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1.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882868

RESUMO

Over the years, coronaviruses (CoV) have posed a severe public health threat, causing an increase in mortality and morbidity rates throughout the world. The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that affected more than 215 countries with over 23 million cases and 800,000 deaths as of today. The situation is critical, especially with the absence of specific medicines or vaccines; hence, efforts toward the development of anti-COVID-19 medicines are being intensively undertaken. One of the potential therapeutic targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 was identified as a key functional receptor for CoV associated with COVID-19. ACE2, which is located on the surface of the host cells, binds effectively to the spike protein of CoV, thus enabling the virus to infect the epithelial cells of the host. Previous studies showed that certain flavonoids exhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Thus, it is being postulated that these flavonoids might also interact with ACE2. This postulation might be of interest because these compounds also show antiviral activity in vitro. This article summarizes the natural flavonoids with potential efficacy against COVID-19 through ACE2 receptor inhibition.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Antivirais/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3575-3583, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893546

RESUMO

Myricetin and its glycosides are important flavonols commonly found in plants, and they are natural organic compounds with diverse pharmacological activities. Numerous studies have demonstrated that myricetin and its glycosides are strong antioxidants that have great potential in preventing, alleviating and assisting the treatment of chronic non-infectious diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, myricetin and its glycosides also have antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, liver protection and other pharmacological activities. Myricetin contains more hydroxyl groups in the parent ring structure than other flavonoids, so myricetin and its glycosides have stronger pharmacological activities than other flavonols or flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol. Therefore, myricetin and its glycosides have great development and application prospects. In this paper, the classification and distribution of myricetin and its glycosides, their pharmacological activity and mechanism, as well as comparison with other flavonoids were reviewed. In addition, limitations of the current research and application of myricetin and its glycosides were analyzed, and the further studies on pharmacological activities as well as their dose-activity relationship, structure-activity relationship, chemical modification, biosynthesis and application prospects of myricetin and its glycosides were discussed and proposed.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Flavonóis , Quercetina
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3844-3851, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893579

RESUMO

To optimize the formulation and preparation process of icaritin-coix seed oil microemulsion(IC-MEs) based on quality by design(QbD) concept. IC-MEs were prepared by water titration. Firstly, the risk factors that may affect the quality of IC-MEs were evaluated. Then Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out prescription factors and process parameters that had a significant effect on the indicators. Finally, Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the prescription ratio of IC-MEs. Through the risk assessment and Plackett-Burman design, three formulation factors [drug loading efficiency, the ratio of mixed-oil(coix seed oil-Glycerol tributyrate) to mixed-surfactant(HS15-RH40) and water addition] were determined as the key factors affecting IC-MEs. The regression model established by Box-Behnken design had a good predictability. The optimal formula was as following: the drug loading efficiency of 0.92%, the ratio of mixed-oil(coix seed oil-glycerol tributyrate) to mixed-surfactant(HS15-RH40) of 4∶6, and the water addition of 5.7 mL. According to this prescription, IC-MEs were prepared, and its encapsulation efficiency after 1 week was 92.45%±1.00%. Therefore, the stability of IC-MEs could be improved by optimizing prescription and process parameters of IC-MEs based on the QbD concept, which can provide certain reference value for the future development of IC-MEs.


Assuntos
Coix , Emulsões , Flavonoides , Óleos Vegetais
4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(9): 1167-1177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737471

RESUMO

Human infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and there is no cure currently. The 3CL protease (3CLpro) is a highly conserved protease which is indispensable for CoVs replication, and is a promising target for development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. In this study we investigated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of Shuanghuanglian preparation, a Chinese traditional patent medicine with a long history for treating respiratory tract infection in China. We showed that either the oral liquid of Shuanghuanglian, the lyophilized powder of Shuanghuanglian for injection or their bioactive components dose-dependently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro as well as the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells. Baicalin and baicalein, two ingredients of Shuanghuanglian, were characterized as the first noncovalent, nonpeptidomimetic inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and exhibited potent antiviral activities in a cell-based system. Remarkably, the binding mode of baicalein with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro determined by X-ray protein crystallography was distinctly different from those of known 3CLpro inhibitors. Baicalein was productively ensconced in the core of the substrate-binding pocket by interacting with two catalytic residues, the crucial S1/S2 subsites and the oxyanion loop, acting as a "shield" in front of the catalytic dyad to effectively prevent substrate access to the catalytic dyad within the active site. Overall, this study provides an example for exploring the in vitro potency of Chinese traditional patent medicines and effectively identifying bioactive ingredients toward a specific target, and gains evidence supporting the in vivo studies of Shuanghuanglian oral liquid as well as two natural products for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Flavanonas , Flavonoides , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/farmacocinética , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacocinética , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 1539-1544, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746637

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic disease of which the termination is not yet predictable. Currently, researches to develop vaccines and treatments is going on globally to cope with this disastrous disease. Main protease (3CLpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the good targets to find antiviral agents before vaccines are available. Some flavonoids are known to inhibit 3CLpro from SARS-CoV which causes SARS. Since their sequence identity is 96%, a similar approach was performed with a flavonoid library. Baicalin, herbacetin, and pectolinarin have been discovered to block the proteolytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. An in silico docking study showed that the binding modes of herbacetin and pectolinarin are similar to those obtained from the catalytic domain of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. However, their binding affinities are different due to the usage of whole SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in this study. Baicalin showed an effective inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and its docking mode is different from those of herbacetin and pectolinarin. This study suggests important scaffolds to design 3CLpro inhibitors to develop antiviral agents or health-foods and dietary supplements to cope with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/química , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus , Desenho de Fármacos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Espectrofotometria , Triptofano/química
6.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111154, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771852

RESUMO

The frequent environment-unfriendly treatments of agro-industrial bio-wastes cause severe pollution through air pollution and through residual effluents and hazardous solid waste. These bio-wastes can contain phenolic compounds, forms of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants. They are however the most abundant class of many phytochemicals and have been given great interest due to their health advantage and high economic value. An interesting upgrading of these bio-wastes may consist in obtaining a concentrated extract of phenolic compounds using no-toxic solvents, hence protecting the environment and human health. In this work, different alternatives of the extraction process were evaluated using an exergetic analysis. The energy and water consumptions, CO2 emissions, exergetic yield, wasted and destroyed exergy were calculated. It was found that several alternatives for recycle streams were convenient (streams with higher chemical exergy were not discharged into the environment). The energy and water consumption for the best alternative (ethanol-water ratio 1/1 including recycle stream, named E-W 1/1 Rec) were 567 MJ/h and 105 kg/h, respectively and the CO2 emission was 105 kg/h. The calculated exergy destruction indicated that the evaporation and distillation stages may be optimized towards a more sustainable operation. It is not advisable to dry the bio-waste if it will be immediately processed once generated.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Resíduos Industriais , Flavonoides , Humanos , Fenóis , Reciclagem
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109211, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735799

RESUMO

In terms of public health, the 21st century has been characterized by coronavirus pandemics: in 2002-03 the virus SARS-CoV caused SARS; in 2012 MERS-CoV emerged and in 2019 a new human betacoronavirus strain, called SARS-CoV-2, caused the unprecedented COVID-19 outbreak. During the course of the current epidemic, medical challenges to save lives and scientific research aimed to reveal the genetic evolution and the biochemistry of the vital cycle of the new pathogen could lead to new preventive and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. Up to now, there is no cure for COVID-19 and waiting for an efficacious vaccine, the development of "savage" protocols, based on "old" anti-inflammatory and anti-viral drugs represents a valid and alternative therapeutic approach. As an alternative or additional therapeutic/preventive option, different in silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that small natural molecules, belonging to polyphenol family, can interfere with various stages of coronavirus entry and replication cycle. Here, we reviewed the capacity of well-known (e.g. quercetin, baicalin, luteolin, hesperetin, gallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate) and uncommon (e.g. scutellarein, amentoflavone, papyriflavonol A) flavonoids, secondary metabolites widely present in plant tissues with antioxidant and anti-microbial functions, to inhibit key proteins involved in coronavirus infective cycle, such as PLpro, 3CLpro, NTPase/helicase. Due to their pleiotropic activities and lack of systemic toxicity, flavonoids and their derivative may represent target compounds to be tested in future clinical trials to enrich the drug arsenal against coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Coronaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 8): 723-733, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756034

RESUMO

The present study examines a series of six biologically-active flavonoid and chromanone derivatives by X-ray crystal structure analysis: (E)-3-benzylidene-2-phenylchroman-4-one, C22H16O2, I, (E)-3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-2-phenylchroman-4-one, C23H18O2, II, (E)-3-(3-methylbenzylidene)-2-phenylchroman-4-one, C23H18O2, III, (E)-3-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-phenylchroman-4-one, C23H18O3, IV, (E)-3-benzylidenechroman-4-one, C16H12O2, V, and (E)-3-(4-methoxybenzylidene)chroman-4-one, C17H14O3, VI. The cytotoxic activities of the presented crystal structures have been determined, together with their intermolecular interaction preferences and Hirshfeld surface characteristics. An inverse relationship was found between the contribution of C...C close contacts to the Hirshfeld surface and cytotoxic activity against the WM-115 cancer line. Dependence was also observed between the logP value and the percentage contribution of C...H contacts to the Hirshfeld surface.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cromanos/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citotoxinas/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20190387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696843

RESUMO

Colebrookea oppositifolia is a highly used medicinal plant and an enriched source of essential oils. Therefore, the present study was designed with the aim to extract the chemical constituents and to evaluate its antioxidant potential. Fresh plant parts were subjected to the extraction of volatile chemical constituents by maceration using n-hexane as the menstruum. The resulting n-hexane fractions were purified and then subjected to GC-MS and FTIR analysis. In-vitro antioxidant abilities were evaluated by, DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) method against the standard solutions of (Gallic acid, Quercetin) as a positive control. The GC-MS analysis of leaves, stem and inflorescence showed a total of 100, 98 and 48 components out of which 47, 16 and 17 peaks were identified representing the 67.64 %, 73.16 % and 61.93 % of the total oily fractions, respectively. The FTIR spectrum indicated the presence of various functional groups. In-vitro antioxidant results exhibited that leaves showed the highest antioxidant potential by DPPH (3.365 ± 0.002), and the highest total phenolic content by FC method (203.00 ± 0.091). Foliar micromorphological features were found significant in the authentication of C. oppositifolia. Further pharmacognostic studies of this plant are recommended to evaluate its therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658905

RESUMO

Vernonia amygdalina (VA) has been reported to have antioxidant potential; however, its DNA protection and anti-inflammatory properties remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether aqueous (WEVAL) and alcoholic (EEVAL) VA extracts exert similar antioxidant, DNA protection and anti-inflammatory effects and attempted to explore the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects. These results demonstrated that WEVAL had greater polyphenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as a stronger reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging and DNA protective activity. Moreover, both extracts reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of COX-II, iNOS, pro-inflammatory factors, including NO, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10. Compared with WEVAL, EEVAL was a more potent inflammatory inhibitor. Both extracts similarly inhibited LPS-induced MAPK (p38) and NF-κB expression. Our findings indicate that WEVAL and EEVAL have diverse antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. WEVAL had a stronger antioxidant and DNA protection activity; contrastingly, EEVAL had a stronger anti-inflammatory ability. The anti-inflammatory activity involves reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-κB down-regulation and MAPK inhibition. These results demonstrated that production of WEVAL and EEVAL from VA leaves may provide a safe and efficacious source of pharmaceutical applications, with antioxidant, DNA protective and anti-inflammation activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Vernonia/química , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Gene ; 758: 144961, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693148

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba L. is regarded as the most ancient living tree, and its kernel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years. The leaf extracts of this tree have been among the bestselling herbal remedies in Western countries since the last century. To understand the biosynthesis of the pharmacologically active ingredients in G. biloba, flavonoids and terpenoid trilactones (TTLs), we sequenced the transcriptomes of G. biloba leaves, kernels and testae with Iso-Seq and RNA-Seq technologies and obtained 152,524 clean consensus reads. When these reads were used to improve the annotation of the G. biloba genome, 4,856 novel genes, 25,583 new isoforms of previously annotated genes and 4,363 lncRNAs were discovered. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses indicated that genes involved in growth, regulation and response to stress were more likely to be regulated by alternative splicing (AS) or alternative polyadenylation (APA), which represent the two most important posttranscriptional regulation mechanisms. It was found that some of the characterized genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and TTLs were also possibly regulated by AS and APA. Using phylogenetic and gene expression pattern analyses, some candidate genes for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and TTLs were screened. After qRT-PCR validation, the final candidate genes for flavonoid biosynthesis included three UDP-glycosyltransferases and one MYB transcription factor, while the candidate genes for TTL biosynthesis included two cytochrome P450 and one WRKY transcription factor. Our study suggested that Iso-Seq may play an important role in improving genome annotation, elucidating AS and APA mechanisms and discovering candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta/genética , Extratos Vegetais , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3035-3044, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726009

RESUMO

UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was developed for the identification of chemical constituents in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which will clarify its material basis. ACQUITY UHPLC HSS T3 chromatography column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 µm) was used with 0.1% formic acid(B)-acetonitrile(A) as the mobile phase in gradient elution. The decoction was detected by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with an ESI ion source in positive and negative mode. Based on the accurate mass measurements, retention time, mass fragmentation patterns combined with comparison of reference and literature reports, a total of 87 major compounds including 43 flavonoids, 9 alkaloids, 4 triterpenoid saponins, 1 sesquiterpene, 2 coumarins, 10 phenolic acids and 18 other compounds were tentatively screened and characterized. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was employed to comprehensively elucidate the chemical components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, which basically covered 20 Chinese medicines except gypsum in Qingfei Paidu Decoction. These collective results provide a scientific basis for further research on the quality control standard of Qingfei Paidu Decoction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3144-3154, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726023

RESUMO

To reveal the processing mechanism of Chrysanthemi Flos from the changes of chemical compositions after frying and its effect on the efficacy of liver protection. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were used for the qualitative and quantitative researches of chemical compositions before and after Chrysanthemi Flos frying. Progenesis QI and SPSS software were used for principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), variable importance projection(VIP) analysis and t-test to identify the compositions with significant changes. Pharmacodynamics experiment was used to investigate the protective effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. According to mass spectrometry data, there were 28 chemical compositions in crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos, mainly including flavonoids and organic acids. 13 compositions such as luteolin, apigenin and luteolin glycoside were increased significantly after frying, while 7 compositions such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide were decreased significantly after frying. Through principal component analysis, crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos products were divided into two categories, indicating that there were internal differences in quality. The results of liver injury protection experiment in mice showed that the AST, ALT and MDA contents were significantly decreased and SOD level was increased in mice with liver injury in both the high and medium dose groups. Histopathological examination showed that crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos can protect the liver by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, reducing steatosis, and repairing damaged liver cells. The results of this study showed that the chemical compositions had obvious changes after frying, and both crude and fried Chrysanthemis Flos had protective effects on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. In addition, in the range of high, medium and low doses, the liver protection effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos increased with the increase of dose. The experiment results provided reference for the mechanism of fried Chrysanthemi Flos and clinical selection of processed products.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Fígado/química , Camundongos
14.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 275-287, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706215

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Natural products play an important role as nutritional supplements with potential health benefits in cardiovascular diseases. Polygonum minus (PM) is an aromatic plant that is widely used as a flavoring agent in cooking and has been recognized as a plant with various medicinal properties including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. Phytoconstituents found in PM such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds contribute to the plant's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted this review to systematically identify articles related to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of PM. A computerized database search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and ACS publication, from 1946 until May 2020, and the following keywords were used: 'Kesum OR Polygonum minus OR Persicaria minor' AND 'inflammat* OR oxida* OR antioxida*'. A total of 125 articles were obtained. Another eight additional articles were identified through Google Scholar and review articles. Altogether, 17 articles were used for data extraction, comprising 16 articles on antioxidant and one article on anti-inflammatory activity of PM. These studies consist of 14 in vitro studies, one in vivo animal study, one combined in vitro and in vivo study and one combined in vitro and ex vivo study. All the studies reported that PM exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities which are most likely attributed to its high phenolic and flavonoid content.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polygonum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4547-4556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a cancer therapeutic target, has been exploited for cancer therapy. The natural compounds flavonoids have increasingly been shown to possess anticancer activity. The current study aimed to explore all known flavonoids for their ability to inhibit PI3Kγ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virtual screening of flavonoids using molecular docking to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ was performed. The top 10 scoring flavonoids were selected for pose analysis and binding strength scores. RESULTS: Molecular docking revealed that the 10 selected flavonoids might inhibit PI3Kγ kinase activity. Literature search did not identify studies reporting a bioassay activity for any of these compounds. CONCLUSION: All 10 selected flavonoids are potential PI3Kγ kinase inhibitors and anticancer agents. Interestingly, one of the 10 least scoring flavonoids has been reported to be inactive, as expected, and thus validating the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/química , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123771, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653247

RESUMO

Grape pomace is a high quality biodegradable residue of the winery industry. It is comprised of grape seed, skin and stalks, and is blessed with substantial quantities of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins with high antioxidant potential. Currently, there is huge emphasis on the isolation of bioactive molecules of grape pomace using green technologies such as microwave, ultrasound, supercritical fluids, high voltage discharge, enzymatic methods and other hybrid techniques. The major applications of these bioactives are contemplatedas nutraceuticals and extension in shelf-life of perishable foodstuffs. Alternatively, the crude form of grape pomace residues can be used for the production of energy, biofertilizers, biochar, biopolymers, composites, feed for ruminants and also, mushroom cultivation through microbial processing. This review discusses value-addition to grape pomace through biotechnological interventions and green processing, providing state-of-art knowledge on current scenario and opportunities for sustainability.


Assuntos
Vitis , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Fenóis
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2808-2816, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627454

RESUMO

Scutellariae Radix is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the functions of heat-clearing and damp-drying, purging fire and detoxifying, hemostasis and miscarriage prevention. Modern pharmacological studies show that Scutellariae Radix has various effects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, liver protection and antiviral microorganisms. By searching the documents in the past ten years, the author has found that Scutellariae Radix and its active components play an important role in protecting the liver. It can prevent and cure liver injuries caused by different reasons, including acute or chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cancer. Among all kinds(chemical, immunological, alcoholic, nonalcoholic, viral, ischemia-reperfusion, etc.) of acute or chronic hepatitis, most studies are on CCl_4 induced chemical liver injury. Scutellariae Radix and its active components can significantly reduce the serum transaminase level in hepatitis animals, and reduce the degree of liver pathological damage. The mechanisms include antioxidant stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of immunity, anti-virus and regulation of lipid metabolism, etc. Scutellariae Radix and its active components can significantly inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and reduce extracellular matrix, and its anti-fibrosis mechanism involves antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, inducing apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and so on. Whether in vivo or in vitro, Scutellariae Radix and its active components show a good anti-hepatocarcinoma effect, especially on hepatocarcinoma. Its prevention and treatment mechanisms for hepatocarcinoma mainly include blocking cancer cell cycle, inhibiting cancer cell metastasis, promoting cancer cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy. It can be seen that Scutellariae Radix has multiple functions and mechanisms in liver protection, and has a great development potential. Therefore, this paper reviews the prevention and treatment effects and mechanism of Scutellariae Radix and its components on different liver diseases, in order to provide reference for in-depth study, development and clinical application in the prevention and treatment of liver disease.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scutellaria baicalensis , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Flavonoides , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2827-2834, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627456

RESUMO

Flavonoids are important active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, mainly with cardiovascular, anti-liver injury, antioxidant, antispasmodic, and estrogen-like effects. These compounds have obvious effects on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Macrophage-derived foam cells are the key medium in the process of atherosclerosis(AS). In plaque, allserum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and various pro-or anti-inflammatory stimulating factors, chemokines, and small bioactive molecules can significantly affect the macrophage phenotype and induce stronger pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties. Studies have shown that some flavonoids can be used for macrophages through different pathways and mechanisms, playing an anti-atherosclerosis effect to different degrees, including promotion of cholesterol efflux from macrophages, anti-foaming of macrophages, inhibition of secretion of inflammatory factors, and antioxidant modified low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis of macrophages. Related gene regulation inclu-ded ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1(ABCG1), Toll-like receptor(TLR), and scavenger receptor(SR). In this article, we would review the recent research progress of flavonoids on anti-atherosclerosis effect me-diated by macrophage. It is expected to provide new treatment strategies for AS-related cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and provide research ideas and development directions for the use of related natural medicines and design of new products.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Flavonoides , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP , Colesterol , Células Espumosas , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL , Macrófagos
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2502-2508, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627481

RESUMO

In this study, the growth index including plant height, compound leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf water content, number of branches, and leaf biomass per plant and the icariin flavonoids such as epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin of Epimedium pseudowushanense were determined on 30 d and 60 d under light intensity(18.2±2.5) µmol·m~(-2)·s~(-1)(L1) and(90.9 ±2.5) µmol·m~(-2)·s~(-1)(L2), and white light as control, red light, blue light and yellow light were used as three light quality treatments, to study the effect of light quality on the growth and flavonoids accumulation of E. pseudowushanense. The E. pseudowushanense was sui-table for growth under L1 light intensity, the blue light treatment significantly reduced the leaf area, but had little effect on the stem height, the red light treatment and the yellow light treatment had no obvious effect on the stem height and leaf area, but the yellow light treatment significantly increased the germination of new branches, and had a sustained promoting effect, and the biomass was significantly higher than the white light treatment at 60 d. The content of icariin flavonoids in red light, blue light and yellow light treatment was higher than that in white light treatment at 30 d and 60 d under L1 light intensity, while yellow light treatment promoted the synthesis of icariin flavonoids to the largest extent, which was 1.8 and 1.9 times of white light treatment(30 d and 60 d).Under L2 light intensity, the effect of strong light on promoting stem germination became the main factor, while the yellow light treatment showed no significant effect on promoting stem germination, and the red light treatment exhibited a significant effect on reducing leaf area. Icariin flavonoids under red light, blue light and yellow light treatment were all lower than that under white light treatment, that is, the effect of white light treatment on the synthesis of icariin flavonoids is better than red light, blue light and yellow light treatment. When the time of strong light treatment was longer, the degradation range of icariin flavonoids in other light treatment appeared, while red light treatment promotes the synthesis of icariin flavonoids. Therefore, the influence of light quality on E. pseudowushanense is quite different under different light intensity, no matter from growth index or flavonoid content index. The results support that the biomass and icariin flavonoid content can be increased by providing appropriate red and yellow light.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epimedium , Flavonoides , Folhas de Planta
20.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593255

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sítios de Ligação , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus Humano OC43/química , Coronavirus Humano OC43/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/química , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
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