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1.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(9): 784-796, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822636

RESUMO

Trigeminal neuralgia is a very painful neurological condition with severe, stimulus-evoked, short-lasting stabbing pain attacks in the face. The past decade has offered new insights into trigeminal neuralgia symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment, leading to a change in the classification of the condition. An accurate diagnosis is crucial because neuroimaging interpretation and clinical management differ among the various forms of facial pain. MRI using specific sequences should be a part of the diagnostic workup to detect a possible neurovascular contact and exclude secondary causes. Demonstration of a neurovascular contact should not be used to confirm a diagnosis but rather to facilitate surgical decision making. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are drugs of first choice for long-term treatment, whereas microvascular decompression is the first-line surgery in medically refractory patients. Advances in neuroimaging techniques and animal models will provide further insight into the causes of trigeminal neuralgia and its pathophysiology. Development of more efficacious treatment options is highly warranted.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/farmacologia , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Oxcarbazepina/farmacologia , Oxcarbazepina/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/classificação , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/terapia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140891, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711318

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and other emerging contaminants (EC) have been increasingly detected and measured in coastal waters and large effort has been devoted to knowing the effects these substances have in coastal ecosystems. Anthozoa class is underrepresented in ecotoxicology studies despite some of their species being endangered. Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea. The objectives of this work have been to evaluate the ability of these species to accumulate carbamazepine (CBZ) from water, to determine the effects of this pharmaceutical on some physiological and biochemical endpoints and to characterize the degradation routes followed by this compound in Anthozoa tissues (biotransformation) and water. Sea anemones were exposed to 1 µg L-1 and 100 µg L-1 of CBZ in artificial sea water in a semi-static system for 8 days. At several times small portions of the tentacles and whole organisms were taken. Ion transport (measured as NKATPase activity), energetic metabolism (measured as glucose and lactate levels) and nitrogen excretion (measured as ammonia concentration in tissues) were determined. CBZ-exposed individuals of A. sulcata and A. equina were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) on a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF). The structures of nine metabolites have been tentatively identified using HRMS and HRMS/MS data with the aid of the free available Medline database. The current work constitutes the first study on the identification of Cnidarian metabolites of CBZ in species of the Anthozoa class.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carbamazepina , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123732, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629375

RESUMO

A submerged forward osmotic membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) was used to reveal the removal and degradation mechanism of carbamazepine (CBZ) from wastewater. The results showed that the removal mechanism consisted of the rejection of the forward osmotic (FO) membrane and biodegradation of the activated sludge. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+-N, and CBZ by the FOMBR were approximately 94.77%-97.45%, 93.56%-99.28%, and 88.20%-94.45%, respectively. Moreover, the COD and NH4+-N removal efficiencies were positively correlated with the increased CBZ concentrations. The results of the soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) tests illustrated that the membrane fouling potential of EPS may be higher than that of SMP. According to the identified 14 degradation products, oxidation, hydroxylation, and decarboxylation were defined as the primary CBZ degradation mechanism. In addition, the RNA results showed that Delftia could be the characteristic bacteria in the CBZ degradation process.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Carbamazepina , Osmose , Esgotos
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36463-36475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556991

RESUMO

Spent brewery grains, a by-product of the brewing process, were used as precursor of biochars and activated carbons to be applied to the removal of pharmaceuticals from water. Biochars were obtained by pyrolysis of the raw materials, while activated carbons were produced by adding a previous chemical activation step. The influence of using different precursors (from distinct fermentation processes), activating agents (potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and phosphoric acid), pyrolysis temperatures, and residence times was assessed. The adsorbents were physicochemically characterized and applied to the removal of the antiepileptic carbamazepine from water. Potassium hydroxide activation produced the materials with the most promising properties and adsorptive removals, with specific surface areas up to 1120 m2 g-1 and maximum adsorption capacities up to 190 ± 27 mg g-1 in ultrapure water. The adsorption capacity suffered a reduction of < 70% in wastewater, allowing to evaluate the impact of realistic matrices on the efficiency of the materials.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água , Adsorção , Carbamazepina/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 139232, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434107

RESUMO

Low concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment (ng/L to µg/L) are an environmental concern. We used the invertebrates, Hydra oligactis and Hydra viridissima, as freshwater models for primary toxicity testing to study effects of chronic low concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment. H. oligactis were exposed to three concentrations (0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg/L) of either fluoxetine, carbamazepine, or triclosan; H. viridissima were exposed to three concentrations (0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg/L) of triclosan. Ecologically relevant endpoints including morphology, budding rate, feeding behaviour, and regenerative capacity were examined during the 14 days exposure period. The interstitial:epithelial stem cell ratios was also examined in H. oligactis. There were no significant effects on the morphology, budding rate and feeding behaviour of the H. oligactis across all concentrations of fluoxetine, carbamazepine, and triclosan. However, regenerative capacity significantly decreased in comparison to the controls when H. oligactis was exposed to 10 µg/L of triclosan and fluoxetine, although there was no significant difference when exposed to carbamazepine. Neither fluoxetine nor carbamazepine treatment altered stem cell ratios. Exposure to triclosan at any concentration did not impact H. viridissima morphology, budding rate, regeneration or feeding behaviour. These results show there are limited effects in Hydra after exposure to chronic, low concentrations of fluoxetine, carbamazepine, and triclosan, except for regeneration in H. oligactis. These endpoints can be used effectively (and cost effectively) to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals in Hydra species.


Assuntos
Hydra , Animais , Carbamazepina , Água Doce , Testes de Toxicidade , Triclosan
7.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(3-4): 121-127, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364339

RESUMO

Background and purpose: To evaluate P-wave dispersion before and after antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment as well as to investigate the risk of ventricular repolarization using the Tpeak-Tend (Tp-e) interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with epileptic disorder. Methods: A total of 63 patients receiving AED therapy and 35 healthy adults were included. ECG recordings were obtained before and 3 months after anti-epileptic treatment among patients with epilepsy. For both groups, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured using a 12-lead ECG device. Results: Tp-e interval, Tpe/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were found to be higher in the patient group than in the control group (p<0.05, for all), while QTmax ratio was significantly lower in the patient group. After 3 months of AED therapy, significant increases in QT max, QTc max, QTcd, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc were found among the patients (p<0.05). When the arrhythmic effects of the drugs before and after treatment were compared, especially in the valproic acid group, there were significant increases in Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc values after three months of treatment (p<0.05). Carbamazepine and levetiracetam groups were not statistically significant in terms of pre- and post-treatment values. Conclusion: It was concluded that an arrhythmogenic environment may be associated with the disease, and patients who received AED monotherapy may need to be followed up more closely for arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos
8.
Waste Manag ; 109: 109-118, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402901

RESUMO

The present study aimed at understanding the impact of pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) load on compost dynamics and fate of PPCPs during the composting. In addition, the compost dynamics during single PPCP degradation and multiple PPCPs degradation were investigated. Results revealed that co-composting could degrade the pharmaceutical, carbamazepine (CBZ) up to 83% during single pollutant degradation while it was 66% during multiple pollutant system, at an initial concentration (IC) of 5 mg/kg dw. In case of personal care product, namely triclosan (TCS), single pollutant degradation resulted in 86% removal whereas the removal efficiency was 83% in multiple pollutant system. Relatively high concentration of CBZ showed a negative impact on compost dynamics compared to that of TCS. Higher IC resulted in lower temperature development and relatively lower pollutant removal. The study on pollutant transfer in compost solid surface and in leachate revealed that TCS was not leached out while the leaching of CBZ was significant during composting process. The various transformation products formed during composting were identified and tentative pathways for CBZ and TCS degradation were proposed.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Cosméticos , Poluentes Ambientais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbamazepina
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105499, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416570

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical substances are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and their concentration levels typically range from ng/L up to several µg/L. Furthermore, as those compounds are designed to be highly biologically active, assessing their impacts on non-target organisms is important. Here, we conducted a mesocosm experiment testing a mixture of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, carbamazepine, irbesartan, acetaminophen and naproxen) on fish, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The mixture concentration levels were chosen on the basis of the contamination of the Meuse river in Belgium which had been measured previously during a monitoring campaign undertaken in 2015 and 2016. Three nominal mixture concentration levels were tested: the lowest concentration level mixture was composed by environmentally-relevant concentrations that approximate average realistic values for each pharmaceuticals (Mx1); the two other levels were 10 and 100 times these concentrations. Although no impact on stickleback prey was observed, the mixture significantly impaired the survival of female fish introduced in the mesocosms at the highest treatment level without causing other major differences on fish population structure. Impacts on condition factors of adults and juveniles were also observed at both individual and population levels. Using a modelling approach with an individual-based model coupled to a bioenergetic model (DEB-IBM), we concluded that chronic exposure to environmentally-relevant concentrations of five pharmaceuticals often detected in the rivers did not appear to strongly affect the three-spined stickleback populations. Mechanisms of population regulation may have counteracted the mixture impacts in the mesocosms.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Rios/química , Smegmamorpha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetaminofen/análise , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Bélgica , Carbamazepina/análise , Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/análise , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Naproxeno/análise , Naproxeno/toxicidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19710, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a kind of trigeminal neuralgia which is due to neurovascular compression. The common neurological treatment CTN drug called carbamazepine is the main measure, although it usually has side effects and a high-rate of relapse. As a critical alternative therapy, electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to benefit for neuropathic pain. The aims of this study are to observe the therapeutic effect and safety of EA for CTN, to evaluate whether EA has the advantage over carbamazepine in the analgesia of CTN. Furthermore, we would to establish a standardized, effective, and convenient therapy program of EA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: One hundred twenty patients diagnosed with CTN will be randomized for a 4-week intervention. The interventions will be different according to the four groups (EA + carbamazepine group, sham EA + carbamazepine group, EA + placebo group and sham EA + placebo group). EA therapy will be performed in specific acupoints with a dilute wave (2/100 Hz) for 60 minutes. Carbamazepine tablets will be taken orally with 0.1 g each time, thrice daily. Sham EA and placebo intervention will not receive EA and drug treatment. The main outcomes are the change from baseline intensity of pain at 6 months (pain evaluation by visual analogue score) and the change from baseline brief introduction of 2-week pain to evaluate pain comprehensively. The data management and statistical analysis will be conducted by third party statisticians. Incidence of adverse events will be investigated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Clinical Trial Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (NO. ZSLL-KY-2017-033) and Jiaxing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (NO. 2018-JZLK-002). The results will be disseminated by presentation at peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/complicações , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/terapia , Seleção de Pacientes , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Water Res ; 178: 115790, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334179

RESUMO

The potential benefits of reclaimed water (RW) uses for environmental enhancement and restoration could become adverse impacts if RW does not meet the quality criteria that ensure wildlife preservation. RW can contain complex mixtures of micropollutants that may accumulate in sediment after environmental uses and affect benthic fauna. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effects of RW on a sediment insect species used mainly in ecotoxicology (Chironomus riparius). Whole organism effects and gene expression were measured in a water sediment system after spiking RW as overlying water, which was renewed 3 times during the test. Development rate, emergence rate and fecundity were monitored after the 21-day exposure. Endocrine-related genes (EcR, ERR, E75, Vtg), cellular stress genes (hsp70, hsc70, hsp24, hsp10) and biotransformation genes (gp93, GSTd3, GPx, cyp4g) were assessed in larvae after the 10-day exposure. The experimental design also included single or binary fortifications of both test medium and RW, obtained by adding two emerging pollutants: carbamazepine (100 µg/L CBZ) and triclosan (20 µg/L TCS). The chemical characterisation of RW showed that 20 of the 23 screened emerging pollutants fell within the detection limit, 10 exceeded 0.01 µg/L (including CBZ) and three exceeded 0.1 µg/L (hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, ibuprofen). The analytical measures of sediment (day 21) and overlying water (days 7, 14 and 21) were taken to know the water-sediment distribution of CBZ and TCS added to fortifications. CBZ distributed mainly in overlying water (110-164 µg/L and 73-100 µg/kg), while TCS showed a higher affinity to sediment (2.8-5.1 µg/L and 36-55 µg/kg). RW had significant effects in molecular terms (Vtg, hsp70, hsc70), but had no significant effects on the whole organism. Nevertheless, the single RW fortifications impaired both the development rate and fecundity, while the binary RW fortification impaired only fecundity. The most marked increase in EcR expression was observed for the binary RW fortification. Hsps, GSTd3 and cyp4g showed a similar tendency to that observed for EcR and Vtg in the binary and single RW fortifications. The binary mixture (CBZ and TCS together) in RW was toxic, but not in the medium tests. Therefore, the major concern of RW uses is apparently related to the interactivity between this complex matrix and any other pollutants possibly present in the environment where RW is applied. Our results underscore the need for raising awareness about RW effects, which can be achieved by ecotoxicological testing.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamazepina , Água
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD007286, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2018. The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure appears to vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investigated in a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of AEDs when used prophylactically in people undergoing craniotomy and to examine which AEDs are most effective. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update we searched the following databases on 29 September 2019: Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs of people with no history of epilepsy who were undergoing craniotomy for either therapeutic or diagnostic reasons. We included trials with adequate randomisation methods and concealment; these could either be blinded or unblinded parallel trials. We did not stipulate a minimum treatment period, and we included trials using active drugs or placebo as a control group. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors (JW, JG, YD) independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements through discussion. Outcomes investigated included the number of participants experiencing seizures (early (occurring within first week following craniotomy), and late (occurring after first week following craniotomy)), the number of deaths and the number of people experiencing disability and adverse effects. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the trials, we did not combine data from the included trials in a meta-analysis; we presented the findings of the review in narrative format. Visual comparisons of outcomes are presented in forest plots. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 RCTs (N = 1815), which were published between 1983 and 2015. Three trials compared a single AED (phenytoin) with placebo or no treatment. One, three-armed trial compared two AEDs (phenytoin, carbamazepine) with no treatment. A second three-armed trial compared phenytoin, phenobarbital with no treatment. Of these five trials comparing AEDs with placebo or no treatment, two trials reported a statistically significant advantage for AED treatment compared to controls for early seizure occurrence; all other comparisons showed no clear or statistically significant differences between AEDs and control treatment. None of the trials that were head-to-head comparisons of AEDs (phenytoin versus sodium valproate, phenytoin versus phenobarbital, levetiracetam versus phenytoin, zonisamide versus phenobarbital) reported any statistically significant differences between treatments for either early or late seizure occurrence. Only five trials reported incidences of death. One trial reported statistically significantly fewer deaths in the carbamazepine and no-treatment groups compared with the phenytoin group after 24 months of treatment, but not after six months of treatment. Incidences of adverse effects of treatment were poorly reported; however, three trials did show that significantly more adverse events occurred on phenytoin compared to valproate, placebo, or no treatment. No trials reported any results relating to functional outcomes such as disability. We considered the evidence to be of low certainty for all reported outcomes due to methodological issues and variability of comparisons made in the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited, low-certainly evidence to suggest that AED treatment administered prophylactically is either effective or not effective in the prevention of postcraniotomy (early or late) seizures. The current evidence base is limited due to the different methodologies employed in the trials and inconsistencies in the reporting of outcomes including deaths and adverse events. Further evidence from good-quality, contemporary trials is required in order to assess the clinical effectiveness of prophylactic AED treatment compared to placebo or no treatment, or other AEDs in preventing postcraniotomy seizures in this select group of patients.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Piracetam/análogos & derivados , Piracetam/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/mortalidade , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(18): 23258-23269, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333356

RESUMO

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a recalcitrant pharmaceutical often detected in wastewater and in the environment. CBZ can be removed from wastewater through advanced oxidation treatment methods such as ozonation. In this study, CBZ and its transformation product 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD) were ozonated, and the formation and transformation of their ozonation products were investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The main products, 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2-one (BQM) and BQD were quantified using isolated standards and LC-UV. Of the original CBZ concentration, 74% was transformed into BQM and 83% of BQM was further transformed into BQD. Both products are more stable than CBZ and could still be detected after 240 min of ozonation. Another major product, 2,2'-azanediyldibenzaldehyde (TP225) was for the first time identified using NMR. Twelve further CBZ products were identified.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Carbamazepina/análise , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias
14.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126675, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278918

RESUMO

The carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most frequently detected anticonvulsant drugs in water bodies. Although there are reports of its ecotoxicological effects in the scientific literature, toxicity studies have not focused on establishing the mechanism by which CBZ produces its effect at environmentally relevant concentrations. The objective of this work was to evaluate cyto-genotoxicity and its relationship with oxidative stress produced by carbamazepine in the Allium cepa model. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, as well as the biomarkers of oxidative stress were analyzed in the roots of A. cepa, exposed to 1 and 31.36 µg L-1 after 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results show that genotoxic capacity of this drug in the roots of A. cepa is related to the generation of oxidative stress, in particular with production of hydroperoxides and oxidized proteins. Also, the cytotoxic effect has a high correlation with DNA damage. The results of the present study clearly indicate that bioassays with sensitive plants such as A. cepa are useful and complementary tools to evaluate the environmental impact of emerging contaminants.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Cebolas/fisiologia , Allium , Bioensaio , Dano ao DNA , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(2): 395-409, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333671

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are invaluable tools for the prevention and treatment of human and animal diseases. Human evolution led to the increase of life expectancy, which promoted the increase of consumption of pharmaceuticals. These compounds are consistently detected in superficial waters, and whilst degradation processes are expected to mitigate their levels, they also induce the formation of potentially harmful by-products. The compounds studied in this work were acetaminophen, 17α-ethynylestradiol and carbamazepine. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet diode-array detection was used to follow the degradation reactions, whilst liquid chromatography associated with ultraviolet diode-array detection and mass spectrometry was applied in the determination of by-products. Ethynylestradiol proved to be the most reactive (t1/2 = 38.6 ± 1.9 seconds) and carbamazepine the least reactive (t1/2 = 481.4 ± 16.7 minutes) when exposed to active chlorine. In relation to disinfection by-products, two monochlorinated analogues were detected for acetaminophen, one monochlorinated for carbamazepine, and one mono- and one trichlorinated for ethynylestradiol. Chlorine levels and water pH proved to be the most influential variables on the degradation of the compounds, with and without dissolved organic matter in solution. All pharmaceuticals displayed significant photostability towards artificial solar radiation, with acetaminophen being slightly more stable.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamazepina , Cloro , Etinilestradiol
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 91: 10-21, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172958

RESUMO

The widely used carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most persistent pharmaceuticals and suffers insufficient removal efficiency by conventional wastewater treatment. A synthesized Co-based perovskite (LaCoO3) was used to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in order to degrade CBZ. Results showed that LaCoO3 exhibited an excellent performance in PMS activation and CBZ degradation at neutral pH, with low cobalt leaching. The results of FT-IR and XPS verified the high structurally and chemically stability of LaCoO3 in PMS activation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis suggested the generation of radical species, such as sulfate radicals (SO4-) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). Radical quenching experiments further revealed the responsibility of SO4- as the dominant oxidant for CBZ oxidation. Ten products were detected via the oxidation of CBZ, with the olefinic double bond attacked by SO4- as the initial step. Hydroxylation, hydrolysis, cyclization and dehydration were involved along the transformation of CBZ. The toxicity of CBZ solution was significantly reduced after treating by PMS/LaCoO3.


Assuntos
Lantânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos de Cálcio , Carbamazepina , Minerais , Óxidos , Peróxidos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Titânio
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138023, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220735

RESUMO

There is increasing environmental concern about the constant presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface water, generally attributed to water discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are unable to completely remove these compounds. The slight, but continuous, presence of these contaminants in reclaimed water (RW) poses a risk of chronic and sublethal toxicity, and the thyroid axis can likely be a target of many of these PPCPs. In this work, we addressed the effects of RW on the Xenopus laevis thyroid system. The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA test) was used with modifications by exposing X. laevis tadpoles to RW samples, and to RW spiked with carbamazepine (CBZ) at 100 and 1000 higher than the average levels environmentally relevant (RW 100× and RW 1000×, respectively). Carbamazepine was selected because it is considered a marker of anthropogenic pollution and could have a potential effect on the thyroid axis. The morphological endpoints and histological alterations to the thyroid gland were evaluated. The results suggested the stimulation of the thyroid gland from exposures to the RW samples, supported by tadpoles' accelerated development and by the histological alterations observed in the thyroid gland. Developmental acceleration was also seen in the tadpoles exposed to the RW-100× and -1000× samples at comparable levels to those seen in exposures to RW samples alone. Hence CBZ did not seem to increase the effects of RW on the thyroid axis. Overall, our results suggested endocrine effects of these RW samples regardless of the CBZ concentration.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamazepina , Larva , Metamorfose Biológica , Água , Xenopus laevis
18.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126401, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146183

RESUMO

This study demonstrated statistical profiling consisting of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and fold change to efficiently identify transformation products of an organic model compound (i.e., carbamazepine, CBZ) in ozonation. To this end, liquid chromatography (LC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) was employed to measure the accurate masses of CBZ transformation products. Subsequently, statistical profiling was applied to differentiating features that are uniquely present in the ozonated samples from those in blanks and control (i.e., CBZ sample without ozonation). The identified transformation products had significant statistical power (i.e., power, 1-ß > 0.8) in post hoc power analysis, which suggests that the profiling procedure can be an efficient means of reducing false negative in data analysis. 2-quinazolinone was newly reported here as a tentative transformation of CBZ during ozonation. In addition, a transformation product with one less carbon than CBZ, often called "anomalous" transformation product, was also found. While statistical profiling was applied to a model experiment, such an approach can be further utilized to screen many features with a higher data complexity such as non-targeted screening (NTS) and non-target analysis (NTA) for environmental samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Carbamazepina/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas
19.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126403, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171942

RESUMO

Emerging contaminants, especially, pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are not removed well during conventional wastewater treatment and hence pose water quality risk to the environment and potentially to public health. Long-term use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation can lead to accumulation of trace contaminants in the soil, ground water and their subsequent uptake by plants and potentially can enter human food chain. This paper uses biochar as an adsorbent to remove emerging contaminants from treated wastewater by performing fixed bed experiments. Ten emerging contaminants namely, carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine, diethyltoluamide (DEET), diphenhydramine (DPH), meprobamate (MPB), primidone (PMD), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), fluoxetine (FXT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and trimethoprim (TMP) were monitored during lab scale experiments. Results from the continuous flow runs showed that the breakthrough curve for compounds caffeine, CBZ, DEET and PFOA follow second order Thomas model with adsorption capacities of 396 µg g-1, 392 µg g-1, 1160 µg g-1 and 32 µg g-1 biochar, respectively. Whereas compounds such as DPH, TMP and FXT were completely removed throughout the column runs by biochar. Results for rest of the compounds were interfered by leaching of these compounds from biochar. It was observed that commercially available GAC performed much better than biochar for all the compounds considered. Even at 1% of obtained capacity, biochar amendment to soils where reclaimed water is used for irrigation can reduce the uptake of these compounds by plants.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Carvão Vegetal/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Adsorção , Carbamazepina , Cosméticos/análise , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfametoxazol , Águas Residuárias/química , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137449, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135284

RESUMO

The synergetic effects of benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (BDC) linker structure and the metal cluster of MOFs on adsorption mechanisms of carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin and mefenamic acid were investigated in single and mixed solutions. A 1D flexible framework MIL-53(Al), 3D rigid framework UiO-66(Zr) and 3D flexible framework MIL-88B(Fe) were applied as adsorbents. The breathing effect of MIL-53(Al) caused by its flexible structure can enhance intraparticle diffusion for all pharmaceuticals and perform a critical role in excellent adsorption performances. The 3D rigid BDC structure of UiO-66(Zr) caused a steric effect that reflected low or negligible adsorption. Unless concerning accessibility through the internal structure of the MOFs, the binding strengths calculated by the DFT study were in the following order: MIL-88B(Fe) > MIL-53(Al) > UiO-66(Zr). The Fe cluster in MIL-88B(Fe) seems to have the highest affinity for the carboxylic group of pharmaceuticals compared with Al and Zr; however, the lower porosity of MIL-88B(Fe) might limit the adsorption capacity. Moreover, in mixed solutions, the higher acidity of mefenamic acid can enhance competitive performance in interactions with the metal cation cluster of each MOF. Together with the breathing effect, H-bonding and π-π interaction were shown to be the alternative interactions of synergetic adsorption mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Adsorção , Benzeno , Carbamazepina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas
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