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1.
J Parasitol ; 105(4): 491-496, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268412

RESUMO

Canine babesiosis (CB) is a significant tick-borne disease caused by intra-erytrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) and is currently emerging or re-emerging in many European countries. Despite the increasing incidence of clinical CB, little is known of the epidemiology of this disease in Romania. Therefore, the present study was conducted to provide epidemiological data on CB in the coastal area of the Black Sea (Dobrogea), southeastern Romania. For this, 306 owned dogs presented during 2016-2018 at a veterinary clinic in the area and clinically suspected for CB were tested for the presence of intra-erytrocytic piroplasms using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. Overall, 27.8% (95% CI: 22.83-33.16) of dogs were positive for large piroplasms. The Babesia spp.-positive dogs were 51 males and 34 females aged from 3 mo to 13 yr (mean 4.2 yr; SD = 3.6). A higher rate of infection was registered in Bichon Maltese (n = 13) and mixed-breed (n = 28) dogs. Most cases (76/85; 89.4%) were diagnosed from March to June, with only a few cases registered in November and December (1 case each). Infected dogs displayed different clinical presentations, varying from mild (38.8%) to moderate (29.4%) and severe disease (29.4%). Based on clinical- pathological changes, 38 (44.7%), 34 (40.0%), and 13 (15.3%) dogs were diagnosed with uncomplicated babesiosis, complicated babesiosis with a single organ dysfunction, and complicated babesiosis with multiple-organ-dysfunction syndrome (MODS), respectively. The recovery rate (81.6%, 70.1%, and 38.4%, respectively) was significantly different in these groups. The age of dogs appeared to be a risk factor for both severe disease (mean age of 5.8 yr) and MODS (mean age 6.8 yr). These findings document the common occurrence of CB in Dobrogea, southeastern Romania, and suggest that appropriate control measures need to be taken.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Babesiose/etiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Mar Negro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Cães , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Feminino , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
2.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(3): 435-440, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250464

RESUMO

In this case report, a Swedish flat-coated retriever was diagnosed with an extensive Hepatozoon canis infection. The dog had a prominent monocytosis (14.0 × 109 /L) with H canis gamonts detected in most monocytes, but none were found in the neutrophils. On the hematology system ADVIA 2120 peroxidase (PEROX) cytogram, most leukocytes were seen as a distinct cell population above the lymphocytes, which indicated that most of the cells were larger than lymphocytes and had weak myeloperoxidase staining. This distinct cell cluster appeared to be of a single cell type but was incorrectly divided by the ADVIA 2120 into lymphocytes, monocytes, and large unstained cells (LUC). The total leukocyte counts on the ADVIA 2120 WBC basophil (BASO) channel were much higher than that on the WBC PEROX count. The WBC BASO cytogram appeared abnormal with two parallel cell populations, so the BASO WBC count was considered erroneous. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing verified H canis infection. The dog was treated with subcutaneous imidocarb dipropionate (6 mg/kg) injections every other week. Post-treatment hematology analyses indicated that the percentage of parasitized leukocytes decreased from 40% to 5% about 4 weeks after the start of treatment and were not found in any monocytes 6 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. In conclusion, H canis infection in this dog was associated with a strong monocytosis, and gamonts were present in many monocytes, which caused aberrant automated leukocyte counts to occur.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Monócitos/parasitologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Leucócitos/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária
3.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101945, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228586

RESUMO

Three different Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) species have been described infecting domestic cats in Europe (i.e. H. felis, H. canis and H. silvestris), however, reports on clinical hepatozoonosis are uncommon and treatment protocols are not clearly defined. A six-year-old male European short-hair cat from Austria presented poor general condition, lethargy, anorexia, icterus, a painful abdomen, fever, ruffled hair and a tick infestation, and it had never left Austria. Laboratory tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and increased serum levels of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and bilirubin. In May Grünwald-Giemsa-stained blood smears, structures resembling Hepatozoon gamonts were observed inside neutrophil granulocytes. A PCR targeting a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and DNA sequencing allowed the diagnosis of H. felis-DNA in blood samples. The cat was treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6 mg/kg body weight, repeated after 14 days) and doxycycline monohydrate (5 mg/kg body weight twice a day, p.o., for four weeks) and recovered completely. A broad haematological and biochemical laboratory control after six months showed all evaluated parameters under normal ranges. Coinfection with other feline pathogens (i.e. feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline Coronavirus, Leishmania and Dirofilaria immitis) could not be detected. This study reveals the presence of H. felis in Austria and provides more evidence on the geographical distribution and pathogenicity of this parasite for domestic cats. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first autochthonous case of feline hepatozoonosis in Central Europe.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Eucoccidiida/genética , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(3): 690-693, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852178

RESUMO

Rangeliosis, caused by protozoan Rangelia vitalii, is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. The disease is characterized by hemolytic and hemorrhagic disorder and has been described in dogs and other wild canids. The aim of this study was to compare clinicopathological findings and laboratory results of a Rangelia infection in a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) with those of canine rangeliosis. The zoo of Universidade de Caxias do Sul, received a crab-eating fox with marked jaundice in mucous membranes, dark-colored stools and neurological signs. The animal underwent an ear tip smear examination and blood collection for complete blood counts, serum biochemistry and PCR. Free-living and intraerythrocytic pyriform structures consistent with R. vitalii were found in the blood smear of the ear tip. The erythrogram revealed normocytic normochromic anemia, moderate macrocytosis, polychromasia and metarubricytosis. The leukogram revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and monocytosis, as well as severe thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemistry showed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated levels of urea and creatinine. The treatment was performed with imidocarb hydrochloride and dexamethasone, however 24 h after initiation of treatment the animal died. Macroscopic examination revealed jaundice, subcutaneous edema, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, splenomegaly, and hemorrhage of internal organs. Histological sections of the cerebellum, lung, pancreas, intestine and heart were consistent with R. vitalii infection of the vascular endothelium. Pathological and hematological findings were similar to those found in infected dogs, with clinical presentation characterized by hemolytic anemia and hemorrhage. The description of this case showed that C. thous does not only serve as reservoir of R. vitalii but may also develop disease.


Assuntos
Raposas/parasitologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Brasil , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Testes Hematológicos , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Piroplasmida/genética , Piroplasmida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Vet Rec ; 183(23): 716, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463992

RESUMO

An increasing number of non-endemic vectorborne pathogens have been described in dogs imported to the UK in the past two decades. Recently, an outbreak of canine babesiosis in south-east England has raised veterinary awareness with regard to the impact of such diseases on the UK canine population. Canine hepatozoonosis, caused by Hepatozoon canis and transmitted by the ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, is widespread in the Mediterranean basin. Herein we describe the first three molecularly confirmed clinical cases of canine hepatozoonosis in dogs imported into the UK. Veterinarians in the UK should be aware of H canis as a potential infection in imported dogs, especially in the face of the expanding distribution of R sanguineus ticks in Europe.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Eucoccidiida , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Chipre , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/genética , Feminino , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
6.
Parasitol Res ; 117(7): 2333-2339, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766270

RESUMO

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne disease of equids caused by Babesia caballi and/or Theileria equi, which is endemic in many tropical and temperate areas of the world. However, clinical outbreaks of EP in Romania during the last decades have not been reported Therefore, the aim of this paper is (i) to describe a clinical B. caballi outbreak in horses on several farms in Southern Romania using a diagnostic and therapeutic approach and (ii) the molecular diagnostic of EP in an endemic area of Romania. In the first case, a 10-month-old stallion male was presented with lethargy, anorexia, fever (40.9 °C), pale mucosal/mucous/membranes and a marked anemia. In the subsequent weeks, three horses from other farms located in the same area, displayed similar clinical signs. B. caballi was diagnosed in all the horses based on Giemsa-stained blood smears and the diagnosis was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using a single-round and multiplex PCR and sequencing. All four horses were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, at a dose rate of 2.2 mg/kg body weight (two injections at 48 h apart), and all horses clinically recovered within 24-48 h, post-treatment. This report presents the first molecularly characterized B. caballi outbreak in Romania in clinically affected horses, confirmed by DNA sequencing.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Corantes Azur , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Babesiose/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Patologia Molecular , Romênia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 251: 90-94, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Theileria equi, an etiologic agent of equine piroplasmosis, is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan of the phylum Apicomplexa. Recent outbreaks of piroplasmosis in the United States have renewed interest in safe and effective treatment options. Although imidocarb dipropionate (IMD) is the drug of choice for clearance of T. equi, adverse reactions and recently documented resistance support the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. The recently described bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) are a new class of compounds that could potentially be used as safe and effective alternatives to IMD. In an initial effort to evaluate this potential, herein we determined the T. equi growth inhibitory activity of 11 BKIs relative to that of IMD and the previously tested BKI 1294. Because some BKIs have known human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) channel activity, we also assessed the hERG activity of each compound with the goal to identify those with the highest potency against T. equi coupled with the lowest potential for cardiotoxicity. RESULTS: Six BKIs inhibited T. equi growth in vitro, including the previously evaluated BKI 1294 which was used as a positive control. All six compounds were significantly less potent (higher 50% effective concentration (EC50)) than IMD. Two of those compounds were more potent than BKI 1294 control but had similar hERG activity. Although the remaining three compounds had similar to lower potency than BKI 1294, hERG EC50 was higher for three of them (BKI 1735, BKI 1369 and BKI 1318). CONCLUSIONS: The BKI compounds evaluated in this study inhibited T. equi in vitro and had diverse hERG activity. Based on these considerations, three compounds would be suitable for further evaluation. While these results provide a foundation for future work, in vivo pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics, and safety studies are needed before BKI compounds can be recommended for clinical use in T. equi infected horses.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Theileria/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Babesiose/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Humanos , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Theileria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Theileriose/tratamento farmacológico , Theileriose/epidemiologia
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(6): 1781-1791, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392954

RESUMO

This study is aimed to assess the binding interaction between the antiparasitic cationic drug imidocarb (IMD) and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the ubiquitious nonprotein macromolecules of living organisms. These complex, heterogeneous polyanions are the integral constituents of cell membranes and the extracellular matrix and display affinity toward basic compounds, the binding of which may affect their biological functions. Exciton-type circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic features measured at low salt concentration verify the heparin and heparan sulfate binding of IMD, which occurs in a cooperative manner by association of several drug molecules to a disaccharide unit. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements reassured the heparin interaction, resulting in a Kd value in the low micromolar range. In contrast, when considering high molar excess of the heparin-binding sites, closer resembling in vivo conditions, an entirely different CD signature was induced, suggesting a shift from the oligo- to monomeric binding mode. This observation was also supported by ITC measurements using an identical sample setup. To better mimic in vivo conditions, several measurements were performed in physiological salt concentration ranges. On the basis of these, the inter- and intramolecular origin of CD activity observed under low- and high-salt conditions refer to electrostatically held oligomeric and intermolecular H-bonded monomeric drug-GAG adducts, respectively. To complement the experimental data, quantum chemical calculations were performed to assess the photophysical and conformational properties of IMD, indicating the existence of nonlinear, nonplanar interconverting conformer populations. Such a structural flexibility may be important in the multiple, cooperative binding of IMD to sterically adjacent GAG sites.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/química , Calorimetria , Dicroísmo Circular , Heparina/química , Heparitina Sulfato/química , Imidocarbo/química , Sítios de Ligação , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(2): 135-140, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887100

RESUMO

Certain countries including the United States remain non-endemic for particular infectious diseases such as equine piroplasmosis through import restrictions and surveillance. Endemic regions often employ premunition as the primary method to control disease, however in non-endemic countries, chemosterilization combined with methods to confirm parasite elimination are required to maintain disease-free status. The ability of imidocarb diproprionate (ID) to clear persistent Theileria equi infection from infected horses has been shown through the inability of treated horses to transmit via blood transfer. However, the common lengthy persistence of anti-T. equi antibody causes regulatory tests such as cELISA or IFA to remain positive for extended periods. Persistence of positive testing creates challenges for regulatory veterinary medicine and international trade. Concordance between nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the ema1 gene and immunoblotting (IB) measuring declination in anti-EMA1 and anti-EMA2 antibody were used to verify clearance of T. equi from 179 ID-treated horses. These data support the use of IB to demonstrate declining anti-EMA1 and EMA2 titers in T. equi-infected horses subsequent to successful ID treatment. Such data provide concordant support to a negative nPCR and allow for a more timely determination of effective ID clearance of T. equi. The post ID treatment results indicate that while nPCR was consistently negative by 14 days and cELISA generally remained positive after 1 year, immunoblot was on average negative after 4 months and 100% in agreement with nPCR.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Western Blotting/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Western Blotting/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Texas , Theileria/efeitos dos fármacos , Theileriose/parasitologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 495, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classification of Babesia parasites has traditionally relied on morphological differentiation based on piroplasm size and shape. Molecular typing has subsequently revealed a more complex taxonomy for these piroplasms than previously thought. To evaluate the factors that influence the morphology of Babesia species upon microscopic examination and hence, their taxonomic classification, we performed detailed characterizations of piroplasms from archival and prospective collections of cytological samples of dogs with piroplasmosis before and after death. Merozoite morphology and time of parasite disappearance following imidocarb dipropionate was also investigated. METHODS: The study was divided into a (i) review of archived cytological slides from confirmed cases of canine piroplasmosis, and (ii) a prospective study of smears and tissue imprints from 15 recently necropsied dogs. The latter group could be further sub-divided into a non-treated group and an imidocarb dipropionate-treated group. Exact times of treatment before death were reviewed. Additional blood smears prepared from the live dogs and taken before therapy were also evaluated in the latter group. Parasite burden per each slide was determined in both studies. The shape and size of merozoites were described from blood smears taken while the dogs were alive and from different organs during necropsy. The results of all measurements were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The morphology and size of merozoites from live dogs corresponded to that of previously described 'large' Babesia. The morphology and size of merozoites were significantly different (P < 0.001) in postmortem samples, however, and more consistent in shape and size with piroplasm cells previously referred to as 'small' Babesia. PCR and sequencing confirmed B. canis as the causative agent of disease in all investigated dogs, including in postmortem negative tissue imprints from dogs treated at least 24 h before death. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the morphology of 'large' B. canis to 'small'-like Babesia observed by light microscopy appear to represent a common postmortem change. Classification of Babesia parasites into 'large' and 'small' Babesia using only microscopy of postmortem slides should be treated with caution. PCR-based methodologies for detection and molecular typing of Babesia spp. may prove valuable for investigating suspected cases of babesiosis following necropsy.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Animais , Babesia/citologia , Babesia/genética , Cães , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Merozoítos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Mudanças Depois da Morte
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 13(1): 81, 2017 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infection caused by tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cytauxzoon. The association of clinical disease with Cytauxzoon infection appears to be limited to C. felis infections in the Americas. Sporadic infections of wild and domestic felids with Cytauxzoon sp. were recently described in European countries but clinical reports of the infection are rare and incomplete. This case report brings new interesting information on cytauxzoonosis expression in Europe. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-years-old castrated European shorthair cat living in rural area of north-eastern France (Saint Sauveur, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region), without any travel history was presented for consultation due to hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and prolonged fever that didn't respond to antibiotic therapy. The cat had outdoor access with a history of vagrancy and was adequately vaccinated (core vaccines and FeLV vaccine). During biological investigations, intraerythrocytic inclusions were observed on blood smear and were further investigated by PCR analysis and sequencing. Molecular analyses confirmed Cytauxzoon sp. infection. The cat was treated with a subcutaneous injection of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg). One week after treatment, the cat improved clinically, although parasitic inclusions within erythrocytes persisted, and only a mild lymphocytosis was found. Two weeks after treatment, the cat appeared in excellent health, appetite was normal and parasitemia was negative. However, one month after treatment the cat relapsed with hyperthermia, anorexia, and depression. Blood smears and PCR were once again positive. Subsequently, the cat received an additional dose of imidocarb dipropionate (3.5 mg/kg SC) and recovered rapidly without other clinical signs. Two weeks after the second imidocarb injection, the cat was hit by a car and died. CONCLUSION: This case provides the first clinical description of infection by Cytauxzoon sp. in a domestic cat in France. These findings support the fact that cytauxzoonosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness which does not respond to antibiotic in cats with outdoor access especially in areas where populations of wild felids are present.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , França , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Piroplasmida/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroplasmida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 145, 2017 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Piroplasmosis caused by the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml) is increasingly being detected in dogs in Europe. Sick dogs show acute disease with severe anaemia associated with thrombocytopenia with a poor response to current available drugs. This study assesses the safety and tolerance of three treatments and compares their efficacy over a full year of follow up in dogs naturally infected with Bml. METHODS: Fifty-nine dogs naturally infected with Bml were randomly assigned to a treatment group: imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg SC, 2 doses 14 d apart) (IMI); atovaquone (13.3 mg/kg PO q 8 h, 10 d)/azithromycin (10 mg/kg PO q 24 h, 10 d) (ATO); or buparvaquone (5 mg/kg IM, 2 d apart)/azithromycin (same dosage) (BUP). Before and after treatment (days 15, 45, 90 and 360), all dogs underwent a physical exam, blood tests and parasite detection (blood cytology and PCR). Clinical efficacy was assessed by grading 24 clinical and 8 clinicopathological signs from low to high severity. RESULTS: Before treatment, most dogs had severe regenerative anaemia (88.13%) and thrombocytopenia (71.4%). On treatment Day 45, clinical signs were mostly reduced in all dogs, and by Day 90, practically all dogs under the ATO or BUP regimen were clinically healthy (76.4 and 88%, respectively). Highest percentage reductions in laboratory abnormalities (82.04%) were detected in animals treated with ATO. Over the year, clinical relapse of Bml was observed in 8 dogs (8/17) treated with IMI. However, on Day 360, these animals had recovered clinically, though clinicopathological abnormalities were still present in some of them. Parasitaemia was PCR-confirmed on Days 90 and 360 in 47.05 and 50% of dogs treated with ATO, 68 and 60.08% with BUP, and 94.1 and 73.3% with IMI, respectively. Even after 360 days, 13.3% of the dogs treated with IMI returned a positive blood cytology result. CONCLUSIONS: IMI showed the worse clinical and parasitological, efficacy such that its use to treat Bml infection in dogs is not recommended. The treatments ATO and BUP showed better efficacy, though they were still incapable to completely eliminate PCR-proven infection at the recommended dose. All three treatments showed good tolerance and safety with scarce adverse events observed.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Atovaquona/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Naftoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/efeitos adversos , Atovaquona/administração & dosagem , Atovaquona/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Babesia microti/efeitos dos fármacos , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , Babesia microti/fisiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Imidocarbo/administração & dosagem , Imidocarbo/efeitos adversos , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Naftoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Naftoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Microb Pathog ; 97: 226-30, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27301742

RESUMO

Anaplasmosis is a worldwide hemolytic disease in cattle caused by a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, characterized by anemia and jaundice. Among the treatments used for anaplasmosis is a drug called imidocarb dipropionate, also indicated as an immunomodulator agent. However, it causes side effects associated with increased levels of acetylcholine. In view of this, the effects of imidocarb dipropionate on the purinergic system, and antioxidant enzymes in animals naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale were evaluated. Young cattle (n = 22) infected by A. marginale were divided into two groups: the Group A consisted of 11 animals used as controls; and the Group B composed of 11 animals. Imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg) was used subcutaneously to treat both groups (the Group A on day 6 and the Group B on day 0). The treatment reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and increased the dismutase superoxide and catalase activities. No changes on lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) and BChE activities were noticed. These results suggest that imidocarb dipropionate used to treat A. marginale infection in cattle has effect on antioxidant enzymes, and significantly inhibits the enzymatic activities of ADA and AChE.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/efeitos dos fármacos , Anaplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Adenosina Desaminase/análise , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Catalase/análise , Bovinos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Imidocarbo/administração & dosagem , Imidocarbo/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Superóxido Dismutase/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25771779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to track changes in selected subpopulations of lymphocytes in the blood of dogs infected with Babesia (B.) canis and treated with imidocarb. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 16 dogs divided into two groups. The first group (n = 6) consisted of healthy control animals. Dogs of the se- cond group (n = 10) were infected with B. canis and after establishment of the diagnosis each animal received a single dose of imido- carb (5 mg/kg). Flow cytometry was used to enumerate several immune cell phenotypes. RESULTS: It was concluded that the invasion of B. canis contributes to the decreased percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ lymphocytes in the blood of infected animals. The decreased level of tested subpopulations of lymphocytes in group 2 persisted for the entire 12-day period of the test. After the administration of imidocarb, each tested lymphocyte fraction in the blood of the dogs with babesiosis increased, but did not reach physiological values. CONCLUSION: The presented results indicate that the resolution of clinical signs associated with babesiosis may be related to the stimulation and intensity of cellular immunity, dependent on the CD4+ T cells profile. After administration of imidocarb, the parasitemia is cleared which allows the recovery of the lymphocyte populations.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Babesiose/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cães , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 8: 33, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25600252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The apicomplexan hemoparasite Theileria equi is a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, eradicated from the United States in 1988. However, recent outbreaks have sparked renewed interest in treatment options for infected horses. Imidocarb dipropionate is the current drug of choice, however variation in clinical response to therapy has been observed. METHODS: We quantified the in vitro susceptibility of two T. equi isolates and a lab generated variant to both imidocarb dipropionate and a bumped kinase inhibitor compound 1294. We also evaluated the capacity of in vitro imidocarb dipropionate exposure to decrease susceptibility to that drug. The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for clearing infection in four T. equi infected ponies was also assessed. RESULTS: We observed an almost four-fold difference in imidocarb dipropionate susceptibility between two distinct isolates of T. equi. Four ponies infected with the less susceptible USDA Florida strain failed to clear the parasite despite two rounds of treatment. Importantly, a further 15-fold decrease in susceptibility was produced in this strain by continuous in vitro imidocarb dipropionate exposure. Despite a demonstrated difference in imidocarb dipropionate susceptibility, there was no difference in the susceptibility of two T. equi isolates to bumped kinase inhibitor 1294. CONCLUSIONS: The observed variation in imidocarb dipropionate susceptibility, further reduction in susceptibility caused by drug exposure in vitro, and failure to clear T. equi infection in vivo, raises concern for the emergence of drug resistance in clinical cases undergoing treatment. Bumped kinase inhibitors may be effective as alternative drugs for the treatment of resistant T. equi parasites.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Citometria de Fluxo , Quinase 2 de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie , Theileriose/tratamento farmacológico , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 45(5): 1157-66, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25417519

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Ehrlichiose/tratamento farmacológico , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
17.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 38(3): 185-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25308457

RESUMO

Two young brother male free-ranging domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for diarrhea. They presented with intraerythrocytic piroplasms on blood smear evaluation. Only the first cat was anemic (mild non-regenerative anemia). A partial segment of the 18S rRNA was amplified and sequenced, revealing a homology of 99% with Cytauxzoon sp. and of 93% with Cytauxzoon felis. The first cat was treated with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate and monitored by serial laboratory exams, resulting negative for Cytauxzoon sp. infection after the end of the therapy (follow-up period of 175 days). The second cat received the same therapy, but doxycycline was discontinued by the owner after 1 week. He was monitored for 130 days, remaining erythroparasitemic and asymptomatic. We described cases of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats with detailed clinical data, description of two therapeutic protocols, and follow-up after treatment with opposite parasitological responses (parasitological cure versus persistence of infection).


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Piroplasmida/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroplasmida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 97(2): 318-24, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25104322

RESUMO

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a negative acute phase protein bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL) and during the acute phase response (APR) protects HDL from peroxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between PON1 and HDL in canine babesiosis, a disease characterized by oxidative damages and by an APR. PON1, HDL and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood collected from 15 controls and 29 dogs with babesiosis sampled at admission, and on days 1 and 7 after treatment. At admission, PON1 and HDL were significantly lower in affected dogs. HDL concentration increased at day 1 while PON1 increased and CRP decreased at day 7. This suggests that the decrease of PON1 at admission is in part due to an increased consumption, the decreased HDL may depend on lipid peroxidation and its rapid increase after treatment may depend on the antioxidant activity of PON1.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Imidocarbo/análogos & derivados , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 17(1): 173-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24724487

RESUMO

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was described in canine babesiosis. Hypotension is considered as one of the factors which influence the development of hypoxic renal damage. In this study hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure (MAP) < 80 mmHg was detected in 7 out of 48 dogs (14.6%) infected with Babesia canis. Lower systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and MAP were detected in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. Statistically significant negative correlations between blood pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP) and serum creatinine and urea concentrations showed the influence of decreased blood pressure on the development of azotaemia and is probably also associated with ATN in canine babesiosis.


Assuntos
Azotemia/veterinária , Babesiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Hipotensão/veterinária , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Azotemia/tratamento farmacológico , Azotemia/epidemiologia , Azotemia/etiologia , Babesiose/complicações , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/etiologia , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico
20.
Parasitol Res ; 113(3): 1119-26, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24419403

RESUMO

In the present study, the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with medicated feed was investigated in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chub, Leuciscus cephalus. The anti-parasitics toltrazuril and imidocarb; the antibiotics doxycycline, erythromycin and sulphadiazine and the anti-inflammatory acetylsalicylic acid were tested. In vitro experiment revealed that all tested anti-parasitics and antibiotics were effective in killing the isolated trophonts and theronts. Minimum doses for killing 100 % of the viable trophonts and for inhibiting the development of theronts were 3 mg/L for doxycycline, 30 mg/L for erythromycin, 2 mg/L for imidocarb dipropionate, 30 mg/L for sulphadiazine and 20 mg/L for toltrazuril. Acetylsalicylic acid (40 mg/kg fish/day), doxycycline (3 and 6 mg/kg/day), erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day), imidocarb dipropionate (5.0 mg/kg/day), sulphadiazine (40 mg/kg/day), toltrazuril (20 and 40 mg/kg/day) and combinations of doxycycline and toltrazuril (3 + 20 mg/kg/day, 6 + 40 mg/kg/day) were tested as medicated feed. When administered as medicated feed, only doxycycline, toltrazuril and combinations of doxycycline and toltrazuril reduced the fish mortality and infestation level. Best results were obtained by feeding a combination of 6 mg/kg/day doxycycline and 40 mg/kg/day toltrazuril. In O. mykiss, this treatment reduced the mortality rate from 100 to 50 ± 14 % after 10 days and the infestation level from grade 4 (≥100 trophonts per skin mucus sample) to 3.5 (50-100 trophonts). In L. cephalus, the mortality rate was decreased from 100 to 39 ± 5 % and the infestation level from grades 4 to 2 (ten to 50 trophonts) after 10 days.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Hymenostomatida , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Cilióforos/tratamento farmacológico , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico
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