular mechanisms of Lactobacillus bulgaricus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus against liver inflammatory responses to AFB1, mice were administered with AFB1 (300 µg/kg) and/or Lactobacillus intragastrically for 8 weeks. AML12 cells were cultured and treated with AFB1, BAY 11-7082 (an NF-κB inhibitor), and different concentrations of L. bulgaricus or L. rhamnosus. The body weight, liver index, histopathological changes, biochemical indices, cytokines, cytotoxicity, and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway were measured. AFB1 exposure caused changes in liver histopathology and biochemical functions, altered inflammatory response, and activated the NF-κB pathway. Supplementation of L. bulgaricus or L. rhamnosus significantly prevented AFB1-induced liver injury and alleviated histopathological changes and inflammatory response by decreasing NF-κB p65 expression. The results of in vitro experiments revealed that L. rhamnosus evidently protected against AFB1-induced inflammatory response and decreased NF-κB p65 expression when compared with L. bulgaricus. These findings indicated that AFB1 exposure can cause inflammatory response by inducing hepatic injury, and supplementation of L. bulgaricus or L. rhamnosus can produce significant protective effect against AFB1-induced liver damage and inflammatory response by regulating the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Hepatite/metabolismo , Hepatite/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Micotoxicose/metabolismo , Micotoxicose/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Mycotoxin Res ; 35(1): 9-16, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088215

RESUMO

A tremorgenic syndrome occurs in dogs following ingestion of moldy walnuts, and Penicillium crustosum has been implicated as the offending fungus. This is the first report of suspected moldy walnut toxicosis in man. An adult male ingested approximately eight fungal-infected walnut kernels and after 12 h experienced tremors, generalized pain, incoordination, confusion, anxiety, and diaphoresis. Following symptomatic and supportive treatment at a local hospital, the man made an uneventful recovery. A batch of walnuts (approximately 20) was submitted for mycological culturing and identification as well as for mycotoxin analysis. Penicillium crustosum Thom was the most abundant fungus present on walnut samples, often occurring as monocultures on isolation plates. Identifications were confirmed with DNA sequences. The kernels and shells of the moldy walnuts as well as P. crustosum isolates plated on yeast extract sucrose (YES) and Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agars and incubated in the dark at 25 °C for 7 days were screened for tremorgenic mycotoxins and known P. crustosum metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. A relatively low penitrem A concentration of only 1.9 ng/g was detected on the walnut kernels when compared to roquefortine C concentrations of 21.7 µg/g. A similar result was obtained from P. crustosum isolates cultured on YES and CYA, with penitrem A concentrations much lower (0.6-6.4 µg per g mycelium/agar) compared to roquefortine C concentrations (172-1225 µg/g). The authors surmised that besides penitrem A, roquefortine C might also play an additive or synergistic role in intoxication of man.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Juglans/microbiologia , Micotoxicose/diagnóstico , Nozes/microbiologia , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/análise , Humanos , Indóis/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Neurotoxinas/análise , Piperazinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 32(2): 269-274, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685005

RESUMO

Toxigenic potential of different candidate fungi, isolated from rice straw feed of Degnala disease affected bovines was analyzed along with species, age, gender and seasonal prevalence. Of 1,536 cases, 104 (6.77%) showed positive signs with a significant association (p less than 0.05) between this disease and rice straw feeding, in buffaloes, and bovine aged over 1 year in the winter season. Complete blood count showed a marked increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and all white blood cells numbers, except lymphocytes in positive cases. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in alanine amino transferase, aspirate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver function test. At the same time, an increased value of creatinine was noted in the renal function test. For isolation and screening of toxigenic fungi, rice straw samples (n=40) being fed to the positive cases were processed further, and 85 fungal isolates were found, mainly of Aspergillus (57), Penicillium (10), Fusarium (04), Zygomycetes (03), Curvularia (01) and unidentified (10). All isolated fungi were subjected for mycotoxin production and only 11 showed mycotoxin-producing capability (including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium isolates) analyzed by thin layer chromatography and quantified through high performance liquid chromatography. It is concluded that all the fungi contaminating rice straw feed of Degnala affected animals were not toxigenic. This work will help in establishing major mycotoxin-producing fungi leading to the probable cause of Degnala disease in bovine.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Oryza/microbiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxicose/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535978

RESUMO

The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota. Certainly, mycotoxins cause perturbation in the gut, particularly in the intestinal epithelial. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective where there is a bi-directional relationship exists between mycotoxins and gut microbiota, thus suggesting that our gut microbiota might be involved in the development of mycotoxicosis. The bacteria-xenobiotic interplay for the host is highlighted in this review article. It is now well established that a healthy gut microbiota is largely responsible for the overall health of the host. Findings revealed that the gut microbiota is capable of eliminating mycotoxin from the host naturally, provided that the host is healthy with a balance gut microbiota. Moreover, mycotoxins have been demonstrated for modulation of gut microbiota composition, and such alteration in gut microbiota can be observed up to species level in some of the studies. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins, are negative in terms of intestinal health, where beneficial bacteria are eliminated accompanied by an increase of the gut pathogen. The interactions between gut microbiota and mycotoxins have a significant role in the development of mycotoxicosis, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma. Such knowledge potentially drives the development of novel and innovative strategies for the prevention and therapy of mycotoxin contamination and mycotoxicosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Micotoxicose , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Mudança Climática , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Fungos/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Micotoxicose/terapia , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade
18.
Med Mycol ; 56(suppl_1): 165-187, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538732

RESUMO

The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed. Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome are due to obligatory fungal pathogens. Zoonotic agents are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. The list of zoonotic fungal agents is limited but some species, like Microsporum canis and Sporothrix brasiliensis from cats, have a strong public health impact. Mycotoxins are defined as the chemicals of fungal origin being toxic for warm-blooded vertebrates. Intoxications by aflatoxins and ochratoxins represent a threat for both human and animal health. Resistance to antifungals can occur in different animal species that receive these drugs, although the true epidemiology of resistance in animals is unknown, and options to treat infections caused by resistant infections are limited.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Micoses/veterinária , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/transmissão , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/transmissão , Infecções Oportunistas/veterinária , Zoonoses/tratamento farmacológico , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(3)2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518941

RESUMO

Background: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are common food contaminants produced by Fusarium sp. Mycotoxins are a potential health hazard because of their toxicological effects on both humans and farmed animals. Methods: We analyzed three groups of pigs: a control group (fed a standard diet), and the DON and ZEN groups, fed a diet containing 8 mg/kg DON and 0.8 mg/kg ZEN respectively, for four weeks. Results: DON and ZEN exposure decreased body weight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), food conversion rate (FCR), and the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. The total antioxidant levels significantly decreased in serum and increased in urine samples of both treatment groups. Additionally, DON and ZEN exposure increased serotonin levels in urine. Hematological parameters were not affected by the investigated toxins. Microscopic lesions were evident in sections of kidneys from either treatment group: we found sporadic interstitial nephritis in the DON group and renal glomerulus atrophy in the ZEN group. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine marker genes were reduced in tissues from DON- and ZEN-exposed pigs. Conclusions: chronic ingestion of high doses of DON and ZEN alters the immune response and causes organs damage, and might be associated with various diseases in pigs.


Assuntos
Suínos/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Micotoxicose/sangue , Micotoxicose/imunologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Serotonina/metabolismo
20.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(2): 145-150, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384484

RESUMO

Five green (Chelonia mydas) and 11 Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles found dead, or that died soon after stranding, on the southern Texas (USA) coast during 2 Karenia brevis blooms (October 2015, September-October 2016) were tested for exposure to brevetoxins (PbTx). Tissues (liver, kidney) and digesta (stomach and intestinal contents) were analyzed by ELISA. Three green turtles found alive during the 2015 event and 2 Kemp's ridley turtles found alive during the 2016 event exhibited signs of PbTx exposure, including lethargy and/or convulsions of the head and neck. PbTx were detected in 1 or more tissues or digesta in all 16 stranded turtles. Detected PbTx concentrations ranged from 2 to >2000 ng g-1. Necropsy examination and results of PbTx analysis indicated that 10 of the Kemp's ridleys and 2 of the green turtles died from brevetoxicosis via ingestion. This is the first documentation of sea turtle mortality in Texas attributed to brevetoxicosis.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Oxocinas/toxicidade , Tartarugas , Animais , Dinoflagelados , Micotoxicose/patologia , Texas
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