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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1578-1595, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489036

RESUMO

Alismatis Rhizoma is a traditional Chinese medicine, which was widely used in clinical prescriptions and proprietary Chinese medicine. Over 220 compounds have been isolated from it, including triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, polysaccharides, nitrogen compounds, phenylpropanoids, flavones and sterides. The pharmacological studies show that Alismatis Rhizoma exhibits diuretic, anti-urolithiatic, anti-hyperlipidemia, antidiabetics, antitumor, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-complementary activities, etc. In this review, the chemical compositions and its pharmacological activities of Alismatis Rhizoma in recent 50 years were summarized. The authors hope to provide references for further study, development and utilization of Alismatis Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Rizoma , Diuréticos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Triterpenos
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 166: 104551, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448415

RESUMO

Tetraena mongolica Maxim is a species of Zygophyllaceae endemic to China. Because few insect pests affect its growth and flowering, we speculated that this plant produces defensive chemicals that are insect repellents or antifeedants. The effects of different fractions from crude stem and leaf extracts on Pieris rapae were examined. The results confirmed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction from the stems had insecticidal potential. Five compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: a volatile oil [bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (1)], three triterpenoids 2E-3ß-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-erythrodiol (2), 2Z-3ß-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-erythrodiol (3), and 2E-3ß-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (4)], and one steroid [ß-sitosterol (5)]. Compounds 1-5 exhibited different degrees of insecticidal activity, including antifeedant and growth-inhibition effects. Compounds 1-5 inhibited the activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to different degrees. Compound 1 had the strongest antifeedant and growth-inhibition effects, and significantly inhibited the activity of CarE and AChE. Our results indicate that compounds 1-4 are the major bioactive insecticidal constituents of Tetraena mongolica. This work should facilitate the development and application of plant-derived botanical pesticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Triterpenos , Zygophyllaceae , China
3.
Phytomedicine ; 72: 153232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease, although fibrosis prevention is beneficial, few interventions are available that specifically target fibrogenesis. Poricoic acid A (PAA) isolated from Poria cocos exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in the kidney, however the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. PURPOSE: We isolated PAA and investigated its effects and the underlying mechanisms in renal fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) animal models and TGF-ß1-induced renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) were used to investigate the anti-fibrotic activity of PAA and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Western blots, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, co-immunoprecipitation and molecular docking methods were used. Knock-down and knock-in of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the UUO model and cultured NRK-49F cells were employed to verify the mechanisms of action of PAA. RESULTS: PAA improved renal function and alleviated fibrosis by stimulating AMPK and inhibiting Smad3 specifically in Nx and UUO models. Reduced AMPK activity was associated with Smad3 induction, fibroblast activation, and the accumulation and aberrant remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in human renal puncture samples and cultured NRK-49F cells. PAA stimulated AMPK activity and decreased fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, thus showing that AMPK was essential for PAA to exert its anti-fibrotic effects. AMPK deficiency reduced the anti-fibrotic effects of PAA, while AMPK overexpression enhanced its effect. CONCLUSION: PAA activated AMPK and further inhibited Smad3 specifically to suppress fibrosis by preventing aberrant ECM accumulation and remodelling and facilitating the deactivation of fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia
4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(12): 6988-6999, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374474

RESUMO

Outbreaks of infections with viruses like Sars-CoV-2, Ebola virus and Zika virus lead to major global health and economic problems because of limited treatment options. Therefore, new antiviral drug candidates are urgently needed. The promising new antiviral drug candidate silvestrol effectively inhibited replication of Corona-, Ebola-, Zika-, Picorna-, Hepatis E and Chikungunya viruses. Besides a direct impact on pathogens, modulation of the host immune system provides an additional facet to antiviral drug development because suitable immune modulation can boost innate defence mechanisms against the pathogens. In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out. However, silvestrol amplified the anti-inflammatory potential of M2-macrophages by increasing expression of anti-inflammatory surface markers CD206, TREM2 and reducing release of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and CCL2. The differentiation of dendritic cells in the presence of silvestrol is characterized by down-regulation of several surface markers and cytokines indicating that differentiation is impaired by silvestrol. In conclusion, silvestrol influences the inflammatory status of immune cells depending on the cell type and activation status.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Chikungunya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Citocinas/classificação , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite E/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite E/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Picornaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Picornaviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picornaviridae/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/imunologia
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 329: 26-30, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380124

RESUMO

QF-036 is a novel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) maturation inhibitor that is a lupine triterpenoid derivative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of QF-036. A single oral toxicity and a 4-week repeated oral toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The single oral toxicity study of QF-036 in SD rats showed that no mortality or visible pathological changes were noted at doses of 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. QF-036 exhibited a non-linear toxicokinetic profile over the dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg in the single dose study, and a saturation trend appeared at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. In the 4-week oral toxicity and toxicokinetic study, SD rats were given 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg QF-036 once daily for 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week recovery period. No mortality or significant effects on food consumption, body weight, or behavior were observed. In addition, there were no test article-related changes in hematology, clinical biochemistry and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 200 mg/kg. The toxicokinetic study demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in the systemic exposure to QF-036 after 4 weeks of oral administration. There were no marked sex differences or drug accumulation observed for repeated doses of QF-036.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/toxicidade , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade , Triterpenos/toxicidade
6.
Planta Med ; 86(8): 548-555, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294786

RESUMO

The antinociceptive property of Centella asiatica extracts is known but the analgesic activity of its bioactive constituent asiaticoside has not been reported. We evaluated the antinociceptive activity of orally (p. o.) administered asiaticoside (1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg) in mice using the 0.6% acetic acid-induced writhing test, the 2.5% formalin-induced paw licking test, and the hot plate test. The capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests were employed to evaluate the involvement of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems, respectively. Asiaticoside (3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced the rate of writhing (p < 0.0001) by 25.3, 47.8, and 53.9%, respectively, and increased the latency period (p < 0.05) on the hot plate at 60 min post-treatment until the end of the experiment. Moreover, asiaticoside (3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) shortened the time spent in licking/biting the injected paw (p < 0.0001) in the early phase of the formalin test by 45.7, 51.4, and 52.7%, respectively, and in the late phase (p < 0.01) by 23.6, 40.5, and 50.6%, respectively. Antinociception induced by asiaticoside (10 mg/kg) was not antagonized by naloxone in both the 2.5% formalin-induced nociception and the hot plate test, indicating a nonparticipation of the opioidergic system. Asiaticoside (1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) reduced the duration of biting/licking the capsaicin-injected paw (p < 0.0001) by 40.5, 48.2, 59.5, and 63.5%, respectively. Moreover, asiaticoside (5 and 10 mg/kg) shortened the time spent in biting/licking the glutamate-injected paw (p < 0.01) by 29.9 and 48.6%, respectively. Therefore, asiaticoside (5 and 10 mg/kg, p. o.) induces antinociception possibly through the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Nociceptividade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais , Triterpenos
7.
Planta Med ; 86(8): 565-570, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325509

RESUMO

Bacopa monnieri is an Ayurvedic plant with rising interest in the pharmacological effects of its extract and constituents, including flavonoids, saponins, and triterpenes such as cucurbitacins, betulinic acid, and bacosine. The latter two compounds are isomeric 3-hydroxy lupenoic acids, which vary only in the arrangement of the carboxylic acid group and the methyl group at C-27 and C-28 and the orientation of the hydroxy group at C-3. In this study, we have reinvestigated the contents of betulinic acid and bacosine, respectively, in extracts from various commercially available B. monnieri powders and food supplements. To our surprise, HPLC-ion trap time-of-flight analyses identified only betulinic acid, but not bacosine, in all extracts under study, which was verified by GC-MS, HPLC-ELSD, 1D NMR (1H,13C), and 2D NMR (1H,1H COSY, 1H,13C HMBC, 1H,13C HSQC, 1H,1H NOESY) experiments. Moreover, it turned out that commercially available reference samples of bacosine were structurally identical with betulinic acid.


Assuntos
Bacopa , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais
8.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112363, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278135

RESUMO

Three undescribed seco-ursane stereoisomers, ilexcornutosides A-C, two undescribed triterpenoid saponins, ilexcornutosides D-E, and 11 known triterpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton. Ilexcornutosides A-C and F with the same planar structures are unique 13(18)-ene-18,19-seco-ursane skeleton triterpenoids, identified as (3S,12R)-3-O-[ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl]-12-hydroxyl-19-oxo-18,19-secours-13(18)-en-28,21-lactone. Among them, ilexcornutosides A and F (or ilexcornutosides B and C) are a pair of diastereomers at the C-20 position; ilexcornutosides A and C (or ilexcornutosides B and F) are a pair of diastereomers with epimerization at the C-21. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS) and chemical analyses. The absolute configurations of ilexcornutosides A, B, D and F were determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with a Cu Kα radiation. The inhibitory effect of ilexcornutosides A-F on the PPARγ expression was assessed in the 3T3-L1-Lenti-PPARγ-Luc cells using a single luciferase reporter assay. Ilexcornutosides A and C showed a comparable activity in decrease of the PPARγ expression to the positive control (T0070907) at 5 µM.


Assuntos
Ilex , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112367, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339958

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of Glandularia x hybrida roots resulted in the isolation and identification of five previously undescribed saponins, 3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranosyl-hederagenin-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranosyl-hederagenin-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-[ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, hederagenin-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→2)-[ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, 23-O-acetyl-3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranosyl-pomolic acid-28-O-ß-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl ester, and 23-O-acetyl-pomolic acid-3-O-ß-ᴅ-xylopyranoside, along with eleven structurally diverse compounds. The structural characterizations of the isolated compounds were determined using physical data, comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis, and HRESIMS. All isolated saponins are hederagenin or pomolic acid glycosides conjugated with differentiable sugar units bound to C-3 and/or C-28 of the aglycone through ether and/or ester glycosidic linkages, respectively. Structural diversity of these isolated secondary metabolites would have a great impact on the future chemosystematic studies of this plant. Four saponins, obtained in good yield were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in a rat model using the carrageenan-induced paw edema protocol. Two of these exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities demonstrated through inhibition of the paw edema by 64 and 60%.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Triterpenos , Verbenaceae , Animais , Glicosídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos
10.
Life Sci ; 253: 117684, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315728

RESUMO

Brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated in various psychiatric disorders. The current study investigated the effect and mechanism of 25-Methoxyhispidol A (25-MHA) against CCl4-induced anxiety and depression. Mice were challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg; i.p.) after 30 min of 25-MHA (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Pretreatment with 25-MHA (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the anxiety and depression-like behavior in testing models. The oxidative stress induced by CCl4 was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with 25-MHA. The immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed a reduction in kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and improvement in expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1. In addition, 25-MHA significantly attenuated the CCl4-mediated depletion of antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) region and reduced the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), along with a decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HC and PFC region. Pretreatment with 25-MHA also showed an improved expression of neurotrophic factors i.e., brain derived growth factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, 25-MHA inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) and ammonia level in plasma, liver, HC and PFC regions of mice brain. 25-MHA also exhibited anti-apoptotic effect evident from the reduced expression of caspase-3 and decreased hippocampal DNA damage in comet assay. Furthermore, decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and corticosterone level, along with prevention of CCl4-induced alterations in thickness of dentate gyrus and intact hepatic cells morphology, represented by hippocampal and liver histopathology, indicated the neuroprotective effect of 25-MHA.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320433

RESUMO

Oxidative stress may cause ocular surface damage during the development of dry eye. Mammalian cells have defense systems against oxidative stress. A central regulator of the stress response is nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2). NFE2L2 is activated by the novel triterpenoid RS9 (a biotransformation compound of RTA 402). The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of RS9 against dry eye using in vitro and in vivo models. Bioactivity was estimated by the induction of mRNAs for two NFE2L2-targeted genes: NQO1 (prevents radical species) and GCLC (glutathione synthesis), using a corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Protection against oxidation and cell damage was tested in vitro by culturing cells under hyperosmotic stress or by the addition of menadione, a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dry eye in vivo was induced by the injection of scopolamine into rats. Then, 930 nM of RS9 was applied to both eyes for 2 weeks. Oxidative stress was measured by the accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Corneal wound healing was measured by scoring for superficial punctate keratitis (SPK). Corneal epithelial cell densities were evaluated histologically. RS9 and RTA 402 induced the expression of NQO1 and GCLC mRNAs in HCE-T cells. And both compounds suppressed hyperosmotic-ROS generation and menadione induced cellular damage. However RS9 had a stronger protective effect than RTA 402. Ocular instillation of RS9 also significantly upregulated the expression of Nqo1 mRNA in the corneal epithelium. Accumulation of 8-OHdG, increase of SPK scores and decrement of basal cell density were observed in corneal epithelium from scopolamine-injected rats. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the topical administration of RS9. RS9 induced Nfe2l2 activation and Nfe2l2-targeted genes, reduced oxidation, and ameliorated symptoms of dry eye using in vitro and in vivo models. Thus, RS9 might be a potent candidate agent against dry eye disease.


Assuntos
Lesões da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Triterpenos/farmacologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/genética , Animais , Lesões da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Lesões da Córnea/genética , Lesões da Córnea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndromes do Olho Seco/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes do Olho Seco/genética , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Epitélio Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Anterior/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Humanos , Ceratite/induzido quimicamente , Ceratite/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Escopolamina/toxicidade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/genética
13.
Life Sci ; 252: 117666, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298737

RESUMO

AIMS: Euscaphic acid and Tormentic acid are aglycones of Kaji-ichigoside F1 and Rosamultin, respectively. These four compounds are pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolated from the subterranean root of the Potentilla anserina L. Based on the protective roles against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of Euscaphic acid and Tormentic acid in vascular endothelial cells, this study was designed to determine the mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: The model of hypoxic injuries in EA. hy926 cells was established. Through applications of PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002 and ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, we explored the relationships between pharmacodynamic mechanisms and PI3K/AKT or ERK 1/2 signaling pathway. The anti-hypoxic effects were studied by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining, DAPI staining, and flow cytometry. The mechanisms of anti-mitochondrial apoptosis were explored by western blot. The expressions of p-ERK 1/2, ERK 1/2, p-AKT, AKT, p-NF-κB, NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt C, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were detected. KEY FINDINGS: Euscaphic acid protected vascular endothelial cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis via ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and Tormentic acid brought its efficacy into full play via PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. In addition, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway positively regulated ERK1/2 pathway, and ERK1/2 pathway negatively regulated PI3K/AKT pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: This evidence provides theoretical and experimental basis for the following research on anti-hypoxic drugs of Potentilla anserina L.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cromonas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Potentilla/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 489-505, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306368

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cucumber plants adapt their transcriptome and metabolome as result of spider mite infestation with opposite consequences for direct and indirect defences in two genotypes. Plants respond to arthropod attack with the rearrangement of their transcriptome which lead to subsequent phenotypic changes in the plants' metabolome. Here, we analysed transcriptomic and metabolite responses of two cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genotypes to chelicerate spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) during the first 3 days of infestation. Genes associated with the metabolism of jasmonates, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and L-phenylalanine were most strongly upregulated. Also, genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors for indirect defence-related terpenoids were upregulated while those involved in the biosynthesis of direct defence-related cucurbitacin C were downregulated. Consistent with the observed transcriptional changes, terpenoid emission increased and cucurbitacin C content decreased during early spider-mite herbivory. To further study the regulatory network that underlies induced defence to spider mites, differentially expressed genes that encode transcription factors (TFs) were analysed. Correlation analysis of the expression of TF genes with metabolism-associated genes resulted in putative identification of regulators of herbivore-induced terpenoid, green-leaf volatiles and cucurbitacin biosynthesis. Our data provide a global image of the transcriptional changes in cucumber leaves in response to spider-mite herbivory and that of metabolites that are potentially involved in the regulation of induced direct and indirect defences against spider-mite herbivory.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/imunologia , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Infestações por Ácaros/imunologia , Infestações por Ácaros/metabolismo , Tetranychidae , Transcriptoma , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucumis sativus/parasitologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
15.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(2): 235-251, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252884

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to develop betulinic acid loaded nanoliposomes to improve the chemotherapy effect of colorectal cancer. The cellular uptake and anti-tumor effects of betulinic acid loaded nanoliposomes in vitro were characterized and evaluated, and their effects on glycolysis, glutamine decomposition and key anti-cancer targets were analyzed. Moreover, their anticancer efficacy was assessed in vivo. Compared with free betulinic acid in vitro, the cellular uptake and anti-tumor activity of betulinic acid-loaded nanoliposomes were significantly enhanced; these nanoliposomes significantly suppressed the proliferation and glucose uptake of colorectal cancer cells. Mechanistically, the anti-colorectal cancer effect of betulinic acid-loaded nanoliposomes was confirmed by their triggering of cellular apoptosis and regulating the potential glycolytic and glutaminolytic targets and pathways. After tumor proliferation was inhibited and colorectal cancer cells apoptosis, the anticancer effect of betulinic acid loaded nanoliposomes in vivo was significantly enhanced. All in all, betulinic acid loaded nanoliposomes are expected to be an effective drug delivery system for colorectal cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glicólise , Humanos , Triterpenos
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922092, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Despite scientific advancement in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rate of lung cancer patients is around 15%. The present study explored the anticancer potential of betulinic acid nanoparticles against lung cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The proliferative changes in lung cancer cells by betulinic acid nanoparticles were measured by MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide stain. Transwell and wound healing assay were used for determination of HKULC2 cell metastatic potential. RESULTS The betulinic acid nanoparticle treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced proliferation of HKULC2, H1299, and H23 cells. The proliferation of HKULC2, H1299, and H23 cells was reduced to 33%, 28% and 24%, respectively on treatment with 10 µM of betulinic acid nanoparticles. The results from flow cytometry showed that betulinic acid nanoparticle exposure lead to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase in HKULC2 cells. Treatment with betulinic acid nanoparticles markedly decreased migration potential of HKULC2 cells. The invasive ability of HKULC2 cells was also suppressed markedly on exposure to betulinic acid nanoparticles. Western blotting of HKULC2 cells showed that betulinic acid nanoparticles promoted the expression of p21 and p53 and downregulated CD133, ALDH, BCL2, MCL1, and c-Myc expression. Betulinic acid nanoparticles reduced the expression of ABCG1 protein markedly. CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrated that betulinic acid nanoparticles inhibit proliferation, metastatic ability, and arrest cell cycle in lung cancer cells through downregulation of ABCG1 oncogene expression. Therefore, betulinic acid nanoparticles may be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 321: 109025, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135139

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation is one of the driving forces in the process of carcinogenesis. Corosolic acid (CA); triterpenoid abundantly found in Lagerstroemia speciosa L. is known to modulate various cellular process including cellular oxidative stress and signaling kinases in various diseases, including skin cancer. Genetic mutations in early stages of skin cancer are well-documented, the epigenetic alterations remain elusive. In the present study, we identified the transcriptomic gene expression changes with RNAseq and genome-wide DNA CpG methylation changes with DNA methylseq to profile the early stage transcriptomic and epigenomic changes using tumor promoter TPA-mediated mouse epidermal epithelial JB6 P+ cells. JB6 P+ cells were treated with TPA and Corosolic acid by 7.5uM optimized by MTS assay. Differentiated expressed genes (DEGs) and Differentially methylated genes (DMRs) were analyzed by R software. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was employed to understand the differential regulation of specific pathways. Novel TPA induced differentially overexpressed genes like tumor promoter Prl2c2, small prolin rich protein (Sprr2h) was reported which was downregulated by corosolic acid treatment. Several cancer related pathways were identified by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) including p53, Erk, TGF beta signaling pathways. Moreover, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in genes like Dusp22 (Dual specificity protein phosphatase 22), Rassf (tumor suppressor gene family, Ras association domain family) in JB6 P+ cells were uncovered which are altered by TPA and are reversed by CA treatment. Interestingly, genes like CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinases 1) and RASSF2 (Ras association domain family member 2) observed to be differentially methylated and expressed which was further modulated by corosolic acid treatment, validated by qPCR. Given study indicated gene expression changes to DNA CpG methylation epigenomic changes modulated various molecular pathways in TPA-induced JB6 cells and revealed that CA can potentially reverse these changes which deciphering novel molecular targets for future prevention of early stages of skin cancer studies in human.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epidérmicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Ilhas de CpG/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epidérmicas/patologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112342, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172018

RESUMO

Three undescribed lupane-type triterpenoids (1-3), three undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoids (4-6), and ten known pentacyclic triterpenoids (7-16) were isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All the triterpenoids were screened for anti-proliferative activity against HeLa, HepG2, and SGC-7901 cells using the MTT method. Except compounds 1, 2, and 13, all the other triterpenoids exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against tumour cells. Compounds 3, 6, and 15 inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner, as observed by the colony formation assay. When HeLa cells were treated with different doses of compounds 3, 6, and 15, the cell nuclei changed shape to a crescent form and were condensed and fragmented, as observed by Hoechst 33258 staining. Additionally, these three triterpenoids induced the apoptosis in HeLa cells, which was detected by Western blot analysis.


Assuntos
Peganum , Triterpenos , Zygophyllaceae , Células HeLa , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes
19.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112333, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208199

RESUMO

The saponin composition of leaves and roots from Medicago marina L., sea medic, was investigated by a combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic and spectrometric (GC, LC, ESI-MS/MS, NMR) methods. Several compounds were detected and quantified by HPLC using the external standard method. Saponins from this plant species consist of a mixture of high molecular weight bidesmosidic derivatives of medicagenic and zanhic acid, containing up to six sugars in the molecules. Six of the detected saponins were previously isolated and reported as constituents of other Medicago spp.; one saponin was previously described in other plant species; four saponins are undescribed compounds in Medicago and never reported before in other plant species. These are: 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-ß-D-glucopyranosylzanhic acid 28-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[ß-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester; 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-ß-D-glucopyranosylzanhic acid 28-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester; 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-ß-D-glucopyranosylmedicagenic acid 28-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester and 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylmedicagenic acid 28-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester. The specific saponins synthesized by M. marina may have a role in its tolerance to environment, representing a reservoir of osmolytic sugars.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Triterpenos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicago , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107873, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165146

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rh2 and cucurbitacin-B (CuB) are secondary metabolites of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Cucurbitaceae plants respectively. We assessed the anticryptosporidial activity of these two functional compounds in a cell culture model of cryptosporidiosis. The highest concentration of each compound that was not toxic to the host cells was used to assess the activity against C. parvum during infection/invasion and growth in HCT-8 cell monolayers. Monolayers were infected with pre-excysted C. parvum oocysts. Infected monolayers were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h in the presence of different concentrations of each test compound. A growth resumption assay was performed by incubating infected monolayers in the presence of compounds for 24 h followed by a second 24-h incubation in the absence of compound. To screen for invasion inhibiting activity, freshly excysted C. parvum sporozoites were pre-treated with different concentrations of compounds prior to adding them to the cell monolayers. Paromomycin, a known inhibitor of C. parvum, and DMSO were used as positive and negative control, respectively. The level of infection was initially assessed using an immunofluorescent assay and quantified by real-time PCR. Both compounds were found to strongly inhibit C. parvum intracellular development in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values of 25 µM for a 24 h development period and 5.52 µM after 48 h development were measured for Rh2, whereas for CuB an IC50 value of 0.169 µg/ml and 0.118 µg/ml were obtained for the same incubation periods. CuB also effectively inhibited resumption of growth, an activity that was not observed with Rh2. CuB was more effective at inhibiting excystation and/or host cell invasion, indicating that this compound also targets extracellular stages of the parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitacinas/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cryptosporidium parvum/citologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Panax/química , Paromomicina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solventes
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