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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140461, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886990

RESUMO

The proliferation and possible adverse effects of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in waters and the environment is a cause for increasing concern. We investigated the dissipation of three PPCPs: ibuprofen (IBP), diclofenac (DCF) and triclosan (TCS), separately and in mixtures, in the ppm range in biopurification system (BPS) microcosms, paying special attention to their effect on bacterial ecotoxicity, as well as bacterial community structure and composition. The results reveal that BPS microcosms efficiently dissipate IBP and DCF with 90% removed after 45 and 84 days of incubation, respectively. However, removal of TCS required a longer incubation period of 127 days for 90% removal. Furthermore, dissipation of the PPCPs was slower when a mixture of all three was applied to BPS microcosms. TCS had an initial negative effect on bacterial viability by a decrease of 34-43% as measured by live bacterial cell counts using LIVE/DEAD® microscopy; however, this effect was mitigated when the three PPCPs were present simultaneously. The bacterial communities in BPS microcosms were more affected by incubation time than by the PPCPs used. Nonetheless, the PPCPs differentially affected the composition and relative abundance of bacterial taxa. IBP and DCF initially increased bacterial diversity and richness, while exposure to TCS generally provoked an opposite effect without full recovery at the end of the incubation period. TCS, which negatively affected the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Methylophilales, and Legionellales, had the largest impact on bacterial groups. Biomarker OTUs were identified in the BPS microcosms which were constrained to higher concentrations of the PPCPs and thus are likely to harbour degradation and/or detoxification mechanisms. This study reveals for the first time the effect of PPCPs on bacterial ecotoxicity and diversity in biopurification system microcosms and also facilitates the design of further applications of biomixtures to eliminate PPCPs.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Triclosan/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diclofenaco , Ibuprofeno
2.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(7): 866-875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728874

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical compounds end up in wastewater treatment plants but little is known on their effect towards the different microbial groups in anaerobic communities. In this work, the effect of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (CIP), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Diclofenac (DCF) and Ibuprofen (IBP), and the hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), on the activity of acetogens and methanogens in anaerobic communities, was investigated. Microbial communities were more affected by CIP, followed by EE2, DCF and IBP, but the response of the different microbial groups was dissimilar. For concentrations of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L, the specific methanogenic activity was not affected. Acetogenic bacteria were sensitive to CIP concentrations above 1 mg/L, while DCF and EE2 toxicity was only detected for concentrations higher than 10 mg/L, and IBP had no effect in all concentrations tested. Acetoclastic methanogens showed higher sensitivity to the presence of these micropollutants, being affect by all the tested pharmaceutical compounds although at different degrees. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were not affected by any concentration, indicating their lower sensitivity to these compounds when compared to acetoclasts and acetogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/efeitos adversos , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Etinilestradiol/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 596-599, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638962

RESUMO

AIMS Omentin is an adipokine primarily produced by visceral adipose tissue and its reduced levels have been shown to be associate with worse metabolic outcomes. We aimed to study the effects of preoperative ibuprofen on postoperative omentin levels in rats after surgery. METHODS Forty-eight albino Wistar rats, 6 in each of 8 groups according to the surgical procedure (laparotomy, laparotomy plus ibuprofen (IBU), nephrectomy, nephrectomy plus IBU, hepatectomy, hepatectomy plus IBU, splenectomy and splenectomy plus IBU). The Omentin levels of the groups were postoperatively analyzed. RESULTS The mean omentin was significantly higher in the laparotomy plus IBU group compared to the laparotomy group (p<0.001). Mean Omentin was significantly higher in the hepatectomy plus IBU group compared to the hepatectomy group (p=0.01). Mean Omentin was significantly higher in the nephrectomy plus IBU group compared to the nephrectomy group (p=0.001). CONCLUSION We suggest that preoperative ibuprofen may enhance circulating levels of Omentin, which has beneficial effects in trauma and inflammation settings in subjects that undergo minor or major abdominal surgery.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Citocinas/sangue , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Lectinas/sangue , Adipocinas , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Esplenectomia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140507, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629255

RESUMO

A novel approach based on the direct pulsed irradiation of UV-C light onto ibuprofen (IBP) solutions was evaluated in this work, as proof of concept for the direct removal of micropollutants. The experiments confirmed that laser irradiation is able to completely degrade IBP in 15 min in distilled water, with a DOC depletion of ca. 25% and with transformation products (TPs) remaining in solution and estimated to represent ca. 10% of the initial IBP concentration. In wastewater spiked samples, removal efficiency is slightly lower but still significant (ca. 5% IBP remaining after 15 min). Hence, this work suggests that low power solid state pulsed lasers, emitting at 266 nm wavelength, show promise for the removal of these type of micropollutants from water. These results open new opportunities towards the development of chemical-free water treatment methods based on direct, selective irradiation using state of the art, miniaturized laser devices.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Ibuprofeno , Águas Residuárias , Água
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140530, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629260

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF) and ibuprofen (IBU) are widely used anti-inflammatory drugs and are frequently detected in wastewater from Wastewater Treatment Plants and in aquatic environments. In this study, the methanogenic potential (P) of anaerobic sludge subjected to DCF (7.11 ± 0.02 to 44.41 ± 0.05 mg L-1) and IBU (6.11 ± 0.01 to 42.61 ± 0.05 mg L-1), in sanitary sewage, was investigated in batch reactors. Cosubstrates (200 mg L-1 of organic matter) in the form of ethanol, methanol:ethanol and fumarate were tested separately for the removal of drugs. In the DCF assays, P was 6943 ± 121 µmolCH4, 9379 ± 259 µmolCH4, 9897 ± 212 µmolCH4 and 11,530 ± 368 µmolCH4 for control, fumarate, methanol:ethanol and ethanol conditions, respectively. In the IBU assays, under the same conditions, P was 6145 ± 101 µmolCH4, 6947 ± 66 µmolCH4, 8141 ± 191 µmolCH4and 10,583 ± 512 µmolCH4, respectively. Without cosubstrates, drug removal was below 18% for 43.10 ± 0.01 mgDCF L-1 and 43.12 ± 0.03 mgIBU L-1, respectively. Higher P and removal of DCF (28.24 ± 1.10%) and IBU (18.72 ± 1.60%) with ethanol was observed for 43.20 ± 0.01 mgDCF L-1 and 43.42 ± 0.03 mgIBU L-1, respectively. This aspect was better evidenced with DCF due to its molecular structure, a condition that resulted in a higher diversity of bacterial populations. Through the 16S rRNA sequencing, bacteria genera capable of performing aromatic ring cleavage, ß-oxidation and oxidation of ethanol and fatty acids were identified. Higher relative abundance (>0.6%) was observed for Smithella, Sulfuricurvum and Synthophus for the Bacteria Domain and Methanosaeta (>79%) for the Archaea Domain. The use of ethanol favored greater mineralization of organic matter and greater methane production, which can directly assist in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Ibuprofeno , Metano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Águas Residuárias
6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(7): 717-20, 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of herb-separated moxibustion on dysmenorrhea in ovarian endometriosis. METHODS: A total of 54 patients with ovarian endometriosis dysmenorrhea were randomized into a herb-separated moxibustion group and a waiting-list group, 27 cases in each one (3 cases dropped off in the herb-separated moxibustion group, 4 cases dropped off in the waiting-list group). Herb-separated moxibustion was applied at hypogastrium and lumbosacral area for 30 min in the herb-separated moxibustion group, once a week for 3 months, and oral ibuprofen sustained-release capsule was given to relieve pain when necessary. Excepting giving ibuprofen sustained-release capsule when necessary, no more intervention was adopted in the waiting-list group. Before and after treatment and in 3 months follow-up, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, days of dysmenorrhea, total dose of oral painkiller were observed. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the VAS scores after tratment and in follow-up were decreased in the herb-separated moxibustion group (P<0.05), and were less than those in the waiting-list group (P<0.05); the days of dysmenorrhea and the total doses of oral painkiller after tratment and in follow-up were decreased in the herb-separated moxibustion group (P<0.05), and were less than those in the waiting-list group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Herb-separated moxibustion can effectively improve dysmenorrhea symptom and shorten dysmenorrhea days in patients with ovarian endometriosis.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/terapia , Endometriose/terapia , Moxibustão , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(10): 2250-2259, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701502

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) is being considered as a promising emerging advanced oxidation process to degrade persistent organic-pollutants. This paper investigated the effect of several operating parameters on the degradation of a recalcitrant pharmaceutical product, namely ibuprofen (IBP), using an ultrasound-assisted biological reactor. The tested operating parameters are the power density (960, 480) W/L, US frequency (1,142, 860, 578) kHz, working volume (500, 250) mL, initial IBP concentration (30, 60) mg/L, and pH (8.2, 4). It was observed that the IBP degradation was directly influenced by the power density, and the highest degradation efficiency (99%) was obtained at 960 w/L. However, the degradation of IBP at sonication time of 120 min was found to increase from 39% to 96% while decreasing the US frequency from 1,142 to 578 kHz. The working volume had no clear effect on the IBP degradation. The optimal pH was found to be 4, which resulted in 99.5% IBP degradation efficiency after 120 min of sonication time. The degradation of IBP followed the first order kinetics. Finally, the sonically-treated water was fed to a subsequent aerobic biological reactor. The results revealed that the remaining chemical oxygen demand (COD) after sonication was lowered in the biological reactor by a percentage of 47%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Ibuprofeno , Água
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 37149-37154, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681335

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical compounds such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and the artificial estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) are contaminants of emerging concern in freshwater systems. Globally, human pharmaceutical use is growing by around ~ 3% per year; yet, we know little about how interactions between different pharmaceuticals may affect aquatic ecosystems. Here, we test how interactions between ibuprofen and EE2 affect the growth and respiration of streambed biofilms. We used contaminant exposure experiments to quantify how these compounds affected biofilm growth (biomass), respiration, net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), both individually and in combination. We found no effects of either ibuprofen or EE2 on biofilm biomass (using ash-free dry mass as a proxy) or gross primary production. Ibuprofen significantly reduced biofilm respiration and altered NPP. Concomitant exposure to EE2, however, counteracted the inhibitory effects of ibuprofen upon biofilm respiration. Our study, thus, demonstrates that interactions between pharmaceuticals in the environment may have complex effects upon microbial contributions to aquatic ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biofilmes , Ecossistema , Etinilestradiol , Humanos , Ibuprofeno
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726322

RESUMO

The primary aim of in vitro testing of chemicals delivered via the percutaneous route is to predict the absorption that would ensue if exposure occurred in live animals. While there is mounting evidence that in vitro diffusion studies in mammalian skin can provide valid information regarding likely in vivo absorption, little is known whether such a correlation exists between in vitro diffusion testing and in vivo blood levels in amphibians. The current study used previously-reported in vitro absorption data for caffeine, benzoic acid, and ibuprofen across isolated skin from the cane toad (Rhinella marina) to produce a series of linear mixed-effect models of the absorption parameters flux and permeability coefficient (Kp). Models investigated the relative impacts of animal weight, physicochemical characteristics of the applied chemical (logP or molecular weight), and site of application. The top models were then used to predict the flux, Kp and serum concentrations of the same three model chemicals. Finally, the absorption of these chemicals was determined in live cane toads, and results compared to the model predictions. LogP and site of application were included in all top models. In vivo absorption rates were lower than predicted for all chemicals, however, the models provided reasonable predictions of serum concentration, with factors of difference (FOD) ranging from 2.5-10.5. Ibuprofen, the chemical with the highest relative lipophilicity, had the poorest predictive performance, consistently having the highest FOD for all predictions. This report presents the first models of percutaneous absorption in an amphibian. These models provide a basic method to establish the approximate in vivo absorption of hydrophilic and moderately-lipophilic chemicals through frog skin, and could therefore be used to predict absorption when formulating such chemicals for treatment of disease in frogs, or for risk-assessments regarding chemical pollutants in frog habitats.


Assuntos
Ácido Benzoico/metabolismo , Bufo marinus/metabolismo , Cafeína/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Absorção Cutânea/fisiologia , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Difusão , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chemosphere ; 257: 126892, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480082

RESUMO

We used the freshwater insect Hydropsyche sp. to investigate the impact of diets lacking arachidonic acid (ARA) and an environmentally relevant mixture of NSAIDs (Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Naproxen at a nominal concentration of all compounds together 16.75 µg L-1) on their metabolism of ARA and prostaglandins (PGs). The organisms were exposed for 16 days to four different treatments: a reference (FF), a diet lacking ARA (O), to NSAIDs in water (FFN) and to the combination of the two factors (ON). Mortality, biomass and bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals were investigated. The ARA and PGs levels in the organisms were monitored by utilising a targeted metabolomics approach. NSAIDs or dietary constraints did not produce significant differences in biomass or mortality of Hydropsyche sp. among treatments. In organisms exposed to NSAIDs, all pharmaceuticals were detected, except for Ketoprofen. Metabolomic approach determined the presence of PGH2, PGE1 and PGD1. Levels of ARA diminished significantly in those organisms in treatment ON. The levels of PGs responded negatively to the absence of ARA in diet: PGH2 diminished significantly with respect to the reference in treatment O while PGE1 diminished significantly in treatment ON. Regarding the effects of NSAIDs on ARA metabolism, our results suggest that it was sensitive to NSAIDs, but effects were weak and did not imply a general decrease in the PGs. We confirmed that ARA was the main substrate for the synthesis of PGs in Hydropsyche sp, their absence or poor levels of ARA in diet, produced changes in the PG levels.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Diclofenaco , Dieta , Ibuprofeno , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Cetoprofeno , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Naproxeno
12.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(4): 416-420, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584279

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using bite wafers and chewing gum in relieving pain after the activation of the first archwire among Saudi orthodontic patients and evaluating them in comparison with ibuprofen use. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of chewing gum and plastic wafers on the frequency of orthodontic appliance breakage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 105 female patients aged 15-35 years, undergoing maxillary and mandibular fixed appliance treatment were classified randomly into three groups of 35 each. In each group, the patients were given one of the following treatments immediately after the placement of the first archwire, every 8 hours for 1 week as needed: ibuprofen (400 mg), or a viscoelastic bite wafer, or chewing gum. A visual analog scale was given to the patients to record their pain perception following initial archwire placement. In addition, the patients were asked to report any incidence of detached brackets while using the above methods. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found in pain perception at any time interval among the three groups. The pain experienced at bedtime and 24 hours after wire placement among different groups in the present study was found to be slightly higher with maximum intensity and the pain perception finding at different time intervals within each pain relief method was statistically significant (p = 0.000, p < 0.05). Furthermore, ANOVA results demonstrate no significant differences in bracket detachment between the groups (p = 0.20, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of bite wafers and chewing gum was effective and comparable to ibuprofen use for pain relief following the initial activation of fixed orthodontic appliances among Saudi orthodontic patients. In addition, the study found no clinically or statistically significant differences in bracket detachment between the groups. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The nondrug modalities of controlling pain such as chewing gum and/or bite wafers can be used as an alternative to ibuprofen use following the first activation of fixed orthodontic appliances.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes , Goma de Mascar , Ibuprofeno , Fios Ortodônticos , Manejo da Dor , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor , Medição da Dor , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461209, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505293

RESUMO

In most cases, determination of binding constant for analyte-cyclodextrin complexes in capillary electrophoresis is investigated by affinity capillary electrophoresis using a UV detector (ACE-UV). The limitations induced by the UV-detector include : (i) the difficulty of dealing with poor chromogenic analytes and more generally with any analyte presenting strong affinity towards the cyclodextrin (CD), i.e. for which the prerequisite to work with analyte concentration much smaller than those of the CD is difficult to fulfill (ii) the impossibility of studying non-chromogenic analyte. In this paper, two simple methodologies were developed to overcome these limitations. Regarding the analytes which present poor UV-absorbance and/or very high CD-affinity, a methodology using an algorithmic data treatment and taking into account the real analyte concentration in the capillary at the determined migration times allows to correctly estimate the binding constants, even if the experimental prerequisite ([analyte]<<[CD]) is not complied. Moreover, it is proved that classical linearization treatment by picking the migration time of the infinite diluted analytes (at the start of the peak) also provide satisfactory results. Regarding UV-transparent analyte, a competitive methodology combined with algorithmic data treatment allows the determination of their affinity towards cyclodextrins. Last, the applicability of the described competitive method is extended to the study of interaction between two neutral partners, which is another well-known limitation of ACE.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Ibuprofeno/análise , Cinética , Modelos Lineares , Termodinâmica
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140043, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559537

RESUMO

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the main therapeutic classes of molecules contaminating aquatic ecosystems worldwide. NSAIDs are commonly and extensively used for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties to cure pain and inflammation in human and veterinary therapy. After use, NSAIDs are excreted in their native form or as metabolites, entering the aquatic ecosystems. A number of monitoring surveys has detected the presence of different NSAIDs in freshwater ecosystems in the ng/L - µg/L concentration range. Although the concentrations of NSAIDs in surface waters are low, the high biological activity of these molecules may confer them a potential toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms. The present review aims at summarizing toxicity, in terms of both acute and chronic toxicity, induced by the main NSAIDs detected in surface waters worldwide, namely acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), paracetamol (PCM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NPX), both singularly and in mixture, towards freshwater invertebrates. Invertebrates play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning so that NSAIDs-induced effects may result in hazardous consequences to the whole freshwater trophic chain. Acute toxicity of NSAIDs occurs only at high, unrealistic concentrations, while sub-lethal effects arise also at low, environmentally relevant concentrations of all these drugs. Thus, further studies represent a priority in order to improve the knowledge on NSAID toxicity and mechanism(s) of action in freshwater organisms and to shed light on their real ecological hazard towards freshwater communities.


Assuntos
Ibuprofeno , Naproxeno , Acetaminofen , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Aspirina , Diclofenaco , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Humanos , Invertebrados
16.
F1000Res ; 9: 52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-318745

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus recently identified in Wuhan, China (2019-nCoV) has expanded the number of highly pathogenic coronaviruses affecting humans. The 2019-nCoV represents a potential epidemic or pandemic threat, which requires a quick response for preparedness against this infection. The present report uses the informational spectrum methodology to identify the possible origin and natural host of the new virus, as well as putative therapeutic and vaccine targets. The performed in silico analysis indicates that the newly emerging 2019-nCoV is closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and, to a lesser degree, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Moreover, the well-known SARS-CoV receptor (ACE2) might be a putative receptor for the novel virus as well. Additional results indicated that civets and poultry are potential candidates for the natural reservoir of the 2019-nCoV, and that domain 288-330 of S1 protein from the 2019-nCoV represents promising therapeutic and/or vaccine target.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Tropismo Viral , Actinas/química , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Virais/química , Vírus da SARS
17.
F1000Res ; 9: 52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-400221

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus recently identified in Wuhan, China (2019-nCoV) has expanded the number of highly pathogenic coronaviruses affecting humans. The 2019-nCoV represents a potential epidemic or pandemic threat, which requires a quick response for preparedness against this infection. The present report uses the informational spectrum methodology to identify the possible origin and natural host of the new virus, as well as putative therapeutic and vaccine targets. The performed in silico analysis indicates that the newly emerging 2019-nCoV is closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and, to a lesser degree, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Moreover, the well-known SARS-CoV receptor (ACE2) might be a putative receptor for the novel virus as well. Additional results indicated that civets and poultry are potential candidates for the natural reservoir of the 2019-nCoV, and that domain 288-330 of S1 protein from the 2019-nCoV represents promising therapeutic and/or vaccine target.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Tropismo Viral , Actinas/química , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Virais/química , Vírus da SARS
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26103-26114, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358747

RESUMO

The intensive development of medical science has led to an increase in the availability and use of pharmaceutical products. However, nowadays, most of scientific attention has been paid to the native forms of pharmaceuticals, while the transformation products (TPs) of these substances, understood herein as metabolites, degradation products, and selected enantiomers, remain largely unexplored in terms of their characterization, presence, fate and effects within the natural environment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of seven native compounds belonging to different therapeutic groups (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesics, beta-blockers, antibacterial and anti-epileptic drugs), along with the toxicity of their 13 most important TPs. For this purpose, an ecotoxicological test battery, consisting of five organisms of different biological organization was used. The obtained data shows that, in general, the toxicity of TPs to the tested organisms was similar or lower compared to their parent compounds. However, for example, significantly higher toxicity of the R form of ibuprofen to algae and duckweed, as well as a higher toxicity of the R form of naproxen to luminescent bacteria, was observed, proving that the risk associated with the presence of drug TPs in the environment should not be neglected.


Assuntos
Araceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Ecotoxicologia , Ibuprofeno , Naproxeno
19.
Therapie ; 75(4): 355-362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418728

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have an optional prescription status that has resulted in frequent use, in particular for the symptomatic treatment of fever and non-rheumatic pain. In 2019, a multi-source analysis of complementary pharmacological data showed that using NSAIDs in these indications (potentially indicative of an underlying infection) increases the risk of a severe bacterial complication, in particular in the case of lung infections. First, the clinical observations of the French Pharmacovigilance Network showed that severe bacterial infections can occur even after a short NSAID treatment, and even if the NSAID is associated with an antibiotic. Second, pharmacoepidemiological studies, some of which minimized the protopathic bias, all converged and confirmed the risk. Third, experimental in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest several biological mechanisms, which strengthens a causal link beyond the well-known risk of delaying the care of the infection (immunomodulatory effects, effects on S. pyogenes infections, and reduced antibiotics efficacy). Therefore, in case of infection, symptomatic treatment with NSAIDs for non-severe symptoms (fever, pain, or myalgia) is not to be recommended, given a range of clinical and scientific arguments supporting an increased risk of severe bacterial complication. Besides, the existence of a safer drug alternative, with paracetamol at recommended doses, makes this recommendation of precaution and common sense even more legitimate. In 2020, such recommendation is more topical than ever with the emergence of COVID-19, especially since it results in fever, headaches, muscular pain, and cough, and is further complicated with pneumopathy, and given experimental data suggesting a link between ibuprofen and the level of expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , França , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
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