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1.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842606

RESUMO

Presently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19, which has spread to over 200 countries and at the time of writing was responsible for over 650,000 deaths worldwide. Recent studies have shown that two human proteases, TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L, play a key role in host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, inhibitors of these proteases were shown to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we perform virtual screening of 14,011 phytochemicals produced by Indian medicinal plants to identify natural product inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking of phytochemicals against TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Potential phytochemical inhibitors were filtered by comparing their docked binding energies with those of known inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Further, the ligand binding site residues and non-covalent interactions between protein and ligand were used as an additional filter to identify phytochemical inhibitors that either bind to or form interactions with residues important for the specificity of the target proteases. This led to the identification of 96 inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and 9 inhibitors of cathepsin L among phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants. Further, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to analyze the stability of the protein-ligand complexes for the three top inhibitors of TMPRSS2 namely, qingdainone, edgeworoside C and adlumidine, and of cathepsin L namely, ararobinol, (+)-oxoturkiyenine and 3α,17α-cinchophylline. Interestingly, several herbal sources of identified phytochemical inhibitors have antiviral or anti-inflammatory use in traditional medicine. Further in vitro and in vivo testing is needed before clinical trials of the promising phytochemical inhibitors identified here.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsina L/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Receptores Virais/química , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Índia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/isolamento & purificação , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530961

RESUMO

Eclipta alba L., also known as false daisy, is well known and commercially attractive plant with excellent hepatotoxic and antidiabetic activities. Light is considered a key modulator in plant morphogenesis and survival by regulating important physiological cascades. Current study was carried out to investigate growth and developmental aspects of E. alba under differential effect of multispectral lights. In vitro derived callus culture of E. alba was exposed to multispectral monochromatic lights under controlled aseptic conditions. Maximum dry weight was recorded in culture grown under red light (11.2 g/L) whereas negative effect was observed under exposure of yellow light on callus growth (4.87 g/L). Furthermore, red light significantly enhanced phenolics and flavonoids content (TPC: 57.8 mg/g, TFC: 11.1 mg/g) in callus cultures compared to rest of lights. HPLC analysis further confirmed highest accumulation of four major compounds i.e. coumarin (1.26 mg/g), eclalbatin (5.00 mg/g), wedelolactone (32.54 mg/g) and demethylwedelolactone (23.67 mg/g) and two minor compounds (ß-amyrin: 0.38 mg/g, luteolin: 0.39 mg/g) in red light treated culture whereas stigmasterol was found optimum (0.22 mg/g) under blue light. In vitro based biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic and lipase inhibitory assays showed optimum values in cultures exposed to red light, suggesting crucial role of these phytochemicals in the enhancement of the therapeutic potential of E. alba. These results clearly revealed that the use of multispectral lights in in vitro cultures could be an effective strategy for enhanced production of phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Eclipta/metabolismo , Eclipta/efeitos da radiação , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Eclipta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
3.
Phytochemistry ; 177: 112416, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531519

RESUMO

Fifteen previously undescribed coumarin derivatives, murratins A-M, including two pairs of coumarin enantiomers with a cyclopropane unit, two benzocoumarins, a dimeric coumarin, and eight C-8-substituted coumarins, together with six known analogues were isolated from the extract of the leaves and twigs of Murraya exotica L., a medicinal plant named "Jiulixiang" in Chinese. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were assigned via comparison of the specific rotations, the ECD exciton coupling method, comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data, and the ECD data of in situ formed transition metal complexes. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells, and five coumarin derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activities. The possible mechanism for NO inhibition of undescribed bioactive compounds was deduced to interact with iNOS protein via molecular docking. The above results shed some light on a better understanding of the traditional anti-inflammation effect of M. exotica and coumarins are disclosed to be its potential anti-inflammatory constituents.


Assuntos
Murraya , Anti-Inflamatórios , Cumarínicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico , Folhas de Planta
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 799-803, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388572

RESUMO

Azoxystrobin (AZ), pyraclostrobin (PYR) and coumoxystrobin (COU) exert negative impacts on Chlorella vulgaris. Thus, in this study, C. vulgaris was used to assess the respiratory toxicity of AZ, PYR and COU by determining the acute toxicity, complex III activity and ATP viability. The 96 h-EC50 values of AZ, PYR and COU for C. vulgaris were 1.85, 2.21 and 1.62 mg/L, respectively. AZ, PYR and COU exerted significant effects on complex III activity and ATP viability after exposure to 0.71, 1.01 and 1.08 mg/L of the fungicides. The binding potentials of AZ, PYR and COU toward ubiquinone were - 10.44, - 9.31 and - 12.98 kcal/mol, respectively, which had adverse effects on amino acids. These results provided new insight into the potential acute respiratory toxicity mechanisms of these strobilurin fungicides in algae.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/toxicidade , Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Estrobilurinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxirredução , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2841-2858, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425521

RESUMO

Introduction: Osthole (Ost) is a coumarin compound that strengthens hippocampal neurons and neural stem cells against Aß oligomer-induced neurotoxicity in mice, and is a potential drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effectiveness of the drug is limited by its solubility and bioavailability, as well as by the low permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, a kind of transferrin-modified Ost liposomes (Tf-Ost-Lip) was constructed, which could improve the bioavailability and enhance brain targeting. Methods: Tf-Ost-Lip was prepared by thin-film hydration method. The ability of liposomal formulations to translocate across BBB was investigated using in vitro BBB model. And the protective effect of Tf-Ost-Lip was evaluated in APP-SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we performed pharmacokinetics study and brain tissue distribution analysis of liposomal formulations in vivo. We also observed the neuroprotective effect of the varying formulations in APP/PS-1 mice. Results: In vitro studies reveal that Tf-Ost-Lip could increase the intracellular uptake of hCMEC/D3 cells and APP-SH-SY5Y cells, and increase the drug concentration across the BBB. Additionally, Tf-Ost-Lip was found to exert a protective effect on APP-SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo studies of pharmacokinetics and the Ost distribution in brain tissue indicate that Tf-Ost-Lip prolonged the cycle time in mice and increased the accumulation of Ost in the brain. Furthermore, Tf-Ost-Lip was also found to enhance the effect of Ost on the alleviation of Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. Conclusion: Transferrin-modified liposomes for delivery of Ost has great potential for AD treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/farmacocinética , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Presenilina-1/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual , Transferrina/química
6.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112361, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289598

RESUMO

Seven undescribed terpenylated coumarins, named altissimacoumarin I-O, together with seven known compounds, altissimacoumarin C, altissimacoumarin E, altissimacoumarin G, altissimacoumarin H, puberulin, 7-(3-Methyl-2-butenyloxy)-6-methoxycoumarin and artelin were isolated from the root bark of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectra data analysis, NMR calculation, DP4+ analysis and ACD/Structure Elucidator software simulation. The absolute configurations of altissimacoumarins K, L, M and N were determined by modified Mosher's method. All isolates were tested for their cytotoxic effect against two hepatoma carcinoma cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B). Altissimacoumarin C exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect against Hep3B cells, with IC50 of 45.21 µM.


Assuntos
Ailanthus , Cumarínicos , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais
7.
Cancer Sci ; 111(6): 2052-2061, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291856

RESUMO

KRAS mutation is frequently seen in a subtype of ovarian cancer categorized as type 1. The KRAS-MAPK pathway, which is closely involved in type 1 cancer progression, is under the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). AXL, one of the RTKs, has been reported to be overexpressed in ovarian cancer and contributes to the poor prognosis. However, there is no useful target-based agent against such gene profiles. We examined the combined effect of the dual RAF/MEK inhibitor CH5126766 and AXL inhibitor R428 on the growth of ovarian cancer HEY-T30 and OVCAR-5 cell lines, both of which bear KRAS mutation and express AXL at a high level, using the WST-8 assay and the colony formation assay. The synergistic effect of the combination was evaluated by the combination index. The apoptotic cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptotic proteins and the phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT pathway proteins were investigated by western blotting. We found that CH5126766 and R428 suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, respectively, and their combination synergistically inhibited the growth of both cell lines with enhancement of apoptosis accompanied by the Bim upregulation. Combined treatment with CH5126766 and R428 is expected as the novel therapeutic option for KRAS-mutated ovarian cancer with high expression of AXL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzocicloeptenos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 518-522, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237508

RESUMO

Coumarin is an important class of natural organic compounds, which widely exists in a variety of plants and microorganisms. Coumarins have many biological activities and wide clinical applications, such as anti-tumor, anti-HIV, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-coagulation, but they have obvious toxic effects in rodents. It was found that the toxicity of coumarins in different animals and organs was significantly different, and high dose oral administration was more likely to produce toxic reactions. Based on the research and analysis of domestic and foreign literatures in recent 60 years, this paper mainly summarized the hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity induced by coumarins, and probed into their possible mechanisms. It was found that the toxicity of coumarins had metabolic differences and species differences. The liver of rats and lungs of mice were more susceptible to coumarins. Toxic reactions occurred mainly in the second metabolic pathway of coumarin metabolism in vivo. In order to put forward safety considerations and evaluate the impact of coumarin on human body, it was found that coumarin is unlikely to produce hepatotoxicity at normal exposure level. It was also suggested that species differences due to different metabolic patterns in model animals should be carefully considered when assessing coumarin toxicity, in order to provide reference for clinical research and rational use of coumarins and improve the rational use of coumarins.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
J Nat Med ; 74(3): 550-560, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333306

RESUMO

Previously, we established a 1H NMR metabolomics method using reversed-phase solid-phase extraction column (RP-SPEC), and succeeded in distinguishing wild from cultivated samples of Saposhnikoviae radix (SR), and between SR and its substitute, Peucedanum ledebourielloides root (PR). Herein, we performed LC-HR/MS metabolomics using fractions obtained via RP-SPEC to identify characteristic components of SR and PR. One and three characteristic components were respectively found for SR and PR; these components were isolated with their m/z values and retention times as a guide. The characteristic component of SR was identified as 4'-O-ß-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol (1), an indicator component used to identify SR in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. In contrast, the characteristic components of PR were identified as xanthalin (2), 4'-O-ß-D-apiosyl (1 → 6)-ß-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol (3), and 3'-O-ß-D-apiosyl (1 → 6)-ß-D-glucosylhamaudol (4) based on spectroscopic data such as 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, and specific optical rotation. Among them, 4 is a novel compound. For the correlation between the NMR metabolomics results in the present and our previous report, only 1 and 2 were found to correlate with the chemical shifts, and the other compounds had no correlation. As the chemical shifts for compounds 1, 3, and 4 were similar to each other, especially for the aglycone moiety, they could not be distinguished because of the sensitivity and resolution of 1H NMR. Accordingly, combining NMR and LC/MS metabolomics with their different advantages is considered useful for metabolomics of natural products. The series of methods used in our reports could aid in quality evaluations of natural products and surveying of marker components.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Apiaceae/classificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1076-1081, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237449

RESUMO

To prepare the herpetolide A nanosuspension lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP), in order to investigate its anti-hepatitis B virus(HBV) activity and the dissolution in vitro. Herpetolide A nanosuspension(HPA-NS) was prepared by ultrasonic precipitation method. The formulation and process of HPA-NS were optimized by the single factor experiment. Lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP) was prepared by freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of HPA-NS-LP. Paddle method was used to determinate the dissolution of HPT-NS-LP in vitro. The anti-HBV activity of herpetolide A coarse suspension lyophilized powder(HPA-CS-LP) and HPA-NS-LP was evaluated by HepG2.2.15 cell model. The mean particle size of optimized HPA-NS was(173.46±4.36) nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.110±0.012. After redispersion, the mean particle size and the polydispersity index of HPA-NS-LP increased, with changes within a rational range. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HPA-NS-LP was spherical in shape. Cumulative dissolution rate of HPA-NS-LP was more than 90% in 2 hours, which was higher than that of HPA-CS-LP. Both HPA-CS-LP and HPA-NS-LP could effectively inhibit the secretion of HepG2.2.15 cell antigens(HBsAg and HBeAg), and the inhibitory effect of HPA-NS-LP was significantly higher than that of HPA CS-LP(P<0.05). HBV-DNA test showed that high, medium and low-dose HPA-NS-LP(50, 25, 12.5 mg·kg~(-1)) significantly decreased the level of HBV-DNA(P<0.05), and the effect was better than that of the same dose of HPA-CS-LP(P<0.05). The results revealed that HPA-NS-LP exhibited anti-HBV activity in vitro, and its effect was superior to that of HPA-CS-LP.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Suspensões
11.
Planta Med ; 86(9): 585-618, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325510

RESUMO

Malaria is a parasitic disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions responsible for hundreds of millions of clinical cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths yearly. Its agent, the Plasmodium sp., has a highly variable antigenicity, which accounts for the emergence and spread of resistance to all available treatments. In light of this rising problem, scientists have turned to naturally occurring compounds obtained from plants recurrently used in traditional medicine in endemic areas. Ethnopharmacological approaches seem to be helpful in selecting the most interesting plants for the search of new antiplasmodial and antimalarial molecules. However, this search for new antimalarials is complex and time-consuming and ultimately leads to a great number of interesting compounds with a lack of discussion of their characteristics. This review aims to examine the most promising antiplasmodial phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, lignans, among others) and derivatives isolated over the course of the last 28 y (1990 - 2018) and discuss their structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action, toxicity, new perspectives they could add to the fight against malaria, and finally, the difficulties of transforming these potential compounds into new antimalarials.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Cumarínicos , Humanos , Plantas , Plasmodium falciparum , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620909154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228310

RESUMO

Despite the development of new oral agents over the last decade, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) remain the most widely used anticoagulants for treating and preventing thromboembolism worldwide. In Chile, the Ministry of Health indicates that acenocoumarol should be used in preference to any other coumarin. Complications of inappropriate dosing are among the most frequently reported adverse events associated with this medication. It is well known that polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic proteins related to coumarins (especially warfarin) influence response to these drugs. This work analyzed the impact of CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), GGCx (rs11676382), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), CYP4F2 (rs2108622), VKORC1 (rs9923231), VKORC1 (rs7294), CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574), and ABCB1 (rs1045642) polymorphisms on time to therapeutic range for oral anticoagulants in 304 Chilean patients. CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms were associated with time to therapeutic range for acenocoumarol in Chilean patients, and the CYP4F2 TT genotype, MDR1 A allele, CYP1A2 A allele, and CYP3A4T allele are promising variants that merit further analysis. The presence of polymorphisms explained only 4.1% of time to therapeutic range for acenocoumarol in a multivariate linear model. These results improve our understanding of the basis of ethnic variations in drug metabolism and response to oral anticoagulant therapy. We hope that these findings will contribute to developing an algorithm for VKA dose adjustment in the Chilean population in the near future, decreasing the frequency of stroke, systemic embolism, and bleeding-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Chile , Cumarínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Xenobiotica ; 50(8): 939-946, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238050

RESUMO

Osthol, a pharmacologically active ingredient in various traditional Chinese medicines, is predominantly metabolized by CYP2C9. It may be co-administered with other drugs which are metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical medicine. However, CYP2C9*1/*2/*3 genotype on the pharmacokinetics of osthole and its metabolic diversity between rat and human are unclear.In this study, we investigated the effects of osthole on enzyme activity of CYP2C11/CYP2C9 in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs), to distinguish metabolic manner of osthole in different species. Interestingly, we found that osthole inhibits the activity of CYP2C11 in a non-competitive manner in RLMs, while inhibits CYP2C9 activity in a competitive manner in pooled HLMs. Then, the effects of CYP2C9*1/*2/*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of osthole were identified. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the Ki value of 21.93 µM (CYP2C9*1), 18.10 µM (CYP2C9*2), 13.12 µM (CYP2C9*3) indicate that there are individual differences in the inhibition of osthole on CYP2C9 activity.We investigated how the indomethacin pharmacokinetics was affected by osthole in SD rat. To estimate the area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and apparent clearance (CL/F), indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was given orally combined with osthole (20 mg/kg) in adult SD rat. We found the value of PK on indomethacin, such as the AUC0-∞, was from 176.40 ± 17.29 to 173.74 ± 27.69 µg/ml h-1, Cmax from 9.02 ± 1.24 to 9.89 ± 0.82 µg/ml and CL/F from 0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/kg/h which were unsignificantly changed compared with the control groups. However, the Tmax was prolonged from 2.00 ± 0.00 h to 7.33 ± 1.15 h, and T1/2 increased from 8.38 ± 2.30 h to 11.37 ± 2.11 h. These results indicate that osthole could potentially affect the metabolism of indomethacin in vivo.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacocinética , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Humanos , Indometacina/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(3): 216-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115528

RESUMO

A turn-on fluorescent traceable linker based on N-sulfanylethylcoumarinyl amide (SECmide) has been developed as an advanced cleavable linker. It was successfully employed for the enrichment and selective visualization of a target protein in cell lysate. The results demonstrated that the SECmide-based traceable linker is potentially applicable to the identification of low molecular weight target proteins, a factor which has been problematic for a previously developed N-sulfanylethylanilide-based traceable linker.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Cumarínicos/química , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Proteínas/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 322: 109053, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198085

RESUMO

Notopterol (NOT) is a major bioactive ingredient extracted from the rhizomes of either Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang or N. forbesii Boiss (Qianghuo in Chinese), a botanical drug that was adopted as a traditional Chinese medicine. NOT is suggested to show analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in clinical practice. The inhibitory effects of NOT on human cytochrome P450 enzymes were investigated in the present study. Our results indicate that NOT inhibited the activity of CYP2D6 in a time-, concentration- and NADPH-dependent manner. The values of KI and kinact were 10.8 µM and 0.62 min-1, respectively. The calculated kobs at 10 µM was 0.29 min-1, above the 0.02 min-1 risk level. After incubation with NOT at 10 µM for 9 min, approximately 92% of CYP2D6 activity was inhibited. Such loss of enzyme activity was not restored through dialysis, which indicates that the observed enzyme inhibition was irreversible. Partition ratio of the inactivation was approximately 29. Quinidine, a competitive CYP2D6 inhibitor, demonstrated protection on enzymes against the NOT-induced inactivation, but such protection was not found in incubation systems fortified with glutathione or catalase/superoxide dismutase. Additionally, CYP3A4 was observed to function as an enzyme mainly involved in the biotransformation of NOT. Taken together, these findings indicate that NOT served as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2D6, meanwhile, those observed effects may induce the latent drug-drug interactions. The metabolic activation of NOT may be the key to trigger the inactivation of the enzyme.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Ativação Metabólica , Apiaceae/química , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/química , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Glutationa/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , NADP/química , NADP/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Nature ; 579(7799): 421-426, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188939

RESUMO

Bioorthogonal chemistry capable of operating in live animals is needed to investigate biological processes such as cell death and immunity. Recent studies have identified a gasdermin family of pore-forming proteins that executes inflammasome-dependent and -independent pyroptosis1-5. Pyroptosis is proinflammatory, but its effect on antitumour immunity is unknown. Here we establish a bioorthogonal chemical system, in which a cancer-imaging probe phenylalanine trifluoroborate (Phe-BF3) that can enter cells desilylates and 'cleaves' a designed linker that contains a silyl ether. This system enabled the controlled release of a drug from an antibody-drug conjugate in mice. When combined with nanoparticle-mediated delivery, desilylation catalysed by Phe-BF3 could release a client protein-including an active gasdermin-from a nanoparticle conjugate, selectively into tumour cells in mice. We applied this bioorthogonal system to gasdermin, which revealed that pyroptosis of less than 15% of tumour cells was sufficient to clear the entire 4T1 mammary tumour graft. The tumour regression was absent in immune-deficient mice or upon T cell depletion, and was correlated with augmented antitumour immune responses. The injection of a reduced, ineffective dose of nanoparticle-conjugated gasdermin along with Phe-BF3 sensitized 4T1 tumours to anti-PD1 therapy. Our bioorthogonal system based on Phe-BF3 desilylation is therefore a powerful tool for chemical biology; our application of this system suggests that pyroptosis-induced inflammation triggers robust antitumour immunity and can synergize with checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Piroptose/imunologia , Animais , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/metabolismo , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/farmacocinética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/química , Imunoconjugados/metabolismo , Imunoconjugados/farmacocinética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacocinética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas/farmacocinética , Silanos/administração & dosagem , Silanos/química , Silanos/metabolismo , Silanos/farmacocinética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/química , Trastuzumab/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/farmacocinética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000688, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218572

RESUMO

Obesity leads to multiple health problems, including diabetes, fatty liver, and even cancer. Here, we report that urolithin A (UA), a gut-microflora-derived metabolite of pomegranate ellagitannins (ETs), prevents diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in mice without causing adverse effects. UA treatment increases energy expenditure (EE) by enhancing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducing browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Mechanistically, UA-mediated increased thermogenesis is caused by an elevation of triiodothyronine (T3) levels in BAT and inguinal fat depots. This is also confirmed in UA-treated white and brown adipocytes. Consistent with this mechanism, UA loses its beneficial effects on activation of BAT, browning of white fat, body weight control, and glucose homeostasis when thyroid hormone (TH) production is blocked by its inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). Conversely, administration of exogenous tetraiodothyronine (T4) to PTU-treated mice restores UA-induced activation of BAT and browning of white fat and its preventive role on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these results suggest that UA is a potent antiobesity agent with potential for human clinical applications.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina , Reação de Maillard , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Propiltiouracila/toxicidade , Termogênese , Tri-Iodotironina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Med Chem ; 63(6): 3359-3369, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142286

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NKs) kill compromised cells to defend against tumor and viral infections. Both effector cell types use multiple strategies to induce target cell death including Fas/CD95 activation and the release of perforin and a group of lymphocyte granule serine proteases called granzymes. Granzymes have relatively broad and overlapping substrate specificities and may hydrolyze a wide range of peptidic epitopes; it is therefore challenging to identify their natural and synthetic substrates and to distinguish their localization and functions. Here, we present a specific and potent substrate, an inhibitor, and an activity-based probe of Granzyme A (GrA) that can be used to follow functional GrA in cells.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Granzimas/análise , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Desenho de Fármacos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Granzimas/química , Humanos , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Oligopeptídeos/toxicidade , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/síntese química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/toxicidade , Especificidade por Substrato
19.
Xenobiotica ; 50(9): 1076-1089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174209

RESUMO

Coumarins have aroused high interests due to their diverse bioactivities. Understanding of its metabolism contributes to determine the druggability of coumarin in vivo.A sensitive and efficient strategy based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) analysis combined with various data-processing techniques including metabolomics and multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) was established for the comprehensive screening and elucidation of potential coumarin metabolites.Total 20 metabolites of scoparone were identified in this study, including 14 undescribed metabolites. The metabolism of two other similar coumarins scopoletin and esculetin also could be determined using this strategy.By the established strategy, this study gives the insights about the major metabolic pathways of scoparone in vivo and in vitro metabolism, including demethylation, hydroxylation, hydration, cysteine conjugation, glucuronide conjugation and sulfate conjugation. Additionally, the metabolic pathways of scopoletin and esculetin were determined as hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulfation. These results contribute to the understanding of metabolic characterization of coumarins, and demonstrate that the combination of UPLC-MS-based metabolomics and MMDF is a powerful approach to determine the metabolic pathways of coumarin compounds.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidroxilação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049975

RESUMO

Aspergillus tubingensis is an important pathogen of economically important crops. Different biotic stresses strongly influence the balance of metabolites in plants. The aim of this study was to understand the function and response of resistance associated metabolites which, in turn are involved in many secondary metabolomics pathways to influence defense mechanism of cotton plant. Analysis of non-targeted metabolomics using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) revealed abundant accumulation of key metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, fatty acids and carbohydrates, in response to leaf spot of cotton. The principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots illustrated the evidences of variation between two varieties of cotton under mock and pathogen inoculated treatments. Primary metabolism was affected by the up regulation of pyruvate and malate and by the accumulation of carbohydrates like cellobiose and inulobiose. Among 241 resistance related (RR) metabolites, 18 were identified as resistance related constitutive (RRC) and 223 as resistance related induced (RRI) metabolites. Several RRI metabolites, identified in the present study were the precursors for many secondary metabolic pathways. These included phenylpropanoids (stilbenes and furanocoumarin), flavonoids (phlorizin and kaempferol), alkaloids (indolizine and acetylcorynoline) and terpenoids (azelaic acid and oleanolic acid). Our results demonstrated that secondary metabolism, primary metabolism and energy metabolism were more active in resistant cultivar, as compared to sensitive cultivar. Differential protein and fatty acid metabolism was also depicted in both cultivars. Accumulation of these defense related metabolites in resistant cotton cultivar and their suppression in susceptible cotton cultivar revealed the reason of their respective tolerance and susceptibility against A. tubingensis.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença , Gossypium/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
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