Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.148
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139862, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544679

RESUMO

As one typical synthetic phenolic antioxidant, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT) has been widely adopted in food and other human products, and considered as an emerging contaminant due to its toxic effects. Understanding bioaccumulation and metabolism of BHT is crucial to evaluate its environmental fate and toxicity. In this study, the tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of BHT in mice were investigated. It was shown that BHT was prone to be accumulated in metabolism-related organs (i.e., liver and kidney) with AUC0-120 h (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 120 h) values of 206 h·µg/g in liver and 162 h·µg/g in kidney. For metabolites, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadione (BHT-quinol) was preferentially accumulated in liver, while 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) was the major metabolite in excreta. The major excretion of BHT and metabolites was through feces with a value of 25.1 ± 0.16% of the initial dose compared with urine of 1.27 ± 0.05%. The possible metabolic pathways of BHT were elucidated as the oxidation of the para-methyl, tert-butyl groups, and aromatic ring based on the known and identified unknown metabolites by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The preferred accumulation of BHT and metabolites in liver implies their potential hepatotoxicity. Results here also suggested that considering the distribution and excretion of metabolites can better assess BHT's fate and risk in mammals.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenóis , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 618-627, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052442

RESUMO

Flavonoid and phenolic acid profile of chrysanthemum morifolium flower extract (CME) was analyzed by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF-MS, Xevo G2-S; Milford, MA, USA, Waters) system in tandem with a quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The effect of CME on lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in goat patties during 9 days of refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C). Patties were prepared from freshly minced meat with the addition of 0.1% and 0.2% CME and compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (0.01%) and control. High level of thiol and lower level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl content were observed in CME-treated samples compared to control during storage period. The incorporation of CME in patties reduced the pH and water activity values markedly, but no effect was found on color and sensory analyses. These results show that increased level of CME is more effective against lipid and protein oxidation and therefore can be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products without affecting product acceptability. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Chrysanthemum morifolium flower belongs to the family "Asteraceae" and is a novel natural antioxidant for meat processing industry. It possesses strong antioxidant activities having many phenolic compounds including gallocatechin, apigenin, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, rhamnetin, and quercetin, and can be used for development and production of functional food as a natural antioxidant agent.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Chrysanthemum/química , Lipídeos/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas/química , Animais , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Flores/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cabras , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
3.
Talanta ; 209: 120540, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891992

RESUMO

A new method was established for the determination of the extractables from pharmaceutical packaging materials using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Packaging samples were filled with three kinds of buffer solutions: acid buffer (pH = 3), alkaline buffer (pH = 9) and 0.9% NaCl solution to extract as many extractables as possible, and then the extractables in buffer solutions were enriched by DLLME-SFO technique. Parameters affecting the efficiency of the extraction procedure were evaluated and optimized, including the type and volume of dispersant, extractant volume, pH and vortex-mixing time. After optimization, the values obtained for limits of detection and quantification for three kinds of common antioxidants were 0.3 and 1.0 µg/L respectively, and good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was observed in their respective concentration ranges. The recoveries ranged from 80.61% to 117.87% at three spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.92% and 9.29% (n = 6) in all three buffer solutions. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of extractables from pharmaceutical packaging materials. The results indicated that the proposed procedure is a novel, sensitive, fast and repeatable method and has a great significance for evaluation of safety of pharmaceutical packaging materials.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Triazóis/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Embalagem de Medicamentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Solventes
4.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113624, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780362

RESUMO

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is one of the most frequently used synthetic phenolic antioxidants added to food and consumer products such as plastics as a preservative. Due to its high production volume, BHT has been detected in aquatic environments, raising concerns about sub-lethal toxicity. However, there are limited toxicological data for BHT, especially in fish. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to BHT at concentrations ranging 0.01-100 µM for up to 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Acute toxicity was assessed, and experiments revealed that BHT had a 96 h LC50 value of 57.61 µM. At sub-lethal doses (0.1-60 µM), BHT markedly decreased heart rates of zebrafish embryos at 48 h and 72 h by ∼25-30%. Basal and maximal respiration of zebrafish embryos at 24 hpf were decreased by 59.3% and 41.4% respectively following exposure to 100 µM BHT. Behavior in zebrafish was measured at 6 dpf following exposures to 0.01-10 µM BHT. Locomotor behaviors (e.g. total distance moved and velocity) were significantly increased in larvae at doses higher than 0.1 µM BHT. In addition, dark-avoidance behavior was decreased following exposure to 0.01 µM BHT, while conversely, it was increased in zebrafish exposed to 0.1 µM BHT. To investigate potential underlying mechanisms that could explain behavioral changes, transcripts involved in dopamine signaling were measured. Relative expression of dat mRNA was increased in larval fish from the 0.01 µM BHT treatment, while there were no effects on dat mRNA levels at higher concentrations. The mRNA levels of drd3 were decreased in zebrafish from the 1 µM BHT treatment. Taken together, BHT can affect the expression of the dopamine system, which is hypothesized to be related to the abnormal anxiety-associated behavior of larval zebrafish.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Dopamina , Expressão Gênica , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/toxicidade , Dopamina/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113421, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677866

RESUMO

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic phenolic antioxidant that has been used as an additive for fat- or oil-containing foods. The exposure index value increases with extended usage of the chemical. Further, estimated total amount of BHT could exceed standard regulation, considering dietary intake or another exposure. Although BHT may induce side effects in reproductive systems, adequate research had not yet been performed to confirm them. In this study, we investigated the effects of BHT on mouse Leydig cells (TM3), which are components of testis. Our results indicated that BHT suppressed cellular proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in TM3 cells. Moreover, BHT hampered cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis in TM3 cells. Furthermore, BHT treatment led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA fragmentation, simultaneously stimulating intrinsic apoptosis signal transduction. To elucidate the mode of action of BHT on Leydig cells, we performed western blot analysis and confirmed the activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. Collectively, our results demonstrated that BHT has toxic effects on mouse Leydig cells via induction of calcium dysregulation and ER-mitochondria dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado/toxicidade , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Testículo/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
6.
Talanta ; 208: 120409, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816787

RESUMO

A new and simple method for Ni determination in hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) has been developed using a RP-DLLME sample preparation procedure for further determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The RP-DLLME procedure includes simultaneous microextraction and preconcentration of Ni in HVF, using 5.0 g of HVF preheated (75 °C) and diluted in 5.0 mL of xylene, with the addition of a dispersant/extractant mixture (n-propanol/dilute HNO3). The sample was manually stirred and centrifuged and the aqueous phase was collected for further Ni determination by FAAS and GFAAS. RP-DLLME was carried out using only 700 µL of n-propanol and 300 µL of 2.0 mol L-1 HNO3. The recovery varied from 93.3% to 101.5% for HVF. The LODs and LOQs were 40 and 90 ng g-1 for FAAS, and 0.41 and 1.36 ng g-1 for GFAAS. The proposed analytical method is viable and this is the first application of RP-DLLME to solid fat samples, with Ni determination as an example of application. This method consumes small amounts of reagents, with lower toxicity as compared to microwave decomposition. Furthermore, the key features of the RP-DLLME method include simplicity of operation, high sample mass, reduced reagent consumption, and use of diluted HNO3 as an extractant.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Níquel/análise , Óleo de Soja/química , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Hidrogenação , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 309: 125688, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732249

RESUMO

The antiradical power, at equal concentrations of active principles, of the following antioxidants were studied using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay: butylated-hydroxyanisole, butylated-hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ascorbyl palmitate, tocopherol, grape seed extract, olive extract and five rosemary extracts with different concentrations of carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (COL). The reaction kinetics of DPPH scavenging activity in each studied substance identified significant variations in the time needed to reach the steady state. Rosemary extracts were seen to be more effective than the other compounds. CA had higher antioxidant activity than COL, although COL seemed to react faster with DPPH. The relevance of the CA/COL ratio for the antioxidant activity of rosemary extracts was also analysed. The presence of COL in rosemary extracts increased the antioxidant activity with an optimal CA/COL ratio of 2.5-3.0. Olive extract and grape seed extract seem to be very promising additives for use as technological antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Abietanos/análise , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Hidroxianisol Butilado/análise , Hidroxianisol Butilado/farmacologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocoferóis/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem ; 302: 125327, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404870

RESUMO

The effect of tomato lycopene-rich extract (TLE) addition on shelf-life of linseed oil was evaluated. Linseed oil was extracted by cold pressing and TLE by supercritical CO2. Linseed oils with and without TLE addition were characterized for moisture, color, refractive index, fatty acid composition and antioxidants. Adding TLE to 80 mg lycopene/kg oil improved linseed oil stability, showing the same induction time at 110 °C (by Rancimat) of control linseed oil with 200 mg/kg butylhydroxytoluene. The increase of free fatty acid, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232 and K268 at 40, 50, and 60 °C until 90 days followed first-order kinetics. Rancidity rate augmented with temperature. TLE addition slowed oil degradation without changing the mechanism since the Arrhenius lines were parallel. Mean Ea were respectively 38.2, 24.7, 38.0, 38.2, 41.5 kJ/mol. TLE addition increased linseed oil shelf-life by 31% (Rancimat) and by 42% (stability kinetics during storage).


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Licopeno/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hidrólise , Cinética , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13959-13969, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702911

RESUMO

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) have been identified as an emerging group of contaminants in recent years. However, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of human prenatal exposure to these synthetic chemicals. In this study, a set of eight SPAs and four major transformation products (TPs) were systematically analyzed in matched samples of maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placenta from a population of pregnant women. Five of the eight target SPAs and all four target TPs were frequently detected in the maternal-placental-fetal unit, indicating prenatal exposure to SPAs and the transfer of SPAs across the placenta. In the three matrices, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (DBP), and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (AO 2246) were identified as the most abundant SPAs, while 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (BHT-Q) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHT-quinol) were identified as the predominant TPs of BHT. In the maternal plasma, concentrations of both BHT-Q and BHT-quinol were significantly correlated with BHT (p < 0.001), suggesting that the two TPs mainly originated from the biotransformation of BHT itself in pregnant women. The transplacental transfer efficiencies (TTEs) of the SPAs and TPs were structure-dependent and generally less than 1. Significantly higher TTEs for four target TPs than their parent BHT were identified. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that SPAs and TPs transfer across the placenta in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Biotransformação , China , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência
10.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113330, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606662

RESUMO

2,6-Di-tert-butyl-hydroxytotulene (BHT), as a significant synthetic phenolic antioxidant (SPA), has received increasing attention in the environmental field. In the present study, the BHT is confirmed to be mainly distributed in the liquid phase in the environment base on the Aspen PLUS simulation results. The mechanism and kinetics of BHT transformation initiated by OH radicals were conducted in aquatic environment using density functional theory (DFT) method. Briefly, seven initiation reactions and three detailed transformation pathways of BHT were reported. The H atoms in the t-butyl and methyl group were found more favorable to be abstracted. The C1 site of the BHT was susceptible to addition by OH radicals. Rate constants of different initial reactions were calculated and they were inhibited by temperature rise. Meanwhile, the acute and chronic toxicities of BHT and its metabolites were evaluated at three different trophic levels using the ECOSAR program. During the degradation process, the toxicities of these metabolites gradually decreased, but the toxicities of the final product 2,6-di-tert-butyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1,4-dione (BHT-Q) were significantly increased. These results could help to reveal the transformation mechanism and risk assessment of BHT in aquatic environment, and further design the experimental and industrial applications of SPAs.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cinética , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(22): 13440-13448, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609587

RESUMO

Although synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) are widely used in various personal care products (PCPs), little is known about their levels, composition profiles, human exposure, or environmental emissions. In this study, the occurrence of SPAs was evaluated in 15 categories of 214 PCPs collected in Toronto, Canada. Nine SPAs were detected in the PCPs, of which only 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, < method quantification limit (MQL)-827 900 ng/g, mean: 35 602 ng/g, median: 249 ng/g) was observed with a detection frequency of >50%. When the 214 PCPs were separated into products labeled as containing BHT and those labeled as not containing BHT, the BHT-labeled PCPs (mean: 369 253 ng//g, median: 382 560 ng/g) contained significantly higher concentrations of BHT than the BHT-unlabeled PCPs (mean: 4960 ng/g, median: 199 ng/g) did (p < 0.01). Five transformation products (TPs) of BHT were also detected in the PCPs at low concentrations (∑TPs: < MQL to 19 014 ng/g, mean: 730 ng/g, median: < MQL) and detection frequencies (12.6-37.4%). Preliminary calculations found that dermal absorption via PCP use may be an important exposure pathway for BHT (mean: 565 879 ng/day median: 2988 ng/day), although this is a negligible exposure pathway for other SPAs. In addition, the estimated discharges of BHT (mean: 7852 g/day, median: 88 g/day) via greywater after PCP use were calculated, which represents a nonignorable source of BHT loading into wastewater treatment plants in Toronto (contributing 10%). To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of human exposure to and discharge of SPAs via PCP use.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fenóis , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Canadá , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
12.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(11): 1266-1274, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446784

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CYP) and methotrexate (MTX) have been evaluated for their ability to induce toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and the protective role of mitochondrial and lysosomal stabilizing agents. The potential toxicity effects of CYP and MTX were measured in vitro by cellular parameters assays such as cellular viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)) collapse, lysosomal membrane damage, intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), extracellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and lipid peroxidation. Separately, human lymphocytes were treated with concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 ng/mL for CYP and 1, 2, 5, and 10 µg/mL for MTX for 6 h. Statistical evaluations showed that CYP and MTX significantly decreased the cell viability at the three highest concentrations when compared with both the negative and solvent controls. In addition, CYP and MTX were significantly induced ROS formation, MMP collapse, lysosomal membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, and GSH depletion compared with the controls. Mitochondrial and lysosomal protective agents like cyclosporine A and chloroquine, respectively, decreased cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CYP and MTX. The present results indicate that CYP and MTX are toxic to human PBLs and their toxicity could be ameliorated by mitochondrial and lysosomal protective agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metotrexato/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Food Chem ; 301: 125297, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394336

RESUMO

Candida antarctica lipase B-catalysed synthesis of lipophilic esters of polydatin was investigated along with their antioxidant activities. The effects of synthesis parameters such as solvent, substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, addition of molecular sieves, reaction temperature and time on the production of ester were studied and optimised. The highest production of esters was obtained with acetone as the reaction solvent. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol. All polydatin esters inhibited the oxidative destruction of ß-carotene more effectively than did BHT and α-tocopherol. Results of thiobarbituric acid tests showed that in bulk fish oil, all esters were more effective than α-tocopherol at 2 mmol/kg concentration but were not as effective as BHT. In fish oil-emulsions, all esters were more effective than both BHT and α-tocopherol at 2 mmol/kg concentration. The synthesized polydatin esters are promising antioxidants for oil/fat-based foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Emulsões/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Glucosídeos/química , Estilbenos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Esterificação , Ésteres/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Solventes/química , Temperatura , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900362, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400187

RESUMO

A series of novel esters and amides was synthesized on the basis of para-coumaric acid containing isobornyl groups in ortho-positions relative to the phenolic hydroxy group. Antioxidant properties of the obtained compounds were evaluated and compared on in vitro models: radical-scavenging ability, antioxidant activity on a substrate containing the lipids of animal brain, cytotoxicity of red blood cells, antioxidant and membrane-protective properties on the model of oxidative red blood cells hemolysis. Statistically significant relationship was established between the antioxidant activity of the studied compounds in model system containing animal lipids and the parameters reflecting their antioxidant properties on the model of H2 O2 -induced hemolysis of red blood cells. It was determined that an amide with a morpholine fragment has the highest antioxidant activity. The specified derivative significantly surpassed the reference substances (parent acid, BHT) and was not inferior to the effective antioxidant 2,6-diisobornyl-4-methylphenol in terms of its properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Canfanos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Canfanos/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Propionatos/síntese química , Propionatos/química
15.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1423-1428, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265952

RESUMO

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) have received increasing attention due to the reports of toxicity and environmental contamination. Nevertheless, limited information was available on human burdens of these SPAs, with the exception of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). In our study, BHT as well as six other SPAs were analyzed in human urine samples from United States donors. Three SPA congeners were detected in human urine: BHT, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (DBP), and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA). BHT, which is the congener received most concerns, was detected at low concentrations [geometric mean (GM): 0.06 ng/mL], whereas four of its metabolites were detected at relatively high concentrations (GM: 1.68 ng/mL). Surprisingly, DBP was detected at extremely high concentrations (GM: 18.3 ng/mL). The concentrations of DBP (GM: 25.8 ng/mL), BHT (0.853 ng/mL), and metabolites (GM: 10.5 ng/mL) increased significantly after the urine samples were hydrolyzed by ß-glucuronidase (p < 0.01), indicating the prevalence of the conjugated forms of SPAs and their metabolites in human urine. DBP, which has previously received little attention, was the predominant congener, contributing 88.2% and 63.6% to total target concentrations in the urine samples before and after ß-glucuronidase hydrolysis, respectively. Thus, previous studies have vastly underestimated the burdens of SPAs to humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study revealing the presence of DBP in human urine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Hidroxianisol Butilado/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
16.
Meat Sci ; 156: 68-74, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132590

RESUMO

Meat colour and lipid oxidative stability can be improved by adding antioxidants to animal diet. This study investigated the effects of the addition of astaxanthin to a butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-containing commercial milk-replacer, at a rate of 25 mg of astaxanthin/kg of milk-replacer powder, on suckling lamb meat quality. Twenty newborn (2 day old) lambs allocated to individual pens were artificially reared for 22 days. Ten lambs (Control) were fed a commercial milk-replacer and the other ten (Astaxanthin) received the same milk-replacer but included astaxanthin. After the feeding trial, meat and fat colour, astaxanthin and BHT levels in meat, oxidative stability in refrigerated and frozen raw meat and refrigerated cooked meat, and meat volatiles in cooked meat were determined. Astaxanthin in artificially reared suckling lambs at the levels used reduced the accumulation of BHT in the meat, slightly affected meat colour, by reducing meat lightness and increasing meat and fat redness, and increased the lipid stability of frozen meat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Cor , Culinária , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Carneiro Doméstico , Xantofilas/farmacologia
17.
J AOAC Int ; 102(6): 1892-1900, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039830

RESUMO

Background: Acesulfame-K (ACE), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and aspartame (ASP) are a common combination of food additives added to chewing gums. The abuse of these additives results in severe adverse health effects; however, they are still extensively used owing to their high performance and low cost. Objective: The development and optimization of a simple, cheap, sensitive, and eco-friendly HPLC/UV method for the simultaneous determination of ASP, ACE, and BHT along with aspartame degradation product phenylalanine (PHEN) in chewing gum. Methods: The method was optimized using a 5 µm C18 column and an eluent consisting of methanol and 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) according to a suitable gradient elution program. Simple sample preparation, consisting of dilution, homogenization, and sonication followed by centrifugation and filtration, was optimized and used for the extraction of chewing gum. The greenness of the method was evaluated. Results: The proposed method exhibited excellent linearity (R² > 0.9996), low LOQ (0.08-0.95 µg/mL), and recoveries between 85.3 and 98.83% with relative SD (RSD) ≤ 2.7%. High resolution was obtained with <25 min run times with excellent precision (RSD: 0.28-1.33%). This method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of ACE, ASP, and BHT in commercial chewing gum; PHEN was not detected. Furthermore, our method is considered to be environmentally acceptable. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the developed method can be used to detect ACE, BHT, ASP, and PHEN in chewing gum. Highlights: A new sensitive, green HPLC/UV method is developed to be used as a minimal-cost routine analysis procedure for commercial chewing gum.


Assuntos
Goma de Mascar/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Aspartame/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/análise , Química Verde/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Fenilalanina/análise , Tiazinas/análise
18.
Cryobiology ; 89: 76-81, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071309

RESUMO

The semen cryopreservation processes are associated with state of oxidative stress induced by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to functional spermatozoa. Whereby, antioxidants have been utilized to scavenge or neutralize the elevated levels of ROS. The aim of at the present study was to evaluate the effect of adding BHT to the freezing extenders on post-thaw characteristics of domestic cat spermatozoa. Semen samples were frozen in Tris-fructose-citric acid-based extender, supplemented with different concentrations of BHT (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 2.0 mM) and a control sample without antioxidant. After thawing, sperm samples were assessed for motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis and viability, acrosome integrity, superoxide anion production and membrane lipid peroxidation status by flow cytometry. In the study, the parameters of sperm motility and acrosome integrity were significantly higher in 2.0 mM BHT compared to sperm frozen in the extender with other concentrations and control (P < 0.05), in addition, this concentration reduced significantly the superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation of the sperm. The results demonstrated that the supplementation of BHT to the freezing extender could protect the function and cellular structure of domestic cat sperm from cryoinjuries.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise do Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Acrossomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Gatos , Congelamento , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991726

RESUMO

Dietary gliadin may show a broad spectrum of toxicity. The interplay between mitochondria and gliadin-induced oxidative stress has not been thoroughly examined in the intestinal epithelium. In this kinetic study, Caco-2 cells were exposed for 24 h to pepsin-trypsin-digested gliadin, alone or in combination with the antioxidant 2,6-di-tbutyl-p-cresol (BHT), and the effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA were studied. Cells ability to recover from stress was determined after 24 h and 48 h of incubation in the culture medium. Gliadin-induced oxidative stress evoked a compensatory response. The stressor triggered a rapid and significant increase of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) and Peroxiredoxin III (PrxIII) proteins, and mtDNA amount. As for the effects of gliadin on mtDNA integrity, strand breaks, abasic sites, and modified bases were analyzed in three mtDNA regions. D-loop appeared a more fragile target than Ori-L and ND1/ND2. The temporal trend of the damage at D-loop paralleled that of the amount of mtDNA. Overall, a trend toward control values was shown 48 h after gliadin exposure. Finally, BHT was able to counteract the effects of gliadin. Results from this study highlighted the effects of gliadin-induced oxidative stress on mitochondria, providing valuable evidence that might improve the knowledge of the pathophysiology of gluten-related disorders.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Gliadina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Gliadina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Biogênese de Organelas
20.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018515

RESUMO

At the present time, scientists place a great deal of effort worldwide trying to improve the therapeutic potential of metal complexes of curcumin and curcuminoids. Herein, the synthesis of four homoleptic metal complexes with diacetylcurcumin (DAC), using a ligand designed to prevent the interaction of phenolic groups, rendering metal complexes through the ß-diketone functionality, is reported. Due to their physiological relevance, we used bivalent magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese for complexation with DAC. The resulting products were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), liquid and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic moment, mass spectrometry (MS), single crystal, and powder X-ray diffraction (SCXRD and PXRD). Crystallization was achieved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as triclinic systems with space group P-1, showing the metal bound to the ß-diketone function, while the 1H-NMR confirmed the preference of the enolic form of the ligand. Single crystal data demonstrated a 1:2 metal:ligand ratio. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS). All four metal complexes (Mg, Zn, Cu, and Mn) exhibited good antioxidant effect (IC50 = 2.03 ± 0.27, 1.58 ± 0.07, 1.58 ± 0.15 and 1.24 ± 0.10 µM respectively) compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol. The cytotoxic activity in human cancer cell lines against colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15), mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and lung adenocarcinoma (SKLU-1) was found comparable ((DAC)2Mg), or ca. 2-fold higher ((DAC)2Zn) than cisplatin. The acute toxicity assays indicate class 5 toxicity, according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines at doses of 3 g/kg for all complexes. No mortality or changes in the behavior of animals in any of the treated groups was observed. A therapeutic potential can be envisaged from the relevant cytotoxic activity upon human cancer cell lines in vitro and the undetected in vivo acute toxicity of these compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Magnésio/química , Manganês/química , Zinco/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Cátions Bivalentes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Curcumina/química , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ligantes , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA