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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 164: 14-25, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284119

RESUMO

Tetramethylthiuram disulfide, commonly known as thiram, is an organosulfur compound which is used as a bactericide, fungicide and ectoparasiticide to prevent disease in seeds and crops. Being a fungicide there is a high probability of human occupational exposure to thiram and also via consumption of contaminated food. In this work, the cytotoxicity of thiram was studied under in vitro conditions using human erythrocytes as the cellular model. Erythrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of thiram (25-500 µM) for 4 h at 37 °C. Control cells (thiram untreated) were similarly incubated at 37 °C. Whole cells and hemolysates were analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Treatment of erythrocytes with thiram increased protein and lipid oxidation and hydrogen peroxide level in hemolysates but decreased glutathione and total sulfhydryl group content. This was accompanied by hemoglobin oxidation, heme degradation and release of free iron. Activities of all major antioxidant enzymes were inhibited. The antioxidant power of thiram treated erythrocytes was lowered resulting in decreased metal reducing and free radical quenching ability. These results suggest that thiram enhances the generation of reactive species that cause oxidative modification of cell components. This was confirmed by experiments that showed enhanced generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in thiram treated erythrocytes. Activities of marker enzymes of glucose metabolism and erythrocyte membrane were also inhibited. All effects were seen in a thiram concentration-dependent manner. Electron microscopy further supported the damaging effect of thiram on erythrocytes. Thus thiram induces oxidative stress condition in human erythrocytes and causes oxidative modification of cell components.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Tiram , Antioxidantes , Eritrócitos , Glutationa , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(2): 267-271, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determination of thiram, propineb and metiram in mushroom samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). METHODS: Insoluble heavy metal salts were converted into water-soluble sodium salts by alkaline buffer with strong chelating agents. Dithiocarbamates can be converted into different methyl ester compounds with ion pair methylation. The GC separation was performed on a DB-5 MS capillary column(30 m×0. 25 mm, 0. 25 µm). The pesticides were detected by GC-MS with selective ion monitoring(SIM) and quantified by external standard of working curve method. Methodsological verification was carried out based on optimized sample pretreatment and GC-MS condition. RESULTS: The concentrations of dithiocarbamates exhibited a good linear relationship with GC-MS within a certain range. The limits of detection of thiram, propineb and metiram were 0. 01, 0. 05 and 0. 05 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the average recoveries were from 76. 98% to 93. 52%, and the maximum relative standard deviation was 11. 54%(n=6). CONCLUSION: This method is simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable. All the indices meet the requirements of pesticide residue detection.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Ditiocarb , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Tiram , Zineb/análogos & derivados
3.
Food Chem ; 317: 126429, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109658

RESUMO

Existing methods for contaminants detection in liquid milk are complex, requires chemicals and time-consuming experimental procedure. In this study, SERS based on bimetallic core shelled nanoparticles was employed for simultaneous and fast detection of thiram and dicyandiamide (DCD) in the milk. Spectra ranging from 400 to 1700 cm-1 were selected to examine thiram (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 ppm) and DCD (20, 40, 80,160 and 320 ppm), by employing 28 nm gold cores and silver-shell thickness of 8 nm. A strong peak at 1379 cm-1 was ascribed to thiram with LOD of 0.21 ppm and R2 of 0.9896, whereas a band at 929 cm-1 was associated with DCD, delivering LOD of 14.88 ppm and R2 of 0.9956. The proposed method could achieve results within 34 min and this ecofriendly method can be further employed for simultaneous and rapid screening of other accidental contaminants in milk.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Guanidinas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Leite/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Tiram/análise , Animais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Prata/química
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 10629-10641, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940143

RESUMO

Carbendazim and thiram are fungicides used in combination to prevent mold destruction of crops. Studies have demonstrated genotoxicity by these agents, but have not used concentrations below their water solubility limits in drinking water to test for persistence of genotoxicity due to chronic exposure. Ten 8-week old male Swiss-Webster mice were exposed to tap water, or nominal concentrations of 20 µM carbendazim, 20 µM thiram or 20 µM of both fungicides for 90 days (total of 40 mice). Five mice from tap water controls, carbendazim, thiram and combination-treated groups (20 mice total) had genotoxicity detected by comet assay of lymphocytes at the termination of the exposure period. The other 20 mice (4 treatment groups) were all switched to tap water and allowed a 45-day recovery period to check for persistence of DNA damage. The damage was compared with commercial control cells exposed to increasingly harsh treatment by etopside. Comet assay (mean % tail DNA + SE) of control mice (9.8 + 0.9) was similar to commercial control (CC0) cells (8.5 + 0.9). Carbendazim, thiram or the combination treatment caused similar mean % tail DNA with 33.0 + 2.9, 30.1 + 3.3 and 29.1 + 1.8, respectively, comparable with commercial cells slightly damaged by etopside (CC1 with 31.4 + 2.9) with no statistical change in water or food intake, body weight or liver or kidney weights. The key result was that a 45-day recovery period had no observable difference in the DNA damage as assessed by DNA % in comet tail with tap water controls and CCO control cells at 7.0 + 0.7 and 9.7 + 1.2 versus 27.5 + 1.9, 29.3 + 2.2 and 32.0 + 1.8, respectively, for carbendazim, thiram and combination treatments. It is of concern that the use of these agents in developing countries with little training or regulation results in water pollution that may cause significant persistent DNA damage in animal or human populations that may not be subject to repair.


Assuntos
Carbamatos , Tiram , Animais , Benzimidazóis , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11337-11348, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960246

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is widely used in agricultural production as an insecticide and fungicide, which can also lead to tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in poultry. TD is characterized by leg disorders and growth performance retardation, and no targeted drugs have been found to treat TD until now. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the ameliorative effect of traditional Chinese medicine naringin on thiram-induced TD chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 60): control group (standard diet), thiram-induced group (thiram 50 mg/kg from day 3 to day 7), and naringin-treated group (naringin 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the 18-day experiment, the growth performance, tibial bone parameters, antioxidant property of liver, serum biochemical changes and clinical symptoms were recorded to evaluate the protective effect of naringin in thiram-induced TD broiler chickens. Additionally, mRNA expressions and protein levels of Ihh and PTHrP genes were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Administration of naringin showed significant results by alleviating lameness, increased growth performance, recuperated growth plate (GP) width, and improved functions and antioxidant enzyme level of liver in broilers affected by TD. Moreover, naringin treatment restored the development of damaged tibia bone via downregulating Ihh and upregulating PTHrP mRNA and protein expressions. In conclusion, our study determines naringin could be used as an effective medicine to treat TD.


Assuntos
Osteocondrodisplasias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Flavanonas , Tiram , Tíbia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110126, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918251

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate pesticide used for crop protection and storage. But, it's widespread utilization is associated with deleterious growth plate cartilage disorder in broilers termed as avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). TD results in non-mineralized and less vascularized proximal tibial growth plate cartilage causing lameness and poor growth performance. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of puerarin against thiram toxicity in TD affected chickens. One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were alienated into three equal groups i.e. control, TD and puerarin (n = 80) and were offered standard feed. Additionally, TD and puerarin groups were offered thiram at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4 to 7 days for TD induction followed by puerarin therapy at 120 mg/kg to puerarin group only from 8 to 18 days for TD treatment. Thiram feeding to TD and puerarin group chickens caused lameness, mortality, and increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and growth plate (GP) size and upregulated HIF-1α expression. Besides, the production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and the expressions of TIMP-3 and BCL-2 were decreased (p < 0.05). Puerarin alleviated lameness, enhanced angiogenesis and growth performance and serum and antioxidant enzymes, decreased apoptosis and recuperated GP width by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and upregulating the TIMP-3 and BCL-2 mRNA and protein expressions in puerarin group chickens (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the toxic effects associated with thiram can be mitigated using puerarin.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tiram/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo
7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 50, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in fast-growing chickens is mainly caused by improper blood circulation. The exact mechanism underlying angiogenesis and vascularization in tibial growth plate of broiler chickens remains unclear. Therefore, this research attempts to study genes involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in chicken red blood cells. Twenty-four broiler chickens were allotted into a control and thiram (Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide) group. Blood samples were collected on day 2, 6 (8- and 14-days old chickens) and 15 (23 days old chickens). RESULTS: Histopathology and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) results showed that angiogenesis decreased on the 6th day of the experiment but started to recover on the 15th day of the experiment. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results confirmed the expressions of integrin alpha-v precursor (ITGAV) and clusterin precursor (CLU). Transcriptome sequencing analysis evaluated 293 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 103 up-regulated genes and 190 down-regulated genes were enriched in the pathways of neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ribosome, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and the notch signalling pathways. DEGs (n = 20) related to angiogenesis of chicken erythrocytes in the enriched pathways were thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), interleukin-1 receptor type 1 precursor (IL1R1), ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17), integrin beta-3 precursor (ITGB3), ITGAV, integrin beta-2 precursor (ITGB2), ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), integrin alpha-2 (ITGA2), IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2 (IQGAP2), ARF GTPase-activating protein (GIT1), proto-oncogene vav (VAV1), integrin alpha-IIb-like (ITGA5), ras-related protein Rap-1b precursor (RAP1B), tyrosine protein kinase Fyn-like (FYN), tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11), protein patched homolog 1 (PTCH1), nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) and mastermind like protein 3 (MAML3) selected for further confirmation with qPCR. However, commonly DEGs were sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 (ATP2A3), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R2 (UBE2R2), centriole cilia and spindle-associated protein (CCSAP), coagulation factor XIII A chain protein (F13A1), shroom 2 isoform X6 (SHROOM2), ras GTPase-activating protein 3 (RASA3) and CLU. CONCLUSION: We have found potential therapeutic genes concerned to erythrocytes and blood regulation, which regulated the angiogenesis in thiram induced TD chickens. This study also revealed the potential functions of erythrocytes. 1. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in chickens were more on day 6, which started recovering on day 15. 2. The enriched pathway observed in TD chickens on day 6 was ribosome pathway, on day 15 were regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion pathway. 3. The genes involved in the ribosome pathways was ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17). regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway were Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), Ras-related protein Rap-1b precursor (RAP1B), ARF GTPase-activating protein (GIT1), IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2 (IQGAP2), Integrin alpha-v precursor (ITGAV), Integrin alpha-2 (ITGA2), Integrin beta-2 precursor (ITGB2), Integrin beta-3 precursor (ITGB3), Integrin alpha-IIb-like (ITGA5). Focal adhesion Proto-oncogene vav (Vav-like), Tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn-like (FYN).


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Tiram/toxicidade , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ontologia Genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Tíbia/patologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(2): 568-574, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The conflict between predators and humans for resources such as game species or livestock is an ancient issue, and it is especially sharp in the case of medium-large wild canids. In order to manage this conflict, lethal control methods are often used, which can sometimes be illegal, such as poisoning. As an alternative, conditioned food aversion (CFA) is a non-lethal method to reduce predation in which animals learn to avoid a given food due to the adverse effects caused by the ingestion of an undetectable chemical compound added to this food. The present study aimed to test thiram as a CFA agent in penned dogs as a first approach to use this substance for reducing the predation conflict associated with wild canids. RESULTS: Thiram, with or without an additional odor cue, produced CFA in penned dogs for more than 2 months. Moreover, thiram seemed to be undetectable and safe after the third ingestion of a 40-60 mg kg-1 dose. Desirable adverse effects, such as vomits, appeared around 1 h after exposure. These characteristics make thiram optimal for its use in predation reduction through CFA. However, individual variability could prevent CFA acquisition by some animals. CONCLUSIONS: Thiram has the potential to be used as a CFA agent in wildlife management and conservation to reduce predation by wild canids. Since thiram produced CFA without the problems of detectability and toxicity caused by other substances, it may be an alternative to lethal control methods used to reduce predation on game, livestock and endangered species. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Tiram , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Odorantes , Comportamento Predatório
9.
Food Chem ; 310: 125923, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837530

RESUMO

The design of a novel and reliable plasmonic platform for detecting multiple chemical contaminants in the complex matrix is an exciting topic in the food industry. Herein, a high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) two-dimensional (2D) nanodot array was designed through liquid-liquid interfacial self-assembly of the core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) and exploited for assessment of dual-fungicides in pear, apple, and orange juices. The 2D Au@Ag nanodot array delivered good uniformity and reproducibility with the substrate-to-substrate relative standard deviation values of 10.51%. This substrate could be used for detecting thiram and thiabendazole in aqueous solutions with the limit of detection of 0.0011 and 0.051 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, satisfactory recoveries ranging from 76-134% for the juices were obtained, demonstrating that the high-throughput 2D Au@Ag nanodot arrays are promising for their applications as sensitive SERS platforms for monitoring chemical contaminants in food products, especially in the beverage industry.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Citrus sinensis , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ouro/química , Malus , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman/instrumentação , Tiabendazol/análise , Tiram/análise
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6628-6636, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873907

RESUMO

Thiram is a widely known tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) inducer. TD, a common metabolic cartilage disease, presents in rapidly growing poultry birds. There are evidences that miRNAs are involved in diverse aspects of normal skeletal development, but very less is known about the role of miRNAs in TD. Therefore, this study aimed to determine which genes and pathways show differential expression between TD suffered chickens and normal chickens. We collected growth plates from ten-days-old TD chickens and control chickens and performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Afterwards, target prediction, GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis were carried out to understand the role of DEMs (differentially expressed microRNAs). We obtained 96,884,760 and 94,574,290 clean reads and identified 17 significant DEMs between the TD and control groups. Functional enrichment analysis of DEMs indicated that the putative targets of miRNAs were remarkably enriched in bone-related pathways, such as Notch, MAPK and Autophagy. Overall, this study provides detailed understanding about the pathogenesis of thiram induced TD and new insights towards the molecular mechanism of miRNAs.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tiram/toxicidade , Animais , Galinhas , Lâmina de Crescimento , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tíbia
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 672-673, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thiram, a fungicides, is widely used on seeds and as foliar agent on turf, vegetables and fruit. It is also used in the rubber industry as a vulcanization accelerator. When absorbed through the respiratory system, it is rapidly metabolised to dimethylthiocarbamate and carbon disulphide, causing noxious effects. A brief review is presented of the literature, centering on the interesting case of a 45-year-old woman admitted to the hospital suffering from acute respiratory failure. RESULTS: Computer tomography in angiographic option (angio-CT) showed an extensive, irregular area of ground glass in both upper lobes and apical segments of the lower lobes of the lungs. A significant enlargement of both atria was also described. There was no improvement after cardiac treatment and patient was transferred to the pulmonary department where she was succesfully treated with systemic glucocortycosteroids. The patient remains under the supervision of the pulmonary out-patient department.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Tiram/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36322-36332, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713825

RESUMO

The widespread use of thiram has raised concerns for health and its toxic effects, but the underlying toxicity mechanism on platelets and bones is poorly defined. Here, we found a significant increase in the number of platelets in chickens with the thiram intake, due to the increased expression of thrombopoietin mRNA in the dysfunction liver. Furthermore, the decreased vascular distribution and cell death of chondrocytes in the tibial growth plates (TGPs) were observed, resulting in bone growth inhibition, which is associated with the abnormal activation of platelets leading to the extraordinary decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and angiopoietin-1 protein were released and their corresponding receptors VEGFR2 and Tie-2 expressions were also reduced in the TGPs. Taken together, these findings revealed that thiram has an adverse effect on bones and platelets, which may have a high risk of thrombosis and osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Tiram/toxicidade , Proteínas Angiogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Lâmina de Crescimento/irrigação sanguínea , Lâmina de Crescimento/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Trombopoetina/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 127: 65-75, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678455

RESUMO

This study was planned to investigate TD (Tibial dyschondroplasia) on the potential MAPK signaling pathway and angiogenesis related genes. Forty-eight broilers were allotted into control (C) and treatment (T) groups of 2, 6 and 15 days as C1, C2, C3, T1, T2 and T3. The histopathology results revealed that tibiotarsus bone of chickens had more lesions on day 6 (T2 group). The chondrocytes were disordered, and the size, shape and proliferation were affected. Transcriptome results revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified were 63, 1026, 623, 130, 141 and 146 in C1 (2 days control vs 6 days control); C2 (2 days control vs 15 days control); C3 (6 days control vs 15 days control); T1 (2 days treatment vs 6 days treatment); T2 (2 days treatment vs 15 days treatment) and T3 (6 days treatment vs 15 days treatment) groups respectively. Whereas, 10 angiogenesis related-genes RHOC, MEIS2, BAIAP2, TGFBI, KLF2, CYR61, PTPN11, PLXNC1, HSPH1 and NRP2 were downregulated on day 6 in the treatment group. The pathway which was found enriched in the control and treatment groups was MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore selected 10 MAPK signaling pathway-related genes RAC2, MAP3K1, PRKCB, FLNB, IL1R1, PTPN7, RPS6KA, MAP3K6, GNA12 and HSPA8 which were found significantly downregulated in the treatment group on day 6. It is concluded that angiogenesis and MAPK signaling pathway related genes has an essential role in TD, as those top screened genes found downregulated in the thiram fed chickens when TD observed severed on day 6.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Tiram/efeitos adversos , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Tíbia/patologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569479

RESUMO

In this study, SiO2@Au@4-MBA@Ag (4-mercaptobenzoic acid labeled gold-silver-alloy-embedded silica nanoparticles) nanomaterials were investigated for the detection of thiram, a pesticide. First, the presence of Au@4-MBA@Ag alloys on the surface of SiO2 was confirmed by the broad bands of ultraviolet-visible spectra in the range of 320-800 nm. The effect of the 4-MBA (4-mercaptobenzoic acid) concentration on the Ag shell deposition and its intrinsic SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) signal was also studied. Ag shells were well coated on SiO2@Au@4-MBA in the range of 1-1000 µM. The SERS intensity of thiram-incubated SiO2@Au@4-MBA@Ag achieved the highest value by incubation with 500 µL thiram for 30 min, and SERS was measured at 200 µg/mL SiO2@Au@4-MBA@Ag. Finally, the SERS intensity of thiram at 560 cm-1 increased proportionally with the increase in thiram concentration in the range of 240-2400 ppb, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 72 ppb.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/química , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Prata/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Tiram/análise , Análise Espectral
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109575, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442808

RESUMO

Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD), a metabolic disease of fast growing poultry birds that effects the growth of bone and cartilage, is characterized by anorexia, mental depression and lameness. Wnt/ß-catenin pathway can mediate the occurrence of TD, and previous study showed the therapeutic effect of TanshinoneⅡA to TD Broilers. However there is no report about the effect of TanshinoneⅡA treating TD broiler chicken through wnt/ß-catenin pathway. The objective of this study was to explore the potential mechanism of how Tanshinone II A treats TD. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to study histologic pathology of growth plates. Key gene expressions were tested by western blot and reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Results compared with control groups, showed the TD broilers' growth plate performed significantly better by treating with TanshinoneⅡA. After chickens treated by TanshinoneⅡA, the gene and protein expression of WNT5α and BMP-2 were increased (P < 0.05), but the ß-catenin were decreased (P < 0.05), which are all key genes expressed in wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Therefore, TanshinoneⅡA can potentially treat TD by affecting the expression of genes in wnt/ß-catenin pathway and it has availability to use as treatment for TD broilers.


Assuntos
Abietanos/uso terapêutico , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Abietanos/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Osteocondrodisplasias/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Tiram/toxicidade , Tíbia
17.
Analyst ; 144(16): 4820-4825, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282496

RESUMO

Rapid detection of food contaminants using novel analytical methods in combination with nanomaterials has received much attention. This study aimed to synthesize polyhedral gold nanostars (AuNS) with multi-angled corners and develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method coupled with AuNS to detect pesticide residues in juice products. AuNS are multi-branched three-dimensional metal nanostructures with rough surface features which can induce surface plasmon resonance. A facile synthesis of AuNS was achieved using a two-step method and as-prepared AuNS had much cleaner surfaces than gold nanoparticles. A Raman reporter molecule (4-aminothiophenol) was used to evaluate the performance of the SERS method, yielding fingerprint-like Raman spectra and the sensitivity of the SERS method could reach 10 ppb (µg kg-1). SERS coupled with AuNS was used to detect thiram residues in peach juice and the detection limit was 50 ppb, and is 100 times more sensitive than using normal gold nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that AuNS are excellent substrates for SERS measurement, which has great potential for rapid detection of chemical contaminants in food products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Tiram/análise , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Prunus persica/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261680

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a widely applied traditional Chinese medicine ingredient which can be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. In this experiment, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of chlorogenic acid on thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and explored the underlying mechanisms that have been rarely mentioned by others yet. Performance indicator analysis and tibial parameter analysis showed that CGA exhibited a definite positive effect on thiram-induced TD chickens. In order to further explore the mechanisms underlying the positive actions of CGA, apoptotic, autophagic genes and MMPs involved in matrix mineralization of growth plate were evaluated in this study. The results showed that CGA decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes caspases-3 and caspases-9, leading to the reduction of apoptotic cells accumulated in growth plate. In addition, CGA also increased the level of BECN1, an important gene involved in autophagy, which benefits the survival of abnormal cells. Furthermore, CGA also increased the expression of MMP-9, MMP-10, and MMP-13, which can directly affect the ossification of bones. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CGA possesses a positive therapeutic effect on thiram-induced TD via modulating the expression of caspases and BECN1 and regulating the degradation of ECM (extracellular matrix).


Assuntos
Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/uso terapêutico , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Caspases/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Galinhas , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/etiologia , Tiram/toxicidade , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/metabolismo , Tíbia/patologia
19.
Behav Processes ; 166: 103905, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310793

RESUMO

Globally, native predators and scavengers are threatened through the incidence of illegal poisoning due to increasing human-wildlife conflicts. The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) may mitigate such conflicts. CTA is a robust learning paradigm that occurs when animals associate a food with a discomfort induced by a chemical, thereby avoiding that food in subsequent encounters. We reviewed the potential of 167 chemical compounds to be used in CTA, considering effects, margin of safety, accessibility, and detectability. After the review, 15 compounds fulfilled the required characteristics, but only five (thiabendazole, thiram, levamisole, fluconazole and fluralaner) were finally selected to be tested in CTA assays with dogs. Of the tested compounds, thiabendazole, thiram and levamisole caused target food rejection by dogs and reduced the time spent eating during post-conditioning. However, despite being microencapsulated, levamisole appeared to be detectable by dogs, whereas thiram and thiabendazole were not. Fluconazole and fluralaner did not produce any CTA effect. Thiabendazole, thiram and levamisole can therefore induce CTA, and thus are potential candidates as aversive compounds for wildlife management. Thiram is an undetectable, relatively safe and accessible compound that can induce CTA in canids, and opens new possibilities to develop methods of non-lethal predation control.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Levamisol/farmacologia , Masculino , Tiabendazol/farmacologia , Tiram/farmacologia
20.
Nanoscale ; 11(27): 12829-12836, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184679

RESUMO

We have demonstrated a one-step approach for the fabrication of flexible, robust, reproducible and free-standing SERS substrates (AuNPs/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film) through a polymer induced interfacial self-assembly method. In this method, the polymer (PVC) plays dual roles, that is, inducing the interfacial self-assembly of nanoparticles and fixing the assembled nanostructure in the PVC matrix. As the assembled nanoparticles are orderly half-embedded in the PVC film, the AuNPs/PVC film exhibits outstanding reproducibility and stability. In addition, the film could be easily regenerated by rinsing with NaBH4 solution. As a proof of concept, the film was directly wrapped on an apple surface for in situ detection of pesticide residues, and a detection limit of 10 ng cm-2 thiram was achieved. Furthermore, rapid on-site and in situ detection of multi-pesticide residues has been proved to be feasible with the aid of a portable Raman spectrometer. Due to its simple preparation, good reliability, outstanding stability and reusability, the AuNPs/PVC film has great potential in practical applications.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Tiram/análise , Análise Espectral Raman
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