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1.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(3): 470-478, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of hypertension disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP) and vitamin E (VE) nutritional status among pregnant women in Beijing, and to determine the relationship between serum VE concentration in the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of developing HDCP. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed including 22 283 cases of pregnant women who underwent singleton deliveries in Tongzhou Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Beijing from January 2016 through December 2018 and received tests of serum VE concentrations in the first trimester of pregnancy. Nonconditional Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between serum VE concentration levels and the risk of developing HDCP. RESULTS: The total incidence of HDCP was 5.4%, with the incidence of gestational hypertension around 2.1% and the incidence of preeclampsia-eclampsia around 3.3%. The median concentration of serum VE in early pregnancy was 10.1 (8.8-11.6) mg/L, and 99.7% of the participants had normal serum VE concentrations. The incidence of gestational hypertension and that of preeclampsia-eclampsia had been annually increasing in three years; a linear-by-linear association had also been observed between the serum VE concentrations and the years of delivery. According to the results of the univariable and the multivariable Logistic regression analyses, higher risks of developing HDCP had been observed among women with higher serum VE concentrations. Compared to those with serum VE concentrations in interquartile range (P25-P75) of all the participants, the women whose serum VE concentrations above P75 were at higher risks to be attacked by HDCP (OR = 1.34, P < 0.001), gestational hypertension (OR = 1.39, P = 0.002), or preeclampsia-eclampsia (OR = 1.34, P = 0.001), as suggested by the results of the multivariable Logistic regression model analyses. In addition, the women with serum VE concentrations of 11.2 mg/L or above had a significantly higher risk of developing HDCP than those whose serum VE concentrations of P40-P60 of all the participants, and this risk grew higher as serum VE concentrations in the first trimester of pregnancy increased. CONCLUSION: Women in Beijing are at good nutritional status. From January 2016 to December 2018, the incidence of HDCP increased with serum VE concentration level, and serum VE concentration of 11.2 mg/L is an indicator of an increased risk of developing HDCP, suggesting that pregnant women should take nutritional supplements containing VE carefully.


Assuntos
Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina E
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2733-2749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368052

RESUMO

Background: This study demonstrated an innovative formulation including the polyprenol (GBP) lipid and vitamin E-TPGS hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) which was aimed to control the transfer of betulinic acid (BA) and low-substituted hydroxyl fullerenol (C60(OH)n). Additionally, it developed BA-C60(OH)n-GBP-TPGS-NPs delivery system and researched the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) effects. Materials and Methods: The NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation with ultrasonic-assisted emulsification (UAE) method. It was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectrum, size distribution and zeta potential. Physical and chemical properties were evaluated through measurement of drug release, stability studies, drug loading efficiency (DE) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). Biological activities were evaluated through measurement of MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay (LDH), cell proliferation assays, cell apoptosis analysis, comet assay, wound healing assay, cell invasion and Western blot analysis. Results and Conclusions: The NPs exhibited clear distribution characteristics, improved solubility and stability. BA and C60(OH)n for the NPs displayed a biphasic release pattern with sustained drug release properties. The mixture of C60(OH)n with different hydroxyl groups may have a certain effect on the stability of the NPs system itself. The NPs could effectively inhibit MHCC97H cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Combined use of C60(OH)n and BA in GBP lipids may improve the inhibit effect of C60(OH)n or BA against HCC cells and reduce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of C60(OH)n for normal cells. We concluded that one of the important mechanisms of BA-C60(OH)n-GBP-TPGS-NPs inhibiting MHCC97H cells is achieved by up-regulating the expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Fulerenos/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fulerenos/administração & dosagem , Fulerenos/química , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Poliprenois/química , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/química
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(18): 23026-23034, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329006

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the possible mitigating effect of L-carnitine (LC) and/or α-tocopherol (Vit. E) administration against tilmicosin (TIL)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Fifty-six male albino rats were divided into seven groups according to LC, Vit. E, and/or TIL administration. Control, LC, and Vit. E groups were given saline, 150 mg LC/kg body weight (BW)/day and 100 mg Vit. E/kg BW/day, respectively, orally once daily for 15 days. The TIL group was administered saline orally once daily for 15 days and a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg BW) subcutaneously (SC) on day 14 from the starting of the experimental period (15 days). The TIL-LC, TIL-Vit. E, and TIL-LC-Vit. E groups received 150 mg LC/kg BW/day, 100 mg Vit. E/kg BW/day, and 150 mg LC/kg BW pulse 100 mg Vit. E/kg BW, respectively, orally once daily for 15 days with TIL as described above. The results revealed that the administration of TIL significantly (P ≤ 0.05) raised serum activities of heart injury indicators, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB with substantial increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the cardiac contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased in antioxidants. The pathological changes appeared in the form of necrotic muscle fibers and massive inflammatory cellular infiltrations in the cardiac muscle and increased the caspase-3 immunohistochemical expression in the heart tissues as well. These changes were ameliorated by LC and/or Vit. E administration. In conclusion, supplementation of LC and/or Vit. E ameliorated the cardiotoxicity of the TIL SC injection in the rat.


Assuntos
Carnitina , Vitamina E , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cardiotoxicidade , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Tilosina/análogos & derivados
5.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(8): 953-967, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an unmet medical need for an effective anti-fibrotic treatment for NASH with advanced fibrosis. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the current and novel agents for the treatment of NASH with fibrosis. They also consider the potential future strategies of combination therapies. EXPERT OPINION: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist (obeticholic acid [OCA]) significantly ameliorated hepatic fibrosis in NASH stage 2/3 fibrosis in an interim analysis of phase 3 trial. Because OCA has several drawbacks such as itching and elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), non-bile acid FXR agonists are now under development. Selonsertib (apoptosis signaling kinase 1 inhibitor), emricasan (an irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor), and simtsuzumab (a monoclonal antibody against lysyl oxidase-like 2) were discontinued because of no efficacy over placebo. Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor α/δ agonists, C-C motif chemokine receptor-2/5 antagonists, and thyroid ß receptor agonist are ongoing in phase 3 trials. A variety of agents including fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 and FGF-19 agonists, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, are also expected. Among antidiabetic agents, semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 RA, is ongoing for NASH stage 1-3 fibrosis in a phase 2 trial. Furthermore, the combination of GLP-RA/glucagon receptor agonist and GLP-RA/gastrointestinal peptide agonist are promising future options.


Assuntos
Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
6.
Mutat Res ; 850-851: 503150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247559

RESUMO

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields have been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and this has raised some concern about its health effects on employees extensively exposed to these fields at thermal power plants. In this study, the effect of using vitamin E and C supplements have been examined on employees working at a thermal power plant. In this randomized controlled, double-blind clinical trial, 81 employees from different parts of the thermal power plant were enrolled between July and November 2017, and divided into four groups: Group 1 received vitamin E (400 units/day), Group 2: vitamin C (1000 mg/day), Group 3: vitamin E + C and Group 4: no intervention. DNA damage was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes using comet assay and apoptosis, using flow cytometry. Based on the results, tail intensity and tail length in the vitamin E group, and all comet assay indices in the vitamin E + C and vitamin C groups (except DNA damage index) significantly decreased after the intervention, while the comet assay indices did not change significantly in the control group. None of the flow cytometry indices including early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis changed after intervention in either group. The use of antioxidant vitamins such as E and C, can increase the activity of the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and protect DNA from damage caused by exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. But, taking these vitamins has no effect on apoptosis. It seems that consumption of vitamin E affected all investigated comet assay indices and can be probably considered as the best intervention.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Centrais Elétricas
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1469-1480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184599

RESUMO

Purpose: In spite of its enhanced efficacy and reduced side effects in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy, the therapeutic efficacy of antitumor angiogenesis inhibitor sorafenib (SFB) is still restricted due to short in vivo half-life and drug resistance. Here, a novel SFB-loaded dendritic polymeric nanoparticle (NP-TPGS-SFB) was developed for enhanced therapy of HCC. Methods: NP-TPGS-SFB was fabricated by encapsulating SFB with biodegradable dendritic polymers poly(amidoamine)-poly(γ-benzyl-L-Glutamate)-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PAM-PBLG-b-TPGS). Results: NP-TPGS-SFB exhibited excellent stability and achieved acid-responsive release of SFB. It also exhibited much higher cellular uptake efficiency in HepG2 human liver cells than PEG-conjugated NP (NP-PEG-SFB). Furthermore, MTT assay confirmed that NP-TPGS-SFB induced higher cytotoxicity than NP-PEG-SFB and free SFB, respectively. Lastly, NP-TPGS-SFB significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing HepG2 xenografts, with negligible side effects. Conclusion: Our result suggests that NP-TPGS-SFB may be a novel approach for enhanced therapy of HCC with promising potential.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Dendrímeros/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Dendrímeros/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacocinética , Vitamina E/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD002141, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the second update of this Cochrane Review. Some studies have suggested a protective effect of antioxidant nutrients and higher dietary levels of fruits and vegetables on lung cancer. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vitamins and minerals and other potential agents, alone or in combination, reduce lung cancer incidence and lung cancer mortality in healthy populations. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase from 1974 to May 2019 and screened references included in published studies and reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vitamins or mineral supplements with placebo, administered to healthy people with the aim of preventing lung cancer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors independently selected the trials to be included in the review, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and pooled results using the random-effects model. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' assessment tool and certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this update, we identified three new trials for a total of 12 studies. Six analysed vitamin A, three vitamin C, three combined vitamin D3 + calcium, four vitamin E combined with other products, one selenium supplements and nine studied combinations of two or more products. Four studies included only men and five only women. Vitamin A results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.19; 5 RCTs, 212314 participants; high-certainty evidence) and lung cancer mortality (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.38; 3 RCTs, 190118 participants; high-certainty evidence). But in smokers or asbestos workers vitamin A increases the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; 3 RCTs, 43995 participants; high-certainty evidence), lung cancer mortality (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38; 2 RCTs, 29426 participants; high-certainty evidence) and all-cause mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13; 2 RCTs, 32883 participants; high-certainty evidence). Vitamin A increases the risk of minor side effects, such as yellowing of the skin and minor gastrointestinal symptoms (high-certainty evidence). Vitamin C likely results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.49; 2 RCTs, 14953 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). In women, vitamin C increases the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.95; 1 RCT, 7627 participants; high-certainty evidence). In men, vitamin C results in little to no difference in mortality for lung cancer (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.23; 1 RCT, 7326 participants; high-certainty evidence). Vitamin D + calcium may result in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence in postmenopausal women (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.39 to 2.08; 3 RCTs, 37601 women; low-certainty evidence). Vitamin E results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 3 RCTs, 36841 participants; high-certainty evidence) or to lung cancer mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.18; 2 RCTs, 29214 participants; high-certainty evidence), but increases the risk of haemorrhagic strokes (hazard ratio (HR), 1.74, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.91; 1 RCT, 14641 participants; high-certainty evidence). Calcium results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence in postmenopausal women (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.13 to 3.18; 1 RCT, 733 participants) or in risk of renal calculi (RR 1.94, 95% CI 0.20 to 18.57; 1 RCT, 733 participants; low-certainty evidence). Selenium in men results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence) and lung cancer mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.66; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence) and increases the risk for grade 1 to 2 dermatitis (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.31; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence) and for alopecia (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.53; 1 RCT, 17448 participants; high-certainty evidence). The combination of vitamins A, C, E + selenium + zinc results in little to no difference in lung cancer incidence (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.48; 1 RCT, 12741 participants; high-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed RCTs have shown no beneficial effect of supplements for the prevention of lung cancer and lung cancer mortality in healthy people. Vitamin A supplements increase lung cancer incidence and mortality in smokers or persons exposed to asbestos. Vitamin C increases lung cancer incidence in women. Vitamin E increases the risk of haemorrhagic strokes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Nível de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Cálcio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cálcio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Selênio , Compostos de Selênio/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina A/efeitos adversos , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos , alfa-Tocoferol/efeitos adversos , alfa-Tocoferol/uso terapêutico , beta Caroteno/uso terapêutico
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(9): 236-240, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134907

RESUMO

On July 10, 2019, Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) was notified of five previously healthy adolescents with severe lung injuries who reported use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products before symptom onset. As of December 31, 2019, 105 confirmed or probable cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI)* had been reported to WDHS . Three social clusters (A, B, and C), comprising eight EVALI patients (cluster A = two patients, cluster B = three, and cluster C = three) were identified. WDHS investigated these clusters with standard and follow-up interviews; laboratory analysis of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. All eight patients reported daily use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product cartridges (THC cartridges) in the month preceding symptom onset. All THC cartridges were purchased from local illicit dealers, and all patients reported using THC cartridges labeled as "Dank Vapes," among other illicit brand names. At least two members of each cluster reported frequent sharing of THC cartridges before symptom onset. All eight patients also reported daily use of nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products. Vitamin E acetate (VEA) was detected in all five THC cartridges tested from two patients, and in BAL fluid from two other patients. These findings suggest that THC cartridges containing VEA and sold on the illicit market were likely responsible for these small clusters of EVALI. Based on information presented in this and previous reports (1,2) CDC recommends not using THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those obtained from informal sources such as friends, family, or in-person or online dealers (1). VEA is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products (1).


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Análise por Conglomerados , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vaping/psicologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Maturitas ; 133: 1-6, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Urinary incontinence (UI) is common in women, with up to 50 % experiencing involuntary loss of urine at some point. Femaxeen®, a formulation containing purified and specific cytoplasmic extracts of pollen, pumpkin seed extract and vitamin E (referred to hereafter as Femaxeen), is indicated for control of UI in women. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of Femaxeen for the prevention and treatment of UI symptoms in women. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 81 women with moderate, severe, or very severe urge (43.4 %), stress (31.6 %) or mixed (25.0 %) UI were allocated to receive Femaxeen or placebo once daily for 90 days. Treatment efficacy was assessed using three validated questionnaires. FINDINGS: Thirty-eight patients per group were analyzed. Femaxeen produced statistically significant improvements from baseline to Day 90 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) in scores on the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Measurement of Urinary Handicap (MHU) questionnaire, and Sandvik Incontinence Severity Index. Reduction from baseline in ICIQ-SF and MHU scores at Day 60 and Day 90 was significantly greater with Femaxeen than placebo (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Femaxeen significantly reduced ICIQ-SF and MHU scores from baseline to Day 60 and Day 90 in all UI types (p < 0.05 for all comparisons except ICIQ-SF scores for stress UI). Femaxeen and placebo were well tolerated. Associated adverse events were few and mild in intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Femaxeen is effective for treating UI, and has a safety profile comparable to that of placebo.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pólen , Sementes , Incontinência Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle
11.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 30(3): 430-438, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prospective, open-label study in 20 professional swimmers evaluated the efficacy and safety of an ophthalmic solution containing crosslinked hyaluronic acid, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E TPGS in releasing eye irritation and restoring ocular surface damages after prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. METHODS: Individually, one eye was instilled with the ophthalmic solution and the other used as a comparator. Eye drops were self-administered three times a day for 2 months. Tear film breakup time (primary endpoint), Schirmer I test, beating of eyelashes/min, tear osmolarity, corneal and conjunctival staining with fluorescein, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, subject satisfaction, visual acuity (secondary endpoints), and Efron Grading Scale were evaluated at screening/baseline (V1), week 1 (V2), week 2 (V3), week 4 (V4), and week 8 (V5). RESULTS: After 2 months, breakup time test significantly improved in the treated eyes (+1.67 s) compared to control (-3.00 s) (p = 0.0002). Corneal and conjunctival surfaces of treated eyes recovered significantly compared to control eyes when assessed by fluorescein staining (p < 0.0001), Ocular Surface Disease Index (p < 0.05), and visual analog scale (p = 0.0348) scores. Improvements were also observed with Schirmer I test, beating of eyelashes, and tear osmolarity, despite without statistical significance. Efron Grading Scale was consistent with the other tests. The ocular tolerability was excellent. CONCLUSION: The adequate combination of crosslinked hyaluronic acid, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E TPGS, contained in the ophthalmic solution VisuXL®, has been shown to protect ocular surface from potential damages originating from prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. VisuXL may represent a compelling treatment in other situations beyond dry eye syndrome.


Assuntos
Cloraminas/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Hiperemia/tratamento farmacológico , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Administração Oftálmica , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hiperemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas , Concentração Osmolar , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Piscinas , Lágrimas/química , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026938

RESUMO

Advances in the understanding of how the immune system functions in response to diet have altered the way we think about feeding livestock and companion animals on both the short (weeks/months) and long-term (years) timelines; however, depth of research in each of these species varies. Work dedicated to understanding how immune function can be altered with diet has revealed additional functions of required nutrients such as vitamins D and E, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and minerals such as zinc, while feed additives such as phytogenics and probiotics add an additional layer of immunomodulating potential to modern diets. For certain nutrients such as vitamin D or omega-3 PUFA, inclusion above currently recommended levels may optimize immune function and reduce inflammation, while for others such as zinc, additional pharmacological supplementation above requirements may inhibit immune function. Also to consider is the potential to over-immunomodulate, where important functions such as clearance of microbial infections may be reduced when supplementation reduces the inflammatory action of the immune system. Continued work in the area of nutritional immunology will further enhance our understanding of the power of nutrition and diet to improve health in both livestock and companion animals. This review collects examples from several species to highlight the work completed to understand how nutrition can be used to alter immune function, intended or not.


Assuntos
Gado/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/imunologia , Gado/imunologia , Minerais/imunologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais de Estimação/imunologia , Vitamina E/imunologia
13.
Acta Orthop ; 91(3): 254-259, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098534

RESUMO

Background and purpose - The long-term survival of arthroplasty components may be limited by polyethylene wear-related problems such as periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) blended with vitamin E was introduced to improve oxidative stability and to avoid long-term embrittlement. This study clinically compares the tribological behavior and clinical outcome of vitamin E blended HXLPE with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in an isoelastic monoblock cup for uncemented total hip arthroplasty.Patients and methods - In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), 199 patients were included: 102 patients received the vitamin E blended HXLPE cup, 97 patients the UHMWPE cup. Clinical and radiographic parameters were obtained preoperatively, directly postoperative and at 3, 12, and 24 months. Wear rates were compared using the mean linear femoral head penetration (FHP) rate.Results - 188 patients (94%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Mean patient satisfaction was higher in the vitamin E blended HXLPE group (8.9 [1]) than in in the control group (8.5 [2], p = 0.03). The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was higher in the vitamin E blended HXLPE group (95 [8]) than in the control group (92 [11], p = 0.3). The FHP rate was lower in the vitamin E blended HXLPE group: 0.046 mm/year compared with 0.056 mm/year in the control group (p = 0.05). No adverse reactions associated with the clinical application of vitamin E blended HXLPE were observed during follow-up, with an excellent 2-year survival to revision rate of 98% for both cups.Interpretation - This study shows the superior performance of the HXLPE blended with vitamin E acetabular cup with lower linear femoral head penetration rates and better clinical results compared with the UHMWPE acetabular cup after 2 years.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Prótese de Quadril , Polietileno/uso terapêutico , Polietilenos/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Feminino , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 809-819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103938

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: The development of multiple drug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy and single modal therapy remains unsatisfied for the eradication of tumor, which are major obstacles in cancer therapy. This novel system with excellent characteristics for inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and for near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging-guided chemo-photothermal therapy (PTT), has been identified as a promising way to MDR and achieve synergistic cancer therapy. Methods: In this study, we successfully synthesized a multifunctional theranostic system, which was developed through FDA-approved self-assembling drugs, which contain anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox), imaging and high photothermal conversion drug indocyanine green (ICG) and P-gp regulator TPGS (the system named T/Dox-ICG). We studied the characterization of T/Dox-ICG NPs, including the TEM, SEM, DLS, UV-vis-NIR, zeta potential, CLSM, in vitro FL imaging, in vitro photothermal effect, in vitro Dox and ICG release. We used CLSM to verify the location of intracellular distribution of Dox in SCG 7901/VCR cells, Western blot was performed to demonstrate the TPGS-mediated inhibition of P-gp. And, the cytotoxicity of materials against SCG 7901/VCR cells was studied by the MTT assay. Results: The TEM showed the T/Dox-ICG NPs had good monodispersity with diameters of 19.03 nm, Dox and ICG could be released constantly from T/Dox-ICG NPs in vitro. In vitro cell experiments demonstrated higher Dox accumulation and retention in the nucleus. Western blot showed TPGS could obviously inhibit the expression of P-gp. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed more significant cytotoxicity on MDR cells (SCG 7901/VCR) with only 8.75% of cells surviving. Conclusion: MDR cancer therapy indicates that it may be important to develop a safer system that can simultaneously inhibit the drug transporters and monitor the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, and combination therapy have raised widespread concern on tumor treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Verde de Indocianina/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas/química , Fototerapia/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Vitamina E/química
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 505: 31-33, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A and E are routinely monitored to assess nutritional status. The most commonly used approach for their measurement involves laborious liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis on dedicated instrumentation. We describe a simple, rapid protocol for measurement of vitamin A and E and their integration into an existing online sample preparation liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPLC-MS/MS) workflow. METHODS: We performed a method comparison between the SPLC-MS/MS and HPLC methods for vitamin A and E by measuring patient specimens across the concentration range 11-81 µg/dL for vitamin A and 1-18 mg/L for vitamin E. The analysis times on each platform were also compared. RESULTS: SPLC-MS/MS and HPLC methods were comparable with regards to analytical performance; mean bias across the measured range was 2.54% (95% CL: -11.56-16.64%) for vitamin A and -2.04% (95% CL: -18.20-14.12%) for vitamin E. Total analysis times were 7 min and 15 min for SPLC-MS/MS and HPLC respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a simplified sample preparation protocol and the use of multiplexing SPLC-MS/MS have reduced sample analysis times for vitamin A and E. This method has also optimized clinical workflow through consolidation of previously independent benches.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/análise , Anticonvulsivantes/análise , Bussulfano/análise , Humanos , Imunossupressores/análise , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fluxo de Trabalho
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 729-734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099361

RESUMO

Background: Recently, use of nanotechnology in biomedical applications such as drug delivery and diagnostic and therapeutic tools has increased greatly. This study evaluated gold nanoparticle (GNPs)-induced nephrotoxic effects in rats in vivo, and examined protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid (α-Lip) and Vitamin E (Vit E) against nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory kidney damage induced by GNPs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar-Kyoto rats (220-240 g, 12 weeks old) were dosed with 50 µL of 10 nm GNPs administered intraperitoneally with or without 200 mg/kg/day Vit E or 200 mg/kg/day α-Lip. Serum was prepared for biochemical analyses. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of creatinine (CR), uric acid (URIC), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were evaluated by measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue homogenates. Results and Conclusions: The results showed a significant rise in serum kidney function biomarkers including urea, URIC, CR, and BUN in GNP-treated rats compared to normal control rats. Furthermore, GNPs led to decreased GSH and elevated MDA levels. Vit E or α-Lip supplementation showed a beneficial effect against nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory kidney damage induced by GNPs. This study suggests that use of natural antioxidants in combination with GNPs may be a useful tool in preventing GNPs toxicity.


Assuntos
Ouro/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ácido Úrico/sangue
18.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(4): 365-389, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017273

RESUMO

α-Tocopherol (α-T) is the major form of vitamin E (VE) in animals and has the highest activity in carrying out the essential antioxidant functions of VE. Because of the involvement of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, the cancer prevention activity of α-T has been studied extensively. Lower VE intake or nutritional status has been shown to be associated with increased cancer risk, and supplementation of α-T to populations with VE insufficiency has shown beneficial effects in lowering the cancer risk in some intervention studies. However, several large intervention studies with α-T conducted in North America have not demonstrated a cancer prevention effect. More recent studies have centered on the γ- and δ-forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols (T3). In comparison with α-T, these forms have much lower systemic bioavailability but have shown stronger cancer-preventive activities in many studies in animal models and cell lines. γ-T3 and δ-T3 generally have even higher activities than γ-T and δ-T. In this article, we review recent results from human and laboratory studies on the cancer-preventive activities of different forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, at nutritional and pharmacological levels. We aim to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the preventive actions and discuss the possible application of the available information for human cancer prevention by different VE forms.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tocoferóis/administração & dosagem , Tocoferóis/classificação , Tocoferóis/farmacologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936863

RESUMO

Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD/EDM) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Clinical signs of neurological deficits develop within the first year of life in vitamin E (vitE) deficient horses. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out using 670,000 SNP markers in 27 case and 42 control Quarter Horses. Two markers, encompassing a 2.5 Mb region on ECA7, were associated with the phenotype (p = 2.05 × 10-7 and 4.72 × 10-6). Within this region, caytaxin (ATCAY) was identified as a candidate gene due to its known role in Cayman Ataxia and ataxic/dystonic phenotypes in mouse models. Whole-genome sequence data in four eNAD/EDM and five unaffected horses identified 199 associated variants within the ECA7 region. MassARRAY® genotyping was performed on these variants within the GWAS population. The three variants within ATCAY were not concordant with the disease phenotype. No difference in expression or alternative splicing was identified using qRT-PCR in brainstem across the ATCAY transcript. Atcayji-hes mice were then used to conduct functional analysis in a second animal model. Histologic lesions were not identified in the central nervous system of Atcayji-hes mice. Additionally, supplementation of homozygous Atcayji-hes mice with 600 IU/day of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (vitE) during gestation, lactation, and adulthood did not improve the phenotype. ATCAY has therefore been excluded as a candidate gene for eNAD/EDM.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Distrofias Neuroaxonais/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Distrofias Neuroaxonais/veterinária , Fenótipo , Vitamina E , Deficiência de Vitamina E
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