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1.
Talanta ; 200: 1-8, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036161

RESUMO

In this work, a novel sulfated-ß-cyclodextrin (S-ß-CD) coated stationary phase was prepared for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). The capillary was developed by attaching polydopamine/sulfated-ß-cyclodextrin (PDA/S-ß-CD) onto the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated capillary which was pretreated with polydopamine. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectroscopy (EDS) indicated that polydopamine/sulfated-ß-cyclodextrin was successfully fixed on the gold nanoparticles coated capillary. To evaluate the performance of the prepared open tubular (OT) column, the enantioseparation was carried out by using ten chiral drugs as model analytes. Under the optimal conditions, salbutamol, terbutaline, trantinterol, tulobuterol, clorprenaline, pheniramine, chlorpheniramine, brompheniramine, isoprenaline and tolterodine were baseline separated with the resolution (Rs) values of 3.25, 1.76, 2.51, 1.89, 3.17, 2.17, 1.99, 1.72, 2.01 and 3.20, respectively. Repeatability of the column was studied, with the relative standard deviations for run-to-run, day-to-day and column-to-column lower than 5.7%.


Assuntos
beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Albuterol/química , Albuterol/isolamento & purificação , Bromofeniramina/química , Bromofeniramina/isolamento & purificação , Eletrocromatografia Capilar , Clorfeniramina/química , Clorfeniramina/isolamento & purificação , Clembuterol/análogos & derivados , Clembuterol/química , Clembuterol/isolamento & purificação , Isoproterenol/análogos & derivados , Isoproterenol/química , Isoproterenol/isolamento & purificação , Tamanho da Partícula , Feniramina/química , Feniramina/isolamento & purificação , Propriedades de Superfície , Terbutalina/análogos & derivados , Terbutalina/química , Terbutalina/isolamento & purificação , Tartarato de Tolterodina/química , Tartarato de Tolterodina/isolamento & purificação
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2127-2137, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076996

RESUMO

Therapeutic management of contagious caprine pleuroneumonia (CCPP) involves mostly the use of oxytetracycline followed by enrofloxacin and rarely tylosin. In many parts of the world including India, the former antibiotics are commonly available than the latter. Therefore, prolonged use of the same leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and decreased efficacy of drug. Besides, inflammatory and allergic pathogenesis of CCPP envisages combination therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the combination therapy using different antibiotics (oxytetracycyline @ 10: group I, enrofloxacin @ 5 group II, and tylosin: group III, @ 10 mg/kg body weight), along with anti-inflammatory (meloxicam @ 0.5 mg/kg) and anti-allergic (pheneramine maleate @ 1.0 mg/kg) drugs. These drugs were given intramuscularly at the interval of 48 h for four times in three test groups (n = 10) of Pashmina goats, viz. groups I, II, and III, respectively, affected with CCPP. Group IV (n = 10) was kept as healthy control when group V (n = 10) treated with oxytetracycline @ 10 mg/kg alone was used as positive control. Clinical signs, clinical parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), and oxidative stress indices (total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS)) were evaluated at hours 0, 48, 96, and 144 of experimental trial. Tylosin-based combination therapy resulted in a rapid and favorable recovery resulting in restoration of normal body temperature (102.46 ± 0.31 °F), respiration rate (16.30 ± 0.79 per minute), and heart rate (89.50 ± 2.63 per minute) compared to the oxytetracycline (102.95 ± 0.13, 21.30 ± 1.12, 86.00 ± 2.33, respectively) and enrofloxacin (102.97 ± 0.19, 21.00 ± 1.25, 90.00 ± 2.58, respectively) treated groups. By hour 144, all the groups showed restoration of clinical parameters of normal health and diminishing signs of CCPP, viz. fever, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge, weakness, and pleurodynia. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in levels of TNF-α and non-significant (P > 0.05) decrease in levels of TOS and an increase in levels of TAS were noted from hour 0 to 144 in all the test groups. Within the groups, no significant (P > 0.05) change was noted in TNF-α, TOS, and TAS levels; however, TNF-α levels were comparatively lower in group III. Hematological parameters did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). From these findings, it can be inferred that tylosin-based combination therapy is relatively better for early, rapid, and safe recovery besides minimizing inflammatory and oxidative cascade in CCPP affected Pashmina goats compared to oxytetracycline- and enrofloxacin-based therapies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tilosina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cabras , Índia , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Oxitetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Feniramina/uso terapêutico , Pleuropneumonia/veterinária , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma
3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(8): 943-948, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a trend in the past five years in Jordan for ophthalmic anticholinergic preparations to be misused or abused. This is done mainly to experience mental altering effects such as mood changes, euphoria or hallucinations. Such products are mostly obtained from community pharmacies without a prescription. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to observe the requests of ophthalmic preparations in community pharmacies in Amman, Jordan, and evaluating the most popular and frequently requested ophthalmic drops suspected of abuse. Also, it aimed to describe the current methods that Jordanian community pharmacists use to manage such requests. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 at sixteen different community pharmacies in Amman. All ophthalmic products requested were observed during this period. RESULTS: A total of 140 ophthalmic product requests for 130 customers were observed. Dry eye was the most common complaint for which the customer requested the medication (n = 30, 23.1%) and direct self-medication (ie-requesting the product by name), was the most frequent method of purchase (n = 63, 48.5%). In 19 cases (14.6%), product requests were suspected to be for non-medical (ie-abuse) purposes. Most of the suspected cases were for Pentolate® (n = 11, 57.9%), whereas 7 were for Prisoline® (36.8%) and 1 for Naphcon-A® (5.3%). The majority of observed cases were for products requested without a prescription (n = 16, 84.2%), and in 12 cases out of which, sale was refused (63.2%). CONCLUSION: More effort and enforcement of pharmacy regulation for safe dispensing is needed to reduce the abuse of ophthalmic products. Educating pharmacists and ophthalmologists would help raise awareness and control the type of drug abuse.


Assuntos
Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Compostos de Benzalcônio , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nafazolina , Feniramina , Adulto Jovem
4.
Talanta ; 192: 226-232, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348382

RESUMO

For the aim of simultaneously performing the enantioseparation and determination of the trace enantiomers in plasma samples, enantioseparation by HPLC using five kinds of chiral stationary phases were initially investigated. But unfortunately, enantioseparation could not be detected in reversed mobile phase mode with all the five columns. For this reason, two simple, economical and highly efficient online preconcentration methods, large volume sample stacking and sweeping (LVSS-sweeping) and cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping (CSEI-sweeping) both followed by the cyclodextrin modified electrokinetic chromatography (CDEKC) were examined in the present work. Parameters affecting the enantioseparation and enhancement efficiency of these two injection modes were monitored in detail, and migration order of the two enantiomers was identified by circular dichroism (CD) and HPLC. Upon optimization, two enantiomers were best separated with the improvement of sensitivity reaching 160-fold and 4000-fold respectively for LVSS-sweeping and CSEI-sweeping comparing with the normal CDEKC separation. Then the optimal condition of CSEI-sweeping-CDEKC was validated and showed high sensitivity (10 ng/mL for lower limit of quantification, LLOQ), satisfactory accuracy (96.8-111.6%) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD within 9.4%). This demonstrated it to be a suitable strategy for the rapid enantioselective determination and quantitative analysis of pheniramine enantiomers in plasma samples. Therefore, the method was further applied in the enantiomeric analysis of pheniramine in rat pharmacokinetics and plasma protein binding investigations. Stereoselectivity in pharmacokinetics as well as plasma protein binding were observed, suggesting that the stereoselective protein binding might be responsible for the stereoselectivity in pharmacokinetics.


Assuntos
Cromatografia/métodos , Feniramina/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Tampões (Química) , Masculino , Feniramina/administração & dosagem , Feniramina/química , Feniramina/farmacocinética , Fosfatos/química , Ratos Wistar , Estereoisomerismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
5.
Dermatol Online J ; 24(6)2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142724

RESUMO

Fixed drug eruption is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to a drug seen most frequently with antibiotics such as tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and NSAIDs such as naproxen and ibuprofen. Although H1-antihistamines rarely elicit cutaneous adverse effects, there have been a few reports in the literature implicating them in causing fixed drug eruption, particularly the piperazine derivatives (hydroxyzine, cetirizine, levocetirizine), and loratadine. However, cutaneous drug reactions with the alkylamine derivatives like pheniramine maleate are extremely uncommon and fixed drug eruptions have not been reported with any of the alkylamine antihistamines to date. We herein report a case of multifocal bullous fixed drug eruption following ingestion of pheniramine maleate.


Assuntos
Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/efeitos adversos , Feniramina/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Erupção por Droga/tratamento farmacológico , Erupção por Droga/patologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Feniramina/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/patologia
6.
Acta Cir Bras ; 33(2): 125-133, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513811

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. RESULTS: The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nebivolol/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feniramina/farmacologia , Torção do Cordão Espermático/tratamento farmacológico , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Torção do Cordão Espermático/patologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/irrigação sanguínea , Testículo/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 38(4): 1775-1778, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669099

RESUMO

Most of the rare bilateral acute angle closure (AAC) cases are precipitated by systemic factors, such as drug intake, snake bite or general anaesthesia. We present a case of simultaneous bilateral AAC in a middle-aged male, precipitated by the use of medication for flu, containing an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist and an anticholinergic agent. In our case, axial length was shorter, anterior chamber depth was narrower, and the lens was thicker than normal, including the patient within the risk group for AAC. In this circumstance, drugs acted as triggers. Case description and evolution following treatment are completed with the discussion of mechanisms involved in triggering bilateral AAC in predisposed patients, as emerging from literature. This case report brings up the risk of bilateral AAC in patients at risk, of which ophthalmologists, physicians of other specialties and patients should be aware of.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/efeitos adversos , Feniramina/efeitos adversos , Fenilefrina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Sep Sci ; 40(19): 3801-3807, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28758711

RESUMO

The enantioselective separation of pheniramine was studied by a high-speed countercurrent chromatography method using ß-cyclodextrin derivatives as a chiral selector. Several key variables, for instance, type of organic solvent and chiral selector, concentration of chiral selector, pH value of aqueous phase, and temperature on the enantioselectivity, were investigated systematically by liquid-liquid extraction experiments. Combining the results of extraction experiments and high-speed countercurrent chromatography, the most suitable conditions for separation of pheniramine enantiomers were obtained with the two-phase system that consisted of isobutyl acetate/aqueous phase, containing 0.02 mol/L carboxymethyl-ß-cyclodextrin, pH 8.50 at 278.15 K. Under the optimal conditions, pheniramine enantiomer was successfully resolved after four cycles of high-speed countercurrent chromatography. By using high-performance liquid chromatography to analyze the fractions, the purities of both (+)-pheniramine and (-)-pheniramine were over 99% and the recovery of this method was up to 85-90%.


Assuntos
Distribuição Contracorrente , Feniramina/isolamento & purificação , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 66(4): 383-7, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. METHODS: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. RESULTS: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.0007 and p=0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p<0.0001 and p=0.009, respectively). There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p=0.856). CONCLUSION: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.


Assuntos
Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Feniramina/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Sep Sci ; 39(9): 1766-75, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26935589

RESUMO

A novel single-isomer cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis {2,6-di-O-[3-(1,3-dicarboxyl propylamino)-2-hydroxypropyl]}-ß-cyclodextrin (glutamic acid-ß-cyclodextrin) was synthesized and used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis for the enantioseparation of 12 basic drugs, including terbutaline, clorprenaline, tulobuterol, clenbuterol, procaterol, carvedilol, econazole, miconazole, homatropine methyl bromide, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine. The primary factors affecting separation efficiency, which include the background electrolyte pH, the concentration of glutamic acid-ß-cyclodextrin and phosphate buffer concentration, were investigated. Satisfactory enantioseparations were obtained using an uncoated fused-silica capillary of 50 cm (effective length 40 cm) × 50 µm id with 120 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5-4.0) containing 0.5-4.5 mM glutamic acid-ß-cyclodextrin as background electrolyte. A voltage of 20 kV was applied and the capillary temperature was kept at 20°C. The results proved that glutamic acid-ß-cyclodextrin was an effective chiral selector for studied 12 basic drugs. Moreover, the possible chiral recognition mechanism of brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine on glutamic acid-ß-cyclodextrin was investigated using the semi-empirical Parametric Method 3.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Bromofeniramina/química , Bromofeniramina/isolamento & purificação , Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/isolamento & purificação , Carvedilol , Clorfeniramina/química , Clorfeniramina/isolamento & purificação , Clembuterol/química , Clembuterol/isolamento & purificação , Ciclodextrinas/síntese química , Econazol/química , Econazol/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese Capilar , Isoproterenol/análogos & derivados , Isoproterenol/química , Isoproterenol/isolamento & purificação , Miconazol/química , Miconazol/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Feniramina/química , Feniramina/isolamento & purificação , Procaterol/química , Procaterol/isolamento & purificação , Propanolaminas/química , Propanolaminas/isolamento & purificação , Estereoisomerismo , Terbutalina/análogos & derivados , Terbutalina/química , Terbutalina/isolamento & purificação , Tropanos/química , Tropanos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 27(3): 153-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26410249

RESUMO

Excessive use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications has been a growing public health problem. We present the case of a patient with avoidant personality disorder, social phobia, and dull normal intelligence, with dependence to pheniramine maleate. His anxiety symptoms, initially unresponsive to conventional treatment, reduced only after stopping pheniramine during inpatient care. This case emphasizes the need for awareness and regular monitoring of the use of OTC medications in vulnerable patient populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Feniramina/administração & dosagem , Feniramina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Middle East J Anaesthesiol ; 23(1): 55-62, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26121896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prevent hemodynamic and respiratory changes that are likely to occur during cementation in partial hip prosthesis by prophylactic use of pheniramine maleate and dexamethasone. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 40 patients aged between 60 and 85 years with an American Society ofAnesthesiologists (ASA) grade of II-III who underwent partial hip prosthesis. Just after spinal anesthesia, 4 mL normal saline was pushed in patients in Group S, whereas 45.5 mg pheniramine maleate and 8 mg dexamethasone mixture was pushed intravenously in a total volume of 4 mL in patients in Group PD. RESULTS: Amounts of atropine and adrenaline administered after cementation were significantly higher in Group S than in Group PD (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference between SpO2 values before and after cementation in Group S; SpO2 value was lower after cementation (P < 0.05) except for 1. min after cementation. SpO2 value increased 1 min after cementation (P = 0.031) CONCLUSION: Prophylactic use of pheniramine maleate and dexamethasone in partial hip prosthesis led to an increase in SpO2 value and a decrease in the utilization of adrenaline and atropine after cementation.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Cimentação , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feniramina/farmacologia , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1358: 285-92, 2014 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25035234

RESUMO

The advanced two dimensional isotachophoresis (ITP)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS, here triple quadrupole, QqQ) was developed in this work to demonstrate analytical potentialities of this approach in the analysis of drugs in multicomponent ionic matrices. Pheniramine (PHM), phenylephrine (PHE), paracetamol (PCM) and their potential metabolic products were taken for the analysis by the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ technique working in hydrodynamically closed CE separation system and then a comparison with the conventional (hydrodynamically open) CZE-ESI-QqQ technique was made. The ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was favorable in terms of obtainable selectivity (due to highly effective heart-cut analysis), concentration limits of detection (LOD at pgmL(-1) levels due to enhanced sample load capacity and ITP preconcentration), sample handling (on-line sample pretreatment, i.e. clean-up, preconcentration, preseparation), and, by that, possibilities for future automation and miniaturization. On the other hand, this experimental arrangement, in contrast to the CZE-ESI-QqQ arrangement supported by an electroosmotic flow, is principally limited to the analysis of uniformly (i.e. positively or negatively) charged analytes in one run without any possibilities to analyze neutral compounds (here, PCM and neutral or acidic metabolites of the drugs had to be excluded from the analysis). Hence, these general characteristics should be considered when choosing a proper analytical CE-MS approach for a given biomedical application. Here, the analytical potential of the ITP-CZE-ESI-QqQ method was demonstrated showing the real time profiles of excreted targeted drugs and metabolite (PHM, PHE, M-PHM) in human urine after the administration of one dose of Theraflu(®) to the volunteers.


Assuntos
Feniramina/urina , Fenilefrina/urina , Acetaminofen/urina , Eletro-Osmose , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Eletroforese Capilar/normas , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Isotacoforese/métodos , Isotacoforese/normas , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Urinálise/normas
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