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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139635, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534282

RESUMO

The use of synthetic pesticides in agriculture is increasingly debated. However, few studies have compared the impact of synthetic pesticides and alternative biopesticides on non-target soil microorganisms playing a central role in soil functioning. We conducted a mesocosm experiment and used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to test the impact of a fungal biopesticide and a synthetic fungicide on the diversity, the taxonomic and functional compositions, and co-occurrence patterns of soil bacterial, fungal and protist communities. Neither the synthetic pesticide nor the biopesticide had a significant effect on microbial α-diversity. However, both types of pesticides decreased the complexity of the soil microbial network. The two pesticides had contrasting impacts on the composition of microbial communities and the identity of key taxa as revealed by microbial network analyses. The biopesticide impacted keystone taxa that structured the soil microbial network. The synthetic pesticide modified biotic interactions favouring taxa that are less efficient at degrading organic compounds. This suggests that the biopesticides and the synthetic pesticide have different impact on soil functioning. Altogether, our study shows that pest management products may have functionally significant impacts on the soil microbiome even if microbial α-diversity is unaffected. It also illustrates the potential of high-throughput sequencing analyses to improve the ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticides on non-target soil microorganisms.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Solo , Biodiversidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Carbamatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114992, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563121

RESUMO

The presence of pesticide in water resources is a topical issue in France as in many other countries. Resources can be contaminated by current-used pesticides and their metabolites but also by molecules banned 50 years ago. The number of reported studies on the impact of these substances on human health and environment increases every day. Currently, pesticides and their relevant degradation products are subjected to the European regulation for water intended for human consumption. It sets an individual quality limit of 0.1 µg/L, and another of 0.5 µg/L for the sum of their concentrations. The constant improvement of analytical methods allows laboratories to detect pesticides, at lower and lower concentrations but also more and more metabolites. However, regulation does not provide a national indicative metabolites list to be monitored. Each regional health agency offers their own list based on local agricultural practices and quantities of pesticides sold. This article reports a prioritization method allowing to identify new metabolites to be monitored in water resources, along drinking water treatment plants and in treated water; it describes its application in France in order to anticipate possible non-compliance with raw water and treated water and to provide solutions upstream of changes in sanitary control. This methodology has been developed to rank pesticides and to select the corresponding metabolites by combining three main criteria: use (sale and type of use), toxicity, and environmental fate (based on physical and chemical properties). Prioritization method was applied to four families of pesticides: carbamates, organophosphorus compounds, phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, for which there is a real lack of knowledge as regards the occurrence of their metabolites in metropolitan France. 146 pesticides have been prioritized. The first 50 molecules were considered allowing the identification of 72 metabolites to be monitored in water resources and along drinking water treatment plants.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbamatos , Monitoramento Ambiental , França , Humanos , Neonicotinoides , Compostos Organofosforados , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510414

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and plasticizers are environmental concerns. In this study, 18 OPFRs were analyzed in sediment and bivalves collected from 50 locations along the Korean coast to assess occurrence, geographical distribution, contamination source, and bioaccumulation potential. Tris(1-chloro-2-propanyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were highly detected (>80%) OPFRs in sediment and bivalves. Total concentrations of OPFRs and plasticizers in sediment and bivalves ranged from 2.18 to 347 ng/g dry weight and from 6.12 to 206 ng/g dry weight, respectively, which were within the ranges reported for previous studies. Sedimentary organic carbon was a primary factor governing the OPFR distribution. Concentrations of OPFRs and plasticizers in sediments from harbor zones were significantly higher than non-harbor zones, indicating that shipping activity is a contamination source of OPFRs and plasticizers in coastal environments. Biota-sediment accumulation factors <1 for several OPFRs indicated limited potential for bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Bioacumulação , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Plastificantes , República da Coreia
4.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114788, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559856

RESUMO

Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a type halogenated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which has been identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The use and production of OPFRs began to increase gradually when brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were banned. Halogenated OPFRs, especially TDCPP have been considered to lead to mutagenicity and carcinogenesis and major concerns have been raised regarding their toxicity. In this study, the toxicity effects and mechanisms of TDCPP were summarized and ecological risk assessment was made regarding its potential impact on freshwater organisms. TDCPP has been widely detected in ecosystems throughout the world, with observed toxicity effects on both humans and freshwater organisms. Inhalation of the dust was found to be the main exposure for humans. TDCPP could be metabolized in the human body, and medium stability was achieved in human body with the main metabolite BDCPP. Aside from mutagenicity and carcinogenesis, TDCPP was also found to have the potential for endocrine disruption and impairing the human reproductive system. Furthermore, this study reviewed the results of previous toxicity experiments, including acute toxicity, growth and development toxicity, neurotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity in freshwater organisms. Risk assessment was made using the safety threshold method by comparing the toxicity data with the exposure data in freshwater. HC5 (hazardous concentration for 5% of organisms) derived based on traditional endpoints of acute toxicity LC50 (median lethal concentration) or EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) was 877 µg/L. This value was much higher than the exposure concentration levels in the surface water with EXD90 (exposure data with cumulative probability 90%) of 65.22 ng/L. However, based on the growth and development toxicity data, the derived HC5 was 33.33 ng/L and the calculated MOS (margin of safety) was below 1. Therefore, the results validated the fact that the ecological risk of TDCPP could not be neglected for its growth and development toxicity.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Fosfatos , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Medição de Risco
5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102990, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485428

RESUMO

EGFR exon 20 alterations are rare events seen mainly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They include EGFR T790 and C797S mutations (associated with secondary resistance to classic EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)), and EGFR exon 20 in-frame insertions (associated with resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs). In silico modeling of structural changes in aberrant proteins has informed selection of compounds with potential clinical activity: poziotinib (whose smaller size permits access to the restricted kinase pocket created by EGFR and ERBB2 exon 20 insertions); cetuximab (an antibody that attenuates dimerization caused by EGFR exon 20 insertions), and TAK-788 (another EGFR/ERBB2 TKI). Other alterations, such as EGFR T790 M, are responsive to osimertinib, while the EGFR C797S alteration seen in osimertinib resistance demonstrates preclinical sensitivity to combined brigatinib and cetuximab. These observations indicate that clinical resistance can be overcome by utilizing advanced genomic interrogation coupled with computer modeling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Receptores ErbB/química , Éxons , Humanos , Mutação , Compostos Organofosforados/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 208-218, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556397

RESUMO

In this study, the distribution pattern of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in particle-size fractions of urban topsoils under different land-use types and its relationship to organic carbon content was investigated. Total OPEs concentrations in different particle-size fractions ranged from 17.07 to 221.77 ng/g. The distribution pattern of total OPEs concentrations and individual OPE concentration in different particle-size fractions were irregular and varied with the land-use type. The mass of OPEs is concentrated in small particles, large particles, or evenly distributed in each particle. This distribution pattern mainly depends on the mass distribution of each fraction to the soil. Tri-iso-butyl phosphate, tributyl phosphate, and triphenylphosphine oxide have a relatively higher concentration in most samples, and the concentration of tripropyl phosphate was the lowest in all samples. The correlations between total OPEs concentrations versus total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and other carbon (OC) is weak. Their linear regression correlation coefficients were 0.0495, 0.0823, and 0.0097, respectively. The correlation between individual OPE concentrations versus TOC, BC, and OC also are weak. Except for triethyl phosphate, tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, the linear regression correlation coefficients of other OPEs are all less than 0.1.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Organofosfatos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Carbono , China , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Compostos Organofosforados , Tamanho da Partícula , Solo
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109111, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413347

RESUMO

Human scalp hair is a biological matrix that can trap chemical vapours from explosives (TNT), drugs (THC) and chemical weapons (yperite). The external contamination of human's hair following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent was simulated by model compounds: triethyl phosphate (TEP) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). In this work were exposed strands of hair to vapours of TEP and DFP (3 and 7 ppmv) to model sorption kinetics. Sorption isotherms were also investigated at several contamination levels (80-3000 mg min.m-3). OP nerve agent simulants were extracted from hair by soaking in DCM. Raw extracts were analysed in GC-MS/MS to quantify each simulant content in hair. Results were fitted by applying isotherm or kinetic equations. The best model was found to be bimodal first-order, suggesting the co-existence of two different mechanisms of sorption. The best equation to describe OP vapours incorporation on hair was Freundlich model. Thus hair can be used as a passive sensor able to trap chemical G-agents and can also offer valuable information regarding both individual contamination and proof of exposure to chemical weapons.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Cabelo/química , Couro Cabeludo/química , Humanos , Isoflurofato/química , Gás de Mostarda/química , Agentes Neurotóxicos/química , Organofosfatos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química
9.
Food Chem ; 324: 126889, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353659

RESUMO

Pesticides have been extensively applied worldwide to protect crops from worms and insects; however, the continuous use of pesticides affects ecosystems, agricultural product safety, nontarget organisms, and human health. In this paper, we report a highly sensitive biosensor for the determination of pesticides based on tin sulfide (SnS2) and chitosan (CHIT) nanocomposites decorated with a unique British housefly acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The hydrothermally synthesized nano-SnS2 mixed with chitosan solution (CHIT-SnS2) was drop-casted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Subsequently, the British housefly AChE was immobilized on the CHIT/SnS2-coated GCE that was then employed for pesticide detection. The developed biosensor showed an ultra-high sensitivity and wide linear detection range from 0.02 nM to 20000 nM with a detection limit of 0.02 nM for the detection of chlorpyrifos as the model pesticide. Furthermore, the AChE/CHIT-SnS2/GCE exhibited acceptable storage stability, good reproducibility, and selectivity.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Quitosana/química , Moscas Domésticas/enzimologia , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Sulfetos/química , Compostos de Estanho/química , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Animais , Carbono/química , Clorpirifos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Nanocompostos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25715-25726, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356062

RESUMO

Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in children may increase oxidative stress, resulting in the development of chronic diseases. This study aims to compare urinary OP metabolites and oxidative stress between children in agricultural and urban communities. The study also investigated the factors associated with urinary OP metabolites among children. Urine samples were collected from children for measuring levels of OP metabolites, glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). The remarkable findings were that total dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels detected among children in this agricultural community were significantly higher than those from the urban community (P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that total diethylphosphate (DEP) levels among children in the agricultural community were negatively associated with distances from children's residence to the agricultural fields (ß ± SE. = - 1.535 ± 0.334, 95%CI = - 2.202, - 0.863) and positively associated with playing on farms (ß ± SE. = 0.720 ± 0.342, 95%CI = 0.036, 1.405). In addition, total dimethylphosphate (DMP) levels were positively associated with children working on farms (ß ± SE. = 0.619 ± 0.264, 95%CI = 0.091, 1.147). Importantly, GSH levels among children in the agricultural community were significantly lower than those in the urban community (P < 0.001), but MDA levels did not differ. These results therefore suggest that children can be exposed to OPs both outdoors and indoors. Our results also provide supporting evidence that OP exposure can cause oxidative stress in children. As oxidative stress contributes to several chronic diseases, a good proposed strategy for the future would include measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers among children exposed to OPs as an early warning of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Estresse Oxidativo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353073

RESUMO

P5 ATPases are eukaryotic pumps important for cellular metal ion, lipid and protein homeostasis; however, their transported substrate, if any, remains to be identified. Ca2+ was proposed to act as a ligand of P5 ATPases because it decreases the level of phosphoenzyme of the Spf1p P5A ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Repeating previous purification protocols, we obtained a purified preparation of Spf1p that was close to homogeneity and exhibited ATP hydrolytic activity that was stimulated by the addition of CaCl2. Strikingly, a preparation of a catalytically dead mutant Spf1p (D487N) also exhibited Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolytic activity. These results indicated that the Spf1p preparation contained a co-purifying protein capable of hydrolyzing ATP at a high rate. The activity was likely due to a phosphatase, since the protein i) was highly active when pNPP was used as substrate, ii) required Ca2+ or Zn2+ for activity, and iii) was strongly inhibited by molybdate, beryllium and other phosphatase substrates. Mass spectrometry identified the phosphatase Pho8p as a contaminant of the Spf1p preparation. Modification of the purification procedure led to a contaminant-free Spf1p preparation that was neither stimulated by Ca2+ nor inhibited by EGTA or molybdate. The phosphoenzyme levels of a contaminant-free Spf1p preparation were not affected by Ca2+. These results indicate that the reported effects of Ca2+ on Spf1p do not reflect the intrinsic properties of Spf1p but are mediated by the activity of the accompanying phosphatase.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/isolamento & purificação , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Hidrólise , Mutação , Naftóis , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Triazinas
12.
Eur J Protistol ; 74: 125705, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464434

RESUMO

The ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia has four arginine kinase genes (AK1, AK2, AK3, and AK4). Of these genes, only AK3 has a signal sequence for farnesylation, a post-translational modification that enables anchoring of the modified enzyme to the ciliary membrane. To confirm this modification, AK3 was synthesized using a cell-free protein synthesis system and the peptide masses were analyzed using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). The PMF analysis indicated that the C-terminal peptide of AK3 is farnesylated. Thus, AK3 can be farnesylated under physiologically appropriate conditions. To determine the subcellular localization of P. tetraurelia AK3, Western blot analysis was performed using an AK3 polyclonal antibody for the proteins extracted from intact cells and ciliary fractions. When extraction was performed using Triton X-100, AK3 was detected the ciliary fraction. This result suggested that the ciliary fraction contains AK3. In addition, we investigated the role of P. tetraurelia AKs in ciliary movement using the feeding RNA interference method. The swimming velocity of AK1- and AK3-silenced cells was significantly reduced to half the value of that control cells. In summary, P. tetraurelia AK3 is likely to be located in the ciliary membrane and influences swimming velocity, presumably through the phosphoarginine shuttle system present in cilia.


Assuntos
Arginina Quinase/metabolismo , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Paramecium tetraurellia/enzimologia , Arginina/metabolismo , Cílios/enzimologia , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127066, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434091

RESUMO

Tri(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) potentially damages the thyroid system in humans and animals. However, knowledge of its toxic effects and underlying mechanisms is limited. The present study was conducted to determine the thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of TDCPP and its major metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) in rat pituitary cell lines (GH3). TDCPP and BDCPP, that mimic the thyroid hormone (TH), promoted GH3 cell proliferation and modulated the progression of the cell cycle at 20 and 200 µmol/L, respectively. Similar to T3, TDCPP and BDCPP also significantly upregulated c-fos and downregulated Tshß gene expression. Although the binding affinity of these chemicals for thyroid receptor ß (TRß) was not measured, significant competition between these chemicals to bind to the membrane thyroid hormone receptor (integrin αvß3) was found, suggesting that TDCPP and BDCPP were strongly bound to integrin αvß3. Results from a molecular docking analysis provided further evidence of strong binding affinities of TDCPP and BDCPP for integrin αvß3, and the ligand binding site of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was identified. Real-time PCR also supported the supposition that, after binding to integrin αvß3, TDCPP and BDCPP may induce the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that TDCPP and BDCPP have the ability to mimic THs and that the underlying mechanism might be associated with their interactions with integrin αvß3 and the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, providing new insight into the mechanism of TDCPP- and BDCPP-induced cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligopeptídeos , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126895, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460157

RESUMO

The appearance of an increased amount of organophosphate flame retardant (OPFRs) in natural water is related the treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and thus understanding the OPFRs concentration and reduction variation in WWTPs would provide valuable insight into OPFR management and reduction. In this study, we have analyzed OPFRs (10 kinds: tris(chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), diphenylcresylphosphate (DCP), tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TCP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), and tris(butyl) phosphate (TBP)) in both water and sludge samples collected from different phases of a WWTP upgrading. The results show that TCPP and TCEP were mainly present in the aqueous phase, whereas TEHP dominated in the solid phase. The overall OPFR reduction efficiencies were above 40% through whole treatment processes by all the phases. More OPFRs reduction efficiency in primary sedimentation tanks was higher mainly because of bigger tank volume. The anaerobic zone in all cases could decrease OPFRs by over 13%. The removal of OPFRs in the oxic zone highly varied under the influence of the aeration pipe, water temperature, and aeration amount. Compared with chlorinated OPFRs, aryl and alkyl OPFRs were easier to reduce and less affected by the upgrading. Because OPFRs have been widely used in plastic materials such as pipes, WWTP upgrading - which usually requires more aeration and addition of reagents and instruments and the aim of which is normally to reduce more COD, N and P -- has introduced more OPFRs into the water within the WWTP.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Organofosfatos , Esgotos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298342

RESUMO

Lemna species have been used in the food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries, as they are inexpensive sources of proteins, starches, and fatty acids. In this study, we treated L. paucicostata with different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, or 1 mM) of ethephon. The total dry weight decreased in all ethephon-treated groups compared to the control group. We also investigated the alteration of metabolic profiles induced by ethephon treatment by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This analysis identified 48 metabolites, and the relative levels of most of alcohols, amino acids, fatty acids, and phenols increased by the ethephon treatment, whereas levels of organic acids and sugars decreased. Among these, the highest production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 5.041 ± 1.373 mg/L) and ferulic acid (0.640 ± 0.071 mg/L) was observed in the 0.5 mM and the 0.2 mM ethephon treatment groups, respectively. These results could be useful for large-scale culture of L. paucicostata with enhanced GABA and ferulic acid content for utilization in the food, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Metaboloma
16.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114525, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289612

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are widespread in the aquatic environment, but the effects of these chemicals on reproductive toxicity are far from clear. In this study, sperm quality in adult male Chinese rare minnows after exposure to tris-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) was investigated. No obvious change in sperm concentration and vitality was observed after treatments, whereas significant changes in sperm velocity and morphology were found following all treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, OPFR exposure significantly increased the apoptosis ratios in testis cells. Analysis of the transcriptomic data revealed that Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA) related genes were significantly downregulated, and the NKA enzyme activities after all treatments were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). However, no obvious change in hormone levels in the groups exposed to TBOEP and TDCIPP was observed. These findings indicate that the OPFR-induced reduction of sperm quality might be due to the effects of OPFRs on NKA enzyme instead of changes in hormone levels.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Retardadores de Chama , Animais , Masculino , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Espermatozoides
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138526, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304943

RESUMO

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a widely used organophosphorus flame retardant, has been frequently detected in the environment including indoor dust. Long-term exposure to TDCPP-containing dust may adversely affect human skin, however, little is known about its potential cytotoxicity. In this study, human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) were employed to study TDCPP-induced cytotoxicity and associated mechanisms. The effects of TDCPP on cell morphology, viability, apoptosis, and cycle, and the mRNA levels of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3) and cell cycle (cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6) regulatory genes were investigated. The results showed that TDCPP caused a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability after exposing to TDCPP ≥100 µg/mL for 48 h, with a median lethal concentration of 163 µg/mL (LC50). In addition, TDCPP induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase at 16 and 160 µg/mL by enhancing Bax and Caspase-3 expression besides inhibiting cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK6 and Bcl-2 expression. Our results showed that TDCPP-induced toxicity in HaCaT cells was probably through cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. This study provides information on the toxicity of TDCPP to human skin cells, which may help to reduce its toxicity to human skin.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Apoptose , Poeira , Humanos , Queratinócitos/química , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138486, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330713

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO), a novel two-dimension carbon nanomaterial, has showed tremendous potential for utilization in intelligent manufacturing and environmental protection. In parallel, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is widely distributed in the water environment and represents a great threat to ecosystem health. However, the related knowledge remained absent regarding the impact of GO on the biological risks of TDCIPP. Herein, GO significantly reduced the mortality and malformation rates of zebrafish induced by TDCIPP maximumly by 28.6% and 41.8%, respectively. Decreased mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzyme and ATP activity induced by TDCIPP were mitigated by GO. Integrating proteomics and metabolomics revealed TDCIPP obviously induced the downregulation of the proteins and metabolites involved in the cytoskeleton, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the TCA cycle, but the alterations were attenuated by GO. GO primarily promoted MRC activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and fatty acid ß-oxidation, thus activating the energy metabolism of zebrafish and leading to antagonistic effects on the developmental toxicity of TDCIPP. These results provide a novel view on the co-exposure of GO with other pollutants and promote the reconsideration of the environmental risks of GO.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ecossistema , Transporte de Elétrons , Grafite , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados
19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 792-798, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335690

RESUMO

In this study, the photodegradation of organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides in the honey medium was evaluated under sunlight irradiation. Some of the 22 samples collected at different sites contained OPs pesticides (Methyl parathion, Coumaphos and Fenitrothion) with an average of 8 ng/g. Moreover, three samples were found with pesticide residue levels exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL ≥ 50 ng/g) imposed by the standard water (WHO). Gas chromatography (GC) combined with a tritium electron capture detector system was used for the analysis of OPs pesticides in honey. Total degradation of the Methyl parathion was obtained in less than 60 min of irradiation. Moreover, the elimination of the other OPs found in the samples was also effective with a rate of 85% for Coumaphos and Fenitrothion after 50 min of sunlight irradiation. The kinetics of the photodegradation reaction of all OPs pesticides studied followed a pseudo-first order model.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Mel/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Luz Solar , Argélia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Mel/efeitos da radiação , Mel/normas , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fotólise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138307, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272412

RESUMO

As alternatives of brominated flame retardants, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) can be detected in multiple marine environmental media. Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) was one of the most frequently and abundantly detected OPFRs in the Bohai Sea. Exposure to TCPP has been shown to induce abnormal behavior in zebrafish as well as neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, there is a lack of mechanism investigations on the toxic effects of TCPP at molecular levels. In this work, proteomics and metabolomics were integrated to analyze the proteome and metabolome responses in rockfish Sebastes schlegeli treated with TCPP (10 and 100 nM) for 15 days. A total of 143 proteins and 8 metabolites were significantly altered in rockfish following TCPP treatments. The responsive proteins and metabolites were predominantly involved in neurotransmission, neurodevelopment, signal transduction, cellular transport, cholesterol metabolism, bile acid synthesis, and detoxification. Furthermore, a hypothesized network of proteins, metabolites, and pathways in rockfish was summarized based on the combination of proteomic and metabolomic results, showing some key molecular events in response to TCPP. Overall, the present study unraveled the molecular responses at protein and metabolite levels, which provided a better understanding of toxicological effects and mechanisms of TCPP in marine teleost.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Proteômica , Animais , Metabolômica , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Perciformes , Fosfatos , Porfirinas
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