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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104645, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828364

RESUMO

Bacterial blight (BB), which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a common bacterial disease that seriously harms rice production in major rice-growing areas worldwide. Fubianezuofeng (FBEZF), a sulfone bactericide that contains an oxadiazole moiety, exerts good control effect on BB. In this study, FBEZF-resistant strains of Xoo were screened for the first time in the laboratory to evaluate the risk of Xoo developing resistance to FBEZF. Three strains with moderate resistance to FBEZF, were obtained and named as F1, F2, and F3, which have resistance factors (RF) of 14.69, 15.72, and 11.12, respectively. FBEZF lacked positive cross-resistance to bismerthiazol, thiodiazole copper, zhongshengmycin and phenazino-1-carboxylic acid. The growth rates of the resistant strains F1 and F2 were similar to those of the wild-type strain in nutrient broth medium, but differed in nutrient agar medium. The extracellular polysaccharide production and pathogenicity of F1, F2, and F3 were reduced relative to those of the wild-type strain. A fosmid library containing 2304 transformants was constructed based on the genome of F2, and transformants 2193 and 2202 exhibited FBEZF resistance. The results are helpful for further study on the molecular mechanism of resistance to FBEZF in Xoo.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Oxidiazóis , Doenças das Plantas , Sulfonas
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104668, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828374

RESUMO

Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of flubendiamide has led to the development of resistance in field populations and reports of control failures. In this study, the lab-selected (Rf) and field-collected (Rb) flubendiamide-resistant strains of P. xylostella with LC50 resistance ratios of 1890-fold and 1251-fold, respectively, were used, as well as a lab-reared flubendiamide-susceptible strain (S). The results showed that the fecundity of the Rf and Rb-resistant strains was significantly lower than that of S strain. The contents of vitellin and transcripts of P. xylostella vitellogenin (PxVg) and P. xylostella vitellogenin receptor (PxVgR) genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than those of S strains at 0-48 h after adult eclosion. At 96 h after eclosion, the content of vitellin in the Rf and Rb strains did not differ significantly from those of S strains, whereas transcripts of the PxVg and PxVgR genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly lower than that of the S strain. The content of the juvenile hormone III (JH III), ß-ecdysone (20E), and the gene expression level of P. xylostella methoprene tolerant (PxMet) in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain. The activity of trehalase was significantly higher in the Rf and Rb strains than that of the S strain in the first to the third instar larvae, whereas in the fourth instar larvae, there was no significantly difference in the three strains. At different times after adult eclosion, the differences in trehalase activity were erratic between the strains. The transcripts of P. xylostella trehalase (PxTre) gene in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain in most developmental stages. Here, we report differences in fecundity between flubendiamide-resistant and susceptible strains of P. xylostella and discuss gene expression of several reproductive factors, which provides a possible explanation for the mechanism of fecundity reduction concurrent with flubendiamide-resistance in P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Benzamidas , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110915, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800250

RESUMO

Benzobicyclon is a systemic herbicide that was officially registered in China in 2018. The environmental behaviors of benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), the main metabolite and active product of benzobicyclon, remain poorly understood in paddy fields. Here, agricultural soil samples were collected from paddy fields in Jiangxi (Ferralsols), Shandong (Alisols), Hebei (Luvisols), Heilongjiang (Phaeozems), Zhejiang (Anthrosols), Sichuan (Gleysols), Hainan (Plinthosols), and Hubei (Lixisols) across China. The equilibrium oscillation method was used to study the adsorption-desorption behaviors of BH in the eight soils. The relationships between BH adsorption and soil physicochemical properties, environmental factors (temperature and initial solution pH), and other external conditions (addition of humic acid, biochar, and metal ions) were quantified. The adsorption-desorption parameters of BH in all soils were well fitted by the Freundlich model. The adsorption constant of BH varied between 0.066 and 4.728. The BH adsorption capacity decreased in the following order: Phaeozems > Alisols > Ferralsols > Lixisols > Plinthosols > Anthrosols > Luvisols > Gleysols. The Freundlich adsorption and desorption constants of BH were linearly positively correlated with soil clay content (R2 = 0.711 and 0.709; P = 0.009 and 0.009, respectively), organic carbon content (R2 = 0.684 and 0.672; P = 0.011 and 0.013, respectively), and organic matter content (R2 = 0.698 and 0.683; P = 0.010 and 0.011, respectively); however, their linear relationships with soil cation exchange capacity were not significant (R2 = 0.192 and 0.192; P = 0.278 and 0.278, respectively). The adsorption and desorption constants of BH had negative, albeit not significant, correlations with soil pH (R2 = 0.104 and 0.100; P = 0.437 and 0.445, respectively). The adsorption of BH by soil occurred spontaneously and was mainly based on physical adsorption. Either low or high temperature reduced the ability of the soil to adsorb BH. The addition of humic acid to the soil increased BH adsorption, while the addition of biochar increased the solution pH, resulting in decreased BH adsorption. Cation type and ionic strength also had strong effects on BH adsorption. With the exception of Phaeozems, BH exhibited intermediate or high mobility in the agricultural soils and thus poses risks to surface water and groundwater.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Herbicidas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Sulfonas/química , Adsorção , Agricultura , China , Argila , Água Subterrânea , Herbicidas/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(3): 785-794, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723437

RESUMO

Previous reports indicated that specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor suppresses osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to further explore the possible mechanism of Rofecoxib as a COX-2 inhibitor on the inhibition of chondrocyte (CH) hypertrophic development and tested the optimal treatment of Rofecoxib on CH. Basically, IL-1ß was used as a stimulus to establish a degenerated CH model. Immunofluorescence, Western blot, and RT-PCR were performed to determine the gene expression of Axin2, ß-catenin, GSK3ß, collagen X, collagen II, COX-2, PGE-2, SOX-9, Runx-2, and MMP- 13 expression. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to analyze the viability of CHs. The data indicated that Rofecoxib significantly inhibited COX-2 expression and had less harmful effects on CH viability. Rofecoxib reversed the IL-1ß-induced upregulation of collagen X, COX-2, PGE-2, Runx-2, and MMP-13 expression, and promoted the viability of collagen II, SOX-9 expression of CHs. Furthermore, Rofecoxib suppressed Axin2, ß-catenin, and GSK3ß expression of the Wnt pathway, which was activated by IL-1ß or human recombinant Wnt-1 protein treatment. Therefore, Rofecoxib is an effective COX-2 inhibitor that protects CHs from hypertrophy by suppression of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , beta Catenina
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140448, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610242

RESUMO

The environmental emission of bisphenol S (BPS), which is globally utilized in the manufacturing of polycarbonates, epoxy resin and thermal paper, has affected the aquatic ecosystem. Thus, effects of BPS exposure on the fitness of aquatic animals have been noted. Here, adult male and female zebrafish were used as aquatic model organisms and separately exposed to environmentally relevant doses of BPS (0, 1, 10 and 100 µg/L) for 14 days. The results showed that BPS changed the body pigment of zebrafish and slowed the maturation of oocytes in the ovary, resulting in a significant decrease in the shoaling behavior of adult zebrafish and the attraction of BPS-treated females during the mating process. Furthermore, in the subgeneration of adult zebrafish exposed to BPS for 7 days, survival behaviors, such as locomotor, phototaxis and feeding behaviors, deviated from normal behaviors. After exposing the adult zebrafish to BPS for an additional 7 days, the above described survival behaviors and light adaptation were disrupted in offspring. Our data, based on intergenerational behavioral studies, demonstrate that BPS affects the behaviors of aquatic animals and the ability of offspring to feed and avoid predators, possibly jeopardizing the survival of aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Feminino , Masculino , Fenóis , Sulfonas
6.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(7): 1354-1364, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616688

RESUMO

The treatment of oily wastewater continues to pose a challenge in industries worldwide. Membranes have been investigated recently for their use in oily wastewater treatment due to their efficiency and relatively facile operational process. Graphene oxide (GO) and silica (SiO2) nanoparticles have been found to improve membrane properties. In this study, a polyethersulfone (PES) based GO-SiO2 mixed matrix membrane (MMM) was fabricated, using the phase inversion technique, for the treatment of oil refinery wastewater. The PES/GO-SiO2 membrane exhibited the highest water flux (2,561 LMH) and a 38% increase in oil removal efficiency by comparison to a PES membrane. Compared to PES/GO and PES/SiO2 membranes, the PES/GO-SiO2 MMM also displayed the best overall properties in terms of tensile strength, water permeability, and hydrophilicity.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Silício , Águas Residuárias , Grafite , Membranas Artificiais , Polímeros , Sulfonas
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 261-269, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666192

RESUMO

Persistence and sorption behaviour of flubendiamide in two different Indian soils as affected by maize stalk biochar was studied. The persistence was more in West Bengal soil (178.6 days) than Sikkim soil (165.3 days) at 10 µg g-1 fortification level. Biochar amendment addition to soil at 5% enhanced the degradation process and half-life (T1/2) values were 103.5 and 117.4 days, respectively for biochar amended Sikkim and West Bengal soil. Sorption study through batch equilibrium method resulted the 4 h equilibrium time with adsorption 6.22% ± 0.16% and 5.26% ± 0.16% in Sikkim and West Bengal soil, respectively. Biochar addition at 5% increased the adsorption of flubendiamide to 8.12% ± 0.16% and 5.88% ± 0.16% indicating a greater influence in this process. The adsorption was more in biochar amended Sikkim soil than West Bengal soil. The values of desorption was slower than adsorption indicating a hysteresis effect having hysteresis coefficient (H1) ranges between 0.025 and 0.151 in two test soils.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/química , Sulfonas/química , Adsorção , Benzamidas/análise , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal/economia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Zea mays
8.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 180-190.e4, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619468

RESUMO

Rigosertib is a styryl benzyl sulfone that inhibits growth of tumor cells and acts as a RAS mimetic by binding to Ras binding domains of RAS effectors. A recent study attributed rigosertib's mechanism of action to microtubule binding. In that study, rigosertib was obtained from a commercial vendor. We compared the purity of clinical-grade and commercially sourced rigosertib and found that commercially sourced rigosertib contains approximately 5% ON01500, a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. Clinical-grade rigosertib, which is free of this impurity, does not exhibit tubulin-binding activity. Cell lines expressing mutant ß-tubulin have also been reported to be resistant to rigosertib. However, our study showed that these cells failed to proliferate in the presence of rigosertib at concentrations that are lethal to wild-type cells. Rigosertib induced a senescence-like phenotype in the small percentage of surviving cells, which could be incorrectly scored as resistant using short-term cultures.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mutação , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 191-198.e3, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619469

RESUMO

We recently used CRISPRi/a-based chemical-genetic screens and cell biological, biochemical, and structural assays to determine that rigosertib, an anti-cancer agent in phase III clinical trials, kills cancer cells by destabilizing microtubules. Reddy and co-workers (Baker et al., 2020, this issue of Molecular Cell) suggest that a contaminating degradation product in commercial formulations of rigosertib is responsible for the microtubule-destabilizing activity. Here, we demonstrate that cells treated with pharmaceutical-grade rigosertib (>99.9% purity) or commercially obtained rigosertib have qualitatively indistinguishable phenotypes across multiple assays. The two formulations have indistinguishable chemical-genetic interactions with genes that modulate microtubule stability, both destabilize microtubules in cells and in vitro, and expression of a rationally designed tubulin mutant with a mutation in the rigosertib binding site (L240F TUBB) allows cells to proliferate in the presence of either formulation. Importantly, the specificity of the L240F TUBB mutant for microtubule-destabilizing agents has been confirmed independently. Thus, rigosertib kills cancer cells by destabilizing microtubules, in agreement with our original findings.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Conformação Proteica , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
10.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702804

RESUMO

Human exposure to environmental chemicals might play a role in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been suggested to affect reproductive health. However, the mechanism remains unclear. To explore the association between BPA and BPS exposure and oxidative stress and immune homeostasis, we conducted a cross-sectional study and revealed BPA and BPS levels in relation to these two factors which were supposed to be implicated in miscarriage. 111 URSA patients were recruited and we analyzed urinary BPA and BPS concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) and serum immune balance biomarkers (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-ß and IFN-γ). Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the correlation between bisphenols exposure and outcome biomarkers. After adjustment for age, BMI, menstrual cycle, and parity history, creatinine-adjusted BPA was significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane (ß = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.07, 1.41; p = 0.031) and IFN-γ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.36; p = 0.046). No statistical correlation between BPS and biomarkers of oxidative stress or immune balance was observed when all participants were analyzed. Further analysis revealed that in the subgroup of BPS > limit of detection (0.01 ng/ml), creatinine-adjusted BPS was significantly associated with increases in IL-10 (ß = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.45; p = 0.048). Our findings suggested that BPA and BPS exposure might be related to oxidative stress and immune imbalance in URSA patients. Overall, our work might suggest potential pathogenic and aetiological associations among the bisphenols, biomarkers and URSA, which offers hypotheses for further studies.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez
11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655582

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus within the family Coronaviridae. It is an enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Since December of 2019, a global expansion of the infection has occurred with widespread dissemination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 often manifests as only mild cold-like symptomatology, but severe disease with complications occurs in 15% of cases. Respiratory failure occurs in severe disease that can be accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory cytokine release. In severe cases, fatality is caused by the rapid development of severe lung injury characteristic of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although ARDS is a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is not viral replication or infection that causes tissue injury; rather, it is the result of dysregulated hyperinflammation in response to viral infection. This pathology is characterized by intense, rapid stimulation of the innate immune response that triggers activation of the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway and release of its products including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß. Here we review the literature that describes the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and NLRP3 activation and describe an important role in targeting this pathway for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/farmacologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/uso terapêutico , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2219-2229, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507974

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer is a lethal form of cancer that can be triggered by prolonged or acute inflammation of the pancreas. Inflammation have been shown to be regulated by a group of key protein molecules known as the inflammasomes. The NLRP3 inflammasome is the most studied inflammasome and have been strongly implicated to regulate cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome under LPS-induced inflammation and its role in modulating cell proliferation in a panel of pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: The effects of LPS-induced NLRP3 activation in the presence or absence of MCC950, NLRP3-specific inhibitor, was tested on a panel of three pancreatic cancer cell lines (SW1990, PANC1 and Panc10.05). Western blotting, cell viability kits and ELISA kits were used to examine the effects of LPS-induced NLRP3 activation and inhibition by MCC950 on NLRP3 expression, cell viability, caspase-1 activity and cytokine IL-1ß, respectively. RESULTS: LPS-induced inflammation in the presence of ATP activates NLRP3 that subsequently increases pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by increasing caspase-1 activity leading to overall production of IL-1ß. The inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the specific NLRP3 antagonist MCC950 was able to reduce the cell viability of pancreatic cancer cells. However, the efficacy of MCC950 varies between cell types which is most probably due to the difference in ASC expressions which have a different role in inflammasome activation. CONCLUSION: There is a dynamic interaction between inflammasome that regulates inflammasome-mediated inflammation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/induzido quimicamente , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114879, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505936

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is used as a color developer in a thermal paper that after a heating process reacts with a leuco dye and changes it to a colored form. Receipts from cash registers are considered as the main source of consumer exposure to bisphenols together with polycarbonates and epoxy resins. Levels of BPA and its possible alternatives were determined in thermal paper samples collected between May 2018 and May 2019 in 22 European and 17 non-European countries on all inhabited continents (220 samples in total, 133 of which were from Europe and 87 from other countries). These measurements were intended to check the level of BPA presence in receipts originating from different countries, especially from Europe in the light of changing regulations restricting its use. The effect of thermal printing on developer content was also analyzed, but no major changes in concentrations of bisphenols were observed during the process. Thus, printed receipts could be used for the determination of bisphenol content. Analysis of receipts from 39 countries has shown that BPA is still the most common compound used around the world with 69% samples containing this color developer. Among other tested bisphenols, BPS was used as a color developer in 20% samples, but it was noted that all samples collected from Japan and the United States of America were found to contain only BPS. Other bisphenols (F, AF, E, and B) considered as possible alternatives for BPA were detected only at trace levels or not detected at all, which showed that they were not used as color developers. The relatively large use of BPS as a BPA substitute is worrying because this compound not only has similar endocrine properties but is also poorly biodegradable. Besides, its relatively high polarity facilitates spreading in the environment.


Assuntos
Papel , Sulfonas , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Europa (Continente) , Japão , Fenóis
14.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114806, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593928

RESUMO

Many countries are limiting the use of bisphenol A (BPA) because evidence shows it is dangerous to human health and wildlife. For the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) are proposed as safer alternatives. They have already been released into the aquatic environment without previously available information about their potential adverse effects. In this study, we compared the effects of BPA, BPS and BPF exposure to the expression profile of genes involved in the endocrine pathway (EcR and E74), ecdysone metabolism (Cyp18a1 and Shadow), apoptosis (DRONC) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 gene (MRP1) in the midge, Chironomus riparius (Diptera). The three toxicants increased Shadow expression, which is involved in ecdysone synthesis, but only BPF significantly altered Cyp18a1, which is implicated in ecdysone degradation. BPS and BPF modified EcR and E74 expression; BPF upregulated the effector caspase DRONC. Furthermore, BPA significantly increased MRP1 expression. This study provides insights into the action of bisphenols at the molecular level and highlights the potential risks of BPS and BPF as BPA alternatives.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Animais , Apoptose , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Fenóis , Sulfonas
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110891, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593097

RESUMO

Organophosphate ester contaminants, including organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are ubiquitous in surface water and pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms, thus it is important to develop effective methods for long-term monitoring of these emerging compounds. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) has become a promising monitoring tool for waterborne contaminants, yet recent studies found that the commonly used polyethersulfone (PES) membrane strongly sorbed some moderately hydrophobic compounds, resulting in long lag-phase for chemical accumulation in POCIS. In the present study, 0.45-µm nylon membranes was selected as POCIS diffusion-limiting membrane to design a new POCIS-Nylon configuration for analyzing moderately hydrophobic OPPs and OPFRs in water. The POCIS-Nylon had negligible lag-phase due to low sorption of OPPs and OPFRs to nylon membrane. Meanwhile, linear accumulation time and sensitivity for target contaminants using POCIS-Nylon retained similar to the traditional POCIS. Water velocity and chemical concentration had little impact on sampling rate (Rs), validating that the POCIS-Nylon was suitable for various water conditions. Finally, the occurrence of OPPs and OPFRs in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China was evaluated using the POCIS-Nylon with Rs values that were calibrated in the laboratory. The average concentration of OPPs was 4.97 ± 1.35 ng/L (range: 2.64 ± 1.28-6.54 ± 0.18 ng/L) and the average concentration of OPFRs was 400 ± 88 ng/L (range: 316 ± 24-615 ± 36 ng/L) across nine sampling sites. The present study provides a way to resolve the inherent challenge of accumulating hydrophobic substances by POCIS.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nylons/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Calibragem , China , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Organofosfatos/análise , Polímeros , Sulfonas
16.
Food Chem ; 328: 126999, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474236

RESUMO

The thermal degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) was investigated in water and fish (cod, basa) fillets. Ultrasound assisted solvent extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze residues in fish. Good instrumental linearity (r2 > 0.99) and recoveries (83.3-128.4%) were achieved. BPA and BPS did not degrade (1 h; 100 °C) in water (<0.1% degradation) but degraded in fish matrices. The degradation percentage of BPA was 33.0 ± 1.5% and 35.4 ± 1.2% in incurred and spiked cod, respectively; and the degradation percentage of BPS was 34.7 ± 1.7% and 37.5 ± 1.4% in incurred and spiked basa, respectively. The degradation products in spiked samples were different from those in the incurred group under the same conditions. This first study on the thermal degradation of plastic-related chemicals in food using a non-targeted approach will contribute to the refining of food safety risk assessments.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peixes , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Medição de Risco , Água/química
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110718, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464437

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been frequently found in surface waters worldwide, and its estrogenic effects in humans are well documented. Nevertheless, less is known about other bisphenol analogues (BPs), such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) which are alternative to BPA. There have been few environmental investigations on BPs in developing countries, especially India. In the present study, eight BPs were analyzed, among which BPA, BPS, and BPF were found prevalent in surface water and wastewater from drains collected from 12 states and Delhi-National Capital Territory in India. The detection frequencies of BPA, BPS, and BPF were 67.6%, 41.9%, and 29.7%, respectively in all samples (n = 74). BPA was the predominant species among the three analogues. The highest BPA concentration was observed in the Yamuna River (14,800 ng/L), followed by the Cooum River (1,420 ng/L). The highest concentrations of BPS and BPF were 438 ng/L and 333 ng/L, respectively, both found in wastewater samples. The occurrence of BPS and BPF in nationwide surface water and wastewater samples from India for the first time suggests that new BPs as BPA replacements are being used and released in India. Ecological risk assessment of BPA, BPS and BPF exposure was performed using hazard quotient (HQ) for three aquatic taxonomic groups: algae, crustaceans, and fish, with the last group exhibiting the highest HQs (0.89-148) for BPA exposure. The human exposure risk of BPA through drinking river water was observed negligible in the present study. Our findings indicate the urgent need for, (1) regulations on the use and release of BPs in India, (2) effective processes to remove BPs in wastewater treatment plants, (3) more investigations on the distribution and toxicity of BPs in India, in particular BPA, BPS and BPF, as these analogues were detected at substantial concentration in Indian waters.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Fenóis/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Crustáceos , Peixes , Humanos , Índia , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/química
18.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 400: 115075, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470352

RESUMO

NLRP3, one of the HSP-90 clients, has been defined as a critical component of IBD. In a rat model of DSS-induced colitis, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the combined therapy with CP-456773 (CP), an NLRP3 inhibitor, and celastrol (CSR), an NF-κB inhibitor. Our results revealed that the CSR/CP combined therapy (CCCT) attenuated colon shortening, DAI and MDI in addition to improvement of the colonic histological picture. Moreover, the CCCT increased the antioxidant defense machinery of the colonic tissue and decreased MPO activity. Furthermore, the inflammation markers such as TNF-α and IL-6 were downregulated. These effects might be attributed to the inhibitory effect of CSR on the priming step of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation by interrupting NF-κB signalling and inhibition of HSP-90 (at the protein and mRNA levels) along with inhibitory effect of CP on the expression of the NLRP3. These latter effects resulted in decreased tissue expression and activity of the caspase-1 and repressing the subsequent release of the active forms of IL-1ß and IL-18, hence, the pyroptosis process is restrained. Additionally, the CCCT resulted in inducing autophagy by AMPK/mTOR-dependent mechanisms leading to the accumulation of BECN1 protein and a significant decrease in the levels of p62 SQSTM1. The inhibitory effect on HSP-90 in conjunction with induction of autophagy suggest increased autophagic degradation of NLRP3. This novel approach provides a basis for the clinical application of this combination in IBD treatment and might also be promising for the pharmacological intervention of other NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/sangue , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
19.
Prostate ; 80(11): 831-849, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449814

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate smooth muscle contraction is critical for etiology and treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Integrins connect the cytoskeleton to membranes and cells to extracellular matrix, what is essential for force generation in smooth muscle contraction. Integrins are composed of different subunits and may cooperate with integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Here, we examined effects of inhibitors for different integrin heterodimers and ILK on contraction of human prostate tissues. METHODS: Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Integrins and ILK were detected by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and double fluorescence staining. Smooth muscle contractions of prostate strips were studied in an organ bath. Contractions were compared after application of solvent (controls), the ILK inhibitor Cpd22 (N-methyl-3-(1-(4-(piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-5-(4'-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)propanamide), the integrin α2ß1 inhibitor BTT-3033 (1-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[4[[(phenylamino)carbonyl]amino]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonamide), or the integrin α4ß1/α9ß1 inhibitor BOP (N-(benzenesulfonyl)- l-prolyl- l-O-(1-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)tyrosine sodium salt). RESULTS: Western blot analyses of prostate tissues using antibodies raised against integrins α2b, α4, α9, ß1, and ILK revealed bands matching the expected sizes of corresponding antigens. Expression of integrins and ILK was confirmed by RT-PCR. Individual variations of expression levels occurred independently from divergent degree of BPH, reflected by different contents of prostate-specific antigen. Double fluorescence staining of prostate sections using antibodies raised against integrins α2 and ß1, or against ILK resulted in immunoreactivity colocalizing with calponin, suggesting localization in prostate smooth muscle cells. Electric field stimulation (EFS) induced frequency-dependent contractions, which were inhibited by Cpd22 (3 µM) and BTT-3033 (1 µM) (inhibition around 37% by Cpd22 and 46% by BTT-3033 at 32 Hz). The thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were inhibited by Cpd22 and BTT-3033 (around 67% by Cpd22 and 39% by BTT-3033 at 30 µM U46619). Endothelin-1 induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were not affected by Cpd22 or BTT-3033. Noradrenaline and the α1 -adrenergic agonists methoxamine and phenylephrine-induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were not or very slightly inhibited by Cpd22 and BTT-3033. BOP did not change EFS- or agonist-induced contraction. CONCLUSIONS: Integrin α2ß1 and ILK inhibitors inhibit neurogenic and thromboxane A2 -induced prostate smooth muscle contraction in human BPH. A role for these targets for prostate smooth muscle contraction may appear possible.


Assuntos
Integrina alfa2beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido 15-Hidroxi-11 alfa,9 alfa-(epoximetano)prosta-5,13-dienoico/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/fisiologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tromboxano A2/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26845-26855, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382904

RESUMO

This work describes the development of novel electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) prepared by embedding graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) into poly (ether) sulfone (PES). FTIR and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the successful incorporation of the GOQDs into the PES membranes. The optimal electrospinning polymer concentration that showed no defects or bead formation was at 26 wt% of the PES polymer. Spectroscopy, microscopy and contact angle were some of the techniques used to characterize the ENMs. SEM images showed smooth and unbranched ENMs. The average diameter upon incorporation of the GOQDs was determined to be 2.45 µm. XRD revealed that the GOQDs were structurally close to graphite with an interlaying space of 0.36 nm. The antimicrobial effect of the GOQDs-PES electrospun nanofibrous membranes was assessed against three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus)) using the disc diffusion method. The electrospun nanofibres containing 10 wt% of GOQDs showed the most active antimicrobial activity against all three bacterial strains tested. The zones of inhibition ranged from 9 to 40 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be 0.5 mg/mL, 0.3 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL for E. coli, B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. The results demonstrated that incorporating GOQDs in the PES nanofibre gives rise to new antimicrobial properties, and as a result, the GOQDs-PES nanofibrous membrane can be used in antimicrobial applications such as water treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Grafite , Nanofibras , Pontos Quânticos , Escherichia coli , Éter , Éteres , Staphylococcus aureus , Sulfonas
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