Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.096
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4051, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792548

RESUMO

The RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is reverse-transcribed into DNA and integrated into the host genome, resulting in latent infections that are difficult to clear. Here we show an approach to eradicate HIV infections by selective elimination of host cells harboring replication-competent HIV (SECH), which includes viral reactivation, induction of cell death, inhibition of autophagy and the blocking of new infections. Viral reactivation triggers cell death specifically in HIV-1-infected T cells, which is promoted by agents that induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. SECH treatments can clear HIV-1 in >50% mice reconstituted with a human immune system, as demonstrated by the lack of viral rebound after withdrawal of treatments, and by adoptive transfer of treated lymphocytes into uninfected humanized mice. Moreover, SECH clears HIV-1 in blood samples from HIV-1-infected patients. Our results suggest a strategy to eradicate HIV infections by selectively eliminating host cells capable of producing HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21043, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a frequently encountered complication, which is associated with increased mortality. Suvorexant, an approved agent for the treatment of insomnia, is recently suggested to be also effective for prevention of delirium by some authors. However, a consensus has yet to be reached. The goal of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to overall estimate the effectiveness of suvorexant in preventing delirium and its related consequences. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching online databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. The pooled OR was calculated for binary outcomes (e.g., the incidence of delirium, mortality, or adverse events), while standardized mean difference (SMD) were expressed for continuous outcomes (e.g., time to delirium onset, length of stay in hospital and ICU, time on ventilation). RESULTS: Seven studies which comprised 402 suvorexant treatment patients and 487 patients with control treatment were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, pooled analysis indicated the incidence of delirium could be significantly reduced (OR, 0.30; P < .001) and time to delirium onset was significantly lengthened (SMD, 0.44; P = .006) in patients undergoing suvorexant treatment compared with controls. Suvorexant had no beneficial effects on the secondary outcomes [length of stay in hospital (SMD, -0.65; P = .161) and ICU (SMD, 0.34; P = .297), time on ventilation (SMD, 1.09; P = .318), drug-related adverse events (OR, drug-related adverse events (OR, 1.66; P = .319) and mortality (OR, 2.21; P = .261)]. Subgroup analysis also confirmed the benefit of suvorexant on the development of delirium, which was significant in any subgroup. CONCLUSION: Suvorexant should be recommended for the prevention of delirium in clinic.


Assuntos
Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Azepinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Triazóis/efeitos adversos
3.
Mol Cell ; 79(1): 84-98.e9, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526163

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT), mainly caused by mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is one of the most prevalent intellectual disorders without effective therapies. Here, we used 2D and 3D human brain cultures to investigate MeCP2 function. We found that MeCP2 mutations cause severe abnormalities in human interneurons (INs). Surprisingly, treatment with a BET inhibitor, JQ1, rescued the molecular and functional phenotypes of MeCP2 mutant INs. We uncovered that abnormal increases in chromatin binding of BRD4 and enhancer-promoter interactions underlie the abnormal transcription in MeCP2 mutant INs, which were recovered to normal levels by JQ1. We revealed cell-type-specific transcriptome impairment in MeCP2 mutant region-specific human brain organoids that were rescued by JQ1. Finally, JQ1 ameliorated RTT-like phenotypes in mice. These data demonstrate that BRD4 dysregulation is a critical driver for RTT etiology and suggest that targeting BRD4 could be a potential therapeutic opportunity for RTT.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Interneurônios/patologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/fisiologia , Síndrome de Rett/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Feminino , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Interneurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rett/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Síndrome de Rett/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3243, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591507

RESUMO

Dysregulation of polyamine metabolism has been linked to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism is incompletely characterized. Here, we report that spermine synthase (SMS), a polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, is overexpressed in CRC. Targeted disruption of SMS in CRC cells results in spermidine accumulation, which inhibits FOXO3a acetylation and allows subsequent translocation to the nucleus to transcriptionally induce expression of the proapoptotic protein Bim. However, this induction is blunted by MYC-driven expression of miR-19a and miR-19b that repress Bim production. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of MYC activity in SMS-depleted CRC cells dramatically induces Bim expression and apoptosis and causes tumor regression, but these effects are profoundly attenuated by silencing Bim. These findings uncover a key survival signal in CRC through convergent repression of Bim expression by distinct SMS- and MYC-mediated signaling pathways. Thus, combined inhibition of SMS and MYC signaling may be an effective therapy for CRC.


Assuntos
Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Espermina Sintase/metabolismo , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Azepinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559187

RESUMO

Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (CDK9) associates with Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET) proteins to promote transcriptional elongation by phosphorylation of serine 2 of RNAP II C-terminal domain. We examined the therapeutic potential of selective CDK9 inhibitors (AZD 4573 and MC180295) against human multiple myeloma cells in vitro. Short-hairpin RNA silencing of CDK9 in Multiple Myeloma (MM) cell lines reduced cell viability compared to control cells showing the dependency of MM cells on CDK9. In order to explore synergy with the CDK9 inhibitor, proteolysis targeting chimeric molecule (PROTAC) ARV 825 was added. This latter drug causes ubiquitination of BET proteins resulting in their rapid and efficient degradation. Combination treatment of MM cells with ARV 825 and AZD 4573 markedly reduced their protein expression of BRD 2, BRD 4, MYC and phosphorylated RNA pol II as compared to each single agent alone. Combination treatment synergistically inhibited multiple myeloma cells both in vitro and in vivo with insignificant weight loss. The combination also resulted in marked increase of apoptotic cells at low dose compared to single agent alone. Taken together, our studies show for the first time that the combination of a BET PROTAC (ARV 825) plus AZD 4573 (CDK9 inhibitor) is effective against MM cells.


Assuntos
Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/farmacologia , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Transplante Heterólogo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2350, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393766

RESUMO

BET inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but the rapid emergence of resistance necessitates investigation of combination therapies and their effects on tumor evolution. Here, we show that palbociclib, a CDK4/6 inhibitor, and paclitaxel, a microtubule inhibitor, synergize with the BET inhibitor JQ1 in TNBC lines. High-complexity DNA barcoding and mathematical modeling indicate a high rate of de novo acquired resistance to these drugs relative to pre-existing resistance. We demonstrate that the combination of JQ1 and palbociclib induces cell division errors, which can increase the chance of developing aneuploidy. Characterizing acquired resistance to combination treatment at a single cell level shows heterogeneous mechanisms including activation of G1-S and senescence pathways. Our results establish a rationale for further investigation of combined BET and CDK4/6 inhibition in TNBC and suggest novel mechanisms of action for these drugs and new vulnerabilities in cells after emergence of resistance.


Assuntos
Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Ploidias , Proteínas/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(9): 4797-4810, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246716

RESUMO

Therapeutic targeting of epigenetic modulators offers a novel approach to the treatment of multiple diseases. The cellular consequences of chemical compounds that target epigenetic regulators (epi-drugs) are complex. Epi-drugs affect global cellular phenotypes and cause local changes to gene expression due to alteration of a gene chromatin environment. Despite increasing use in the clinic, the mechanisms responsible for cellular changes are unclear. Specifically, to what degree the effects are a result of cell-wide changes or disease related locus specific effects is unknown. Here we developed a platform to systematically and simultaneously investigate the sensitivity of epi-drugs at hundreds of genomic locations by combining DNA barcoding, unique split-pool encoding, and single cell expression measurements. Internal controls are used to isolate locus specific effects separately from any global consequences these drugs have. Using this platform we discovered wide-spread loci specific sensitivities to epi-drugs for three distinct epi-drugs that target histone deacetylase, DNA methylation and bromodomain proteins. By leveraging ENCODE data on chromatin modification, we identified features of chromatin environments that are most likely to be affected by epi-drugs. The measurements of loci specific epi-drugs sensitivities will pave the way to the development of targeted therapy for personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Cromossomos Humanos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Reporter , Loci Gênicos , Genômica/métodos , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células K562 , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triazóis/farmacologia
8.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 150-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latent HIV-1 is a major hurdle in obtaining HIV-1 sustained virological remission (SVR). Here we explored histone deacetylation inhibition property of nicotinamide (NAM; n=17) for the first time in comparison to a combination of methyltransferase inhibitors (MTIs; Chaetocin and BIX01294; n=25) to reactivate latent HIV ex vivo in CD8-depleted PBMCs from antiretroviral treated aviremic individuals. RESULTS: NAM reactivated HIV-1 from 13/17 (76.4%) samples compared to 20/25 (80.0%) using MTIs with mean viral load (VLs) of 4.32 and 3.22 log10 RNA copies/mL, respectively (p=0.004). Mean purging time after NAM and MTIs stimulation was 5.1 and 6.75 days, respectively (p=0.73). Viral purging in autologous cultures exhibited blunted HIV recovery with fluctuating VLs followed by a complete viral extinction when expanded in allogenic system. Electron microscopy from five supernatants revealed anomalous viral particles, with lack of complete viral genomes when characterized by ultradeep sequencing through metagenomics approach (n=4). CONCLUSION: NAM alone was more potent HIV-1 activator than combination of MTIs, with potential of clinical use.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Feminino , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Tropismo Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 126: 125-135, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of c-Myc is commonly seen in human ovarian cancers, and this could be a potentially novel therapeutic target for this disease. JQ1, a selective small-molecule BET (Bromodomain and extraterminal domain family) bromodomain (BRDs) inhibitor, has been found to suppress tumour progression in several cancer cell types. RESULTS: Using a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines and primary cell cultures from human ovarian cancer ascites, we demonstrated that JQ1 significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in an ovarian cancer cell by targeting BRD4 and c-Μyc. In addition, JQ1 sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin, the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in ovarian cancer. Importantly, this effect was observed in ovarian cells, which exhibited resistance to cisplatin alone. Finally, we show that JQ1 interacts with the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, a pathway important in supporting ovarian cancer cell survival by suppressing or inducing genes involved in cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data, taken together, suggest that JQ1 is an attractive antitumour candidate for further investigation in the treatment of ovarian cancer, as it associates with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and alterations in the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, especially in patients with a platinum-resistant profile or in patients with relapsed disease.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Janus Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(3): 303-308, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959954

RESUMO

Monitoring drug-target interactions with methods such as the cellular thermal-shift assay (CETSA) is well established for simple cell systems but remains challenging in vivo. Here we introduce tissue thermal proteome profiling (tissue-TPP), which measures binding of small-molecule drugs to proteins in tissue samples from drug-treated animals by detecting changes in protein thermal stability using quantitative mass spectrometry. We report organ-specific, proteome-wide thermal stability maps and derive target profiles of the non-covalent histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat in rat liver, lung, kidney and spleen and of the B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib in mouse testis. In addition, we devised blood-CETSA and blood-TPP and applied it to measure target and off-target engagement of panobinostat and the BET family inhibitor JQ1 directly in whole blood. Blood-TPP analysis of panobinostat confirmed its binding to known targets and also revealed thermal stabilization of the zinc-finger transcription factor ZNF512. These methods will help to elucidate the mechanisms of drug action in vivo.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Azepinas/administração & dosagem , Azepinas/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Panobinostat/administração & dosagem , Panobinostat/farmacologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Ratos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Baço/química , Baço/metabolismo , Testículo/química , Testículo/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/farmacologia , Vemurafenib/administração & dosagem , Vemurafenib/farmacologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 258, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937753

RESUMO

BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETi), such as JQ1, have been demonstrated to effectively kill multiple types of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for BETi resistance remain largely unknown. Our evidences show that JQ1 treatment evicts BRD4 from the FOXD3-localized MIR548D1 gene promoter, leading to repression of miR-548d-3p. The loss of miRNA restores JunD expression and subsequent JunD-dependent transcription of RPS6KA2 gene. ERK1/2/5 kinases phosphorylate RSK3 (RPS6KA2), resulting in the enrichment of activated RSK3 and blockade of JQ1 killing effect. Dual inhibition of MEKs/ERKs or single EGFR inhibition are able to mimic the effect of JunD/RSK3-knockdown to reverse BETi resistance. Collectively, our study indicates that loss of BRD4/FOXD3/miR-548d-3p axis enhances JunD/RSK3 signalling and determines BET inhibition resistance, which can be reversed by targeting EGFR-MEK1/2/5-ERK1/2/5 signalling.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triazóis/farmacologia
12.
Chem Rec ; 20(2): 120-141, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250972

RESUMO

Fluorine-containing organic scaffolds are of significant interest in medicinal chemistry. The incorporation of fluorine into biomolecules can lead to remarkable changes in their physical, chemical, and biological properties. There are already many drugs on the market, which contain at least one fluorine atom. Saturated functionalized azaheterocycles as bioactive substances have gained increasing attention in pharmaceutical chemistry. Due to the high biorelevance of organofluorine molecules and the importance of N-heterocyclic compounds, selective stereocontrolled procedures to the access of new fluorine-containing saturated N-heterocycles are considered to be a hot research topic. This account summarizes the synthesis of functionalized and fluorine-containing saturated azaheterocycles starting from functionalized cycloalkenes and based on oxidative ring cleavage of diol intermediates followed by ring expansion with reductive amination.


Assuntos
Compostos Aza/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Aldeídos/química , Azepinas/síntese química , Azepinas/química , Ciclização , Flúor/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Oxirredução , Estereoisomerismo
13.
Biochimie ; 168: 220-230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756401

RESUMO

G9a (also known as EHMT2 - Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 2) is a protein lysine methyltransferase which introduces methylation modification in variety of proteins including histones. G9a catalyzes the dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9me2) which is a repressive epigenetic modification. H3K9me2 is associated with the silencing of several genes including tumor suppressor genes in many cancers and hence G9a is a well characterized drug target for cancer therapy. Here, we report the discovery of CSV0C018875 as a novel quinoline based G9a inhibitor through virtual screening strategy from a HTS database. Sub-structure querying based on the known G9a inhibitors, followed by docking based virtual screening, led to the identification of CSV0C018875 as G9a inhibitor. We found that CSV0C018875 inhibits the activity of G9a in both enzyme and cell based assays. Importantly, the toxicity of CSV0C018875 is much lesser than that of the well-studied G9a inhibitor, BIX-01294. Molecular dynamics simulations shows that CSV0C018875 binds deeper inside the active site cavity of G9a, which facilitates the tight binding and also increases the compounds residence time, which in turn reflects better G9a inhibition. The novel quinoline CSV0C018875 could be further optimized to improve the ADME as well pharmacodynamic property.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Quinolinas , Azepinas/química , Domínio Catalítico , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Metilação , Ligação Proteica , Quinazolinas/química , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/metabolismo
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(2): e122-e133, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased aurora A kinase (AAK) expression occurs in acute myeloid leukaemia; AAK inhibition is a promising therapeutic target in this disease. We therefore aimed to assess the activity of alisertib combined with 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: We did a single-arm, phase 2 trial of patients recruited from the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center in the USA. Eligible patients had previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and were at high risk of disease as defined by the presence of an adverse-risk karyotype, the presence of secondary acute myeloid leukaemia arising from previous myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative neoplasm, the presence of therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia, or being 65 years or older. Enrolled patients received 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy of continuous infusion of cytarabine (100 mg/m2 per day on days 1-7) and intravenous bolus of idarubicin (12 mg/m2 per day on days 1-3). Oral alisertib (30 mg) was given twice per day on days 8-15. Patients could receive up to four consolidation cycles with cytarabine and alisertib, and alisertib maintenance for 12 months. The primary endpoint was a composite including the proportion of patients achieving complete remission and those with a complete remission with incomplete neutrophil or platelet count recovery. Analyses were per-protocol. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02560025, and has completed enrolment. FINDINGS: Between Dec 31, 2015, and Aug 1, 2017, we enrolled a total of 39 eligible patients. 19 (49%) of 39 patients had secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and three (8%) had therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia. At mid-induction, 33 (85%) of 39 patients showed marrow aplasia, six (15%) received re-induction. The median follow-up was 13·7 months (IQR 12·7-14·4). Composite remission was 64% (two-stage 95% CI 48-79), with 20 (51%) of 39 patients achieving complete remission and five (13%) achieving complete remission with incomplete neutrophil or platelet count recovery. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included febrile neutropenia (16 [41%] of 39), neutropenia (12 [31%]), thrombocytopenia (13 [33%]), anaemia (11 [28%]), anorexia (nine [23%]), and oral mucositis (four [10%]). No treatment-related deaths were observed. INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that alisertib combined with induction chemotherapy is active and safe in previously untreated patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia. This study met criteria to move forward to a future randomised trial. FUNDING: Millennium Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Azepinas/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Azepinas/efeitos adversos , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Idarubicina/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111915, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838329

RESUMO

A series of 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [b,f]azepine hydroxamates (4-15) were synthesized, behaving as histone deacetylase inhibitors, and examined for their influence on vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), which correlated with dementia. The results revealed that (E)-3-(4-(((3-(3-chloro-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [b,f]azepin-5-yl)propyl)amino)methyl)phenyl)-N-hydroxy-acrylamide (13) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF), attenuates cognitive impairment, and improves hippocampal atrophy in in vivo study. It is also able to increase the level of histone acetylation (H3K14 or H4K5) in the cortex and hippocampus of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) mice; as a result, it could be a potential HDAC inhibitor for the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Clomipramina/análogos & derivados , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Demência Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Azepinas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clomipramina/química , Clomipramina/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Demência Vascular/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/síntese química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Substâncias Protetoras/síntese química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 1114-1124, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199520

RESUMO

Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors are broadly active against distinct types of cancer, including nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have addressed the effect of BET-inhibiting drugs on the expression of oncogenes such as c-Myc, but DNA damage repair pathways have also been reported to be involved in the efficacy of these drugs. AZD1775, an inhibitor of the G2-M cell cycle checkpoint kinase WEE1, induces DNA damage by promoting premature mitotic entry. Thus, we hypothesized that BET inhibition would increase AZD1775-induced cytotoxicity by impairing DNA damage repair. Here, we demonstrate that combined inhibition of BET and WEE1 synergistically suppresses NSCLC growth both in vitro and in vivo. Two BET inhibitors, JQ1 and AZD5153, increased and prolonged AZD1775-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and concomitantly repressed genes related to nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), including XRCC4 and SHLD1. Furthermore, pharmaceutical inhibition of BET or knockdown of the BET protein BRD4 markedly diminished NHEJ activity, and the BET-inhibitor treatment also repressed myelin transcription factor 1 (MYT1) expression and promoted mitotic entry with subsequent mitotic catastrophe when combined with WEE1 inhibition. Our findings reveal that BET proteins, predominantly BRD4, play an essential role in DSB repair through the NHEJ pathway, and further suggest that combined inhibition of BET and WEE1 could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azepinas/farmacologia , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 798-810, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882401

RESUMO

Patients with melanoma resistant to RAF/MEK inhibitors (RMi) are frequently resistant to other therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), and individuals succumb to their disease. New drugs that control tumor growth and favorably modulate the immune environment are therefore needed. We report that the small-molecule CX-6258 has potent activity against both RMi-sensitive (RMS) and -resistant (RMR) melanoma cell lines. Haspin kinase (HASPIN) was identified as a target of CX-6258. HASPIN inhibition resulted in reduced proliferation, frequent formation of micronuclei, recruitment of cGAS, and activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway. In murine models, CX-6258 induced a potent cGAS-dependent type-I IFN response in tumor cells, increased IFNγ-producing CD8+ T cells, and reduced Treg frequency in vivo. HASPIN was more strongly expressed in malignant compared with healthy tissue and its inhibition by CX-6258 had minimal toxicity in ex vivo-expanded human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), proliferating TILs, and in vitro differentiated neurons, suggesting a potential therapeutic index for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, the activity of CX-6258 was validated in several Ewing sarcoma and multiple myeloma cell lines. Thus, HASPIN inhibition may overcome drug resistance in melanoma, modulate the immune environment, and target a vulnerability in different cancer lineages. SIGNIFICANCE: HASPIN inhibition by CX-6258 is a novel and potent strategy for RAF/MEK inhibitor-resistant melanoma and potentially other tumor types. HASPIN inhibition has direct antitumor activity and induces a favorable immune microenvironment.


Assuntos
Azepinas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Quinases raf/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Endocrinology ; 161(2)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875887

RESUMO

The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway has cell-specific functions. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative-feedback regulators of JAK-STAT signaling. STAT5 plays a significant role in adipocyte development and function, and bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins may be involved in STAT5 transcriptional activity. We treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the BET inhibitor JQ1 and observed that growth hormone (GH)-induced expression of 2 STAT5 target genes from the SOCS family, Socs3 and Cish, were inversely regulated (increased and decreased, respectively) by BET inhibition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that changes in STAT5 binding did not correlate with gene expression changes. GH promoted the recruitment of the BET protein BRD2 to the Cish, but not Socs3, promoter. JQ1 treatment ablated this effect as well as the GH-induced binding of ribonucleic acid polymerase II (RNA Pol II) to the Cish transcription start site. BRD2 knockdown also suppressed GH induction of Cish, further supporting the role of BRD2 in Cish transcriptional activation. In contrast, JQ1 increased the binding of activated Pol II to the Socs3 coding region, suggesting enhanced messenger RNA (mRNA) elongation. Our finding that JQ1 transiently reduced the interaction between the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) and its inhibitor hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible 1 (HEXIM1) is consistent with a previously described off-target effect of JQ1, whereby P-TEFb becomes more available to be recruited by genes that do not depend on BET proteins for activating transcription. These results demonstrate substantially different transcriptional regulation of Socs3 and Cish and suggest distinct roles in adipocytes for these 2 closely related proteins.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azepinas , Camundongos , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triazóis
20.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 48-58, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605774

RESUMO

Our previous finding that the BET inhibitor (BETi) JQ1 increases levels of the DNA damage marker γH2AX suggested that JQ1 might enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to PARP inhibitors (PARPi), which are selectively toxic to cells that harbor relatively high levels of DNA damage. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a BETi (JQ1 or I-BET762) combined with a PARPi (olaparib or veliparib) in KKU-055 and KKU-100 cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines and of JQ1 with olaparib in a xenograft model of CCA. Each combination was more effective than any of the four drugs as single agents. Combination indices ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 at the ED50 for all combinations, indicating synergy and demonstrating that synergy was not limited to a specific combination. Mechanistically, downregulation of BETi molecular targets BRD2 or BRD4 by shRNA sensitized CCA cells to BETi as single agents as well as to the combination of a BETi + a PARPi. Our data indicate that combinations of a BETi with a PARPi merit further evaluation as a promising strategy for CCA.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azepinas/farmacologia , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA