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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(5): 961-970, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541114

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a new species of plant (Spathiphyllum blandum) in the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, phosphorus and fecal coliforms (FCs) in mesocosms of wetlands with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and tezontle substrates under a tropical climate. The experiments were developed at the mesocosm level in 20 experimental units; 10 were planted with Spathiphyllum blandum, five in PET substrates and five in tezontle, and 10 more were used as controls without vegetation, of which five contained tezontle and five contained PET. The systems were fed with contaminated water from the river Sordo, with a hydraulic retention time of 3 days for 12 months; samples were taken in the influent and effluents of the mesocosms every 2 weeks, with the purpose of evaluating the removal of contaminants. The results showed that presence of this species tended to improve or significantly improved the removal of COD, NH4-N, PO4-P, and FCs by 7%, 16%, 29% and 12%, respectively. It was also possible to confirm that the presence of this species reduced the rate of denitrification. These results confirm that in developing countries it is feasible to find new wetland species to be used for wastewater phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Áreas Alagadas , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Nitrogênio , Polietilenotereftalatos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
2.
Water Res ; 179: 115898, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388051

RESUMO

The negative effects of ubiquitous microplastics on wastewater treatment have attracted increasing attention. However, the potential impacts of microplastics on anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) remain unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper investigated the response of AGS to the exposure of model microplastics (polyethylene terephthalate (PET-MPs)) and provided insights into the mechanisms involved. The 84 days' long-term exposure experiments demonstrated that PET-MPs, at relatively low level (15 MP L-1) did not affect AGS performance during anaerobic wastewater treatment, while 75-300 MP L-1 of PET-MPs caused the decreases of COD removal efficiency and methane yields by 17.4-30.4% and 17.2-28.4%, accompanied with the 119.4-227.8% increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) accumulation and particle breakage. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis showed that dosage-dependent tolerance of AGS to PET-MPs was attributed to the induced EPS producing protection role, but PET-MPs at higher concentrations (75-300 MP L-1) suppressed EPS generation. Correspondingly, microbial community analysis revealed that the populations of key acidogens (e.g., Levilinea sp.) and methanogens (e.g., Methanosaeta sp.) decreased after long-term exposure to PET-MPs. Assessment of the toxicity of PET-MPs revealed that the leached di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and the induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PET-MPs were causing toxicity towards AGS, confirmed by the increases in cell mortality and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. These results provide novel insights into the ecological risk assessment of microplastics in anaerobic wastewater treatment system.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
3.
Waste Manag ; 106: 226-239, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240939

RESUMO

In the context of waste upgrading of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by pyrolysis, this study presents three on-line mass spectrometric techniques with soft ionization for monitoring the emitted decomposition products and their thermal dependent evolution profiles. Pyrolysis experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere with a heating rate of 5 °C/min from 30 °C to 600 °C. Single-photon ionization (SPI at 118 nm/10.5 eV) and resonance enhanced multiple photon ionization (REMPI at 266 nm) were used with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for evolved gas analysis (TGA-SPI/REMPI-TOFMS). Additionally, the chemical signature of the pyrolysis products was investigated by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) ultra high resolution Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) which enables assignment of molecular sum formulas (TGA-APCI FT-ICR MS). Despite the soft ionization by SPI, the fragmentation of some compounds with the loss of the [O-CH = CH2] fragment is observed. The major compounds were acetaldehyde (m/z 44), benzoic acid (m/z 122) and a fragment of m/z 149. Using REMPI, aromatic species were selectively detected. Several series of pyrolysis products were observed in different temperature intervals, showing the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially at high temperatures. FT-ICR MS data showed, that the CHO4 class was the most abundant compound class with a relative abundance of 45.5%. The major compounds detected with this technique corresponded to m/z 193.0495 (C10H9O4+) and 149.0233 (C8H5O3+). Based on detailed chemical information, bulk reaction pathways are proposed, showing the formation of both cyclic monomer/dimer and linear structures.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Calefação , Espectrometria de Massas , Pirólise
4.
Waste Manag ; 108: 62-69, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335488

RESUMO

Char, a solid product obtained from carbonization of waste Poly(Ethylene) Terephthalate (PET), has high potential to solve the current plastic waste problem through the synthesis of new carbon-based adsorbents. However, thermal degradation reaction of polymer involves multiple series of complex reaction pathways and the formation of char is not clarified. In this study, the phase behavior of PET carbonization and the mechanism of char formation was studied in detail. Based on the van Krevelen diagram, it is evident that rapid thermal decomposition of PET occurs through decarbonylation to form char and decarboxylation to form wax. Based on the analysis of cross-linking behavior, a correlation between the degree of cross-linking as a function of CO and CO2 and dependent parameters based on the experimental operation was obtained. The findings validified the assumption that scission of CO bond in the ester group through decarbonylation and decarboxylation to release CO and CO2 leads to the formation of char. The cross-linking behavior was further clarified by studying the distribution of cross-linking structure in char and wax. It was confirmed that decarbonylation reaction to release CO is highly associated with the formation of cross-linking to form char in the solid residue, whereas decarboxylation reaction to release CO2 is highly associated with the formation of cross-linking to form aromatic compounds in the wax residue.


Assuntos
Carbono , Polietilenotereftalatos , Etilenos , Ácidos Ftálicos
5.
Waste Manag ; 107: 172-181, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289573

RESUMO

Efficient reduction of environmental pollution caused by waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and production of carbon nanomaterials are desirable for nanotechnology, printable electronics, composites and environment protection. Here we report a simple top-down micro/nano-fabrication process to prepare fibrous carbon nanomaterial from waste PET bottles. This process is highly efficient, facile, and catalyst-free in preparing fibrous carbon nanomaterial with promising hydrophobic and electrical properties. The fibrous carbon nanomaterial can be used both in the form of sheet or powder, and it supplies a versatile surface for preparing novel carbon-based composites with significant optical properties and conductivity. The prepared carbon nanomaterial from waste PET has also been used in fabricating strain sensor with good durability.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Polietilenotereftalatos , Carbono , Eletrônica , Nanotecnologia
6.
Nature ; 580(7802): 216-219, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269349

RESUMO

Present estimates suggest that of the 359 million tons of plastics produced annually worldwide1, 150-200 million tons accumulate in landfill or in the natural environment2. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is the most abundant polyester plastic, with almost 70 million tons manufactured annually worldwide for use in textiles and packaging3. The main recycling process for PET, via thermomechanical means, results in a loss of mechanical properties4. Consequently, de novo synthesis is preferred and PET waste continues to accumulate. With a high ratio of aromatic terephthalate units-which reduce chain mobility-PET is a polyester that is extremely difficult to hydrolyse5. Several PET hydrolase enzymes have been reported, but show limited productivity6,7. Here we describe an improved PET hydrolase that ultimately achieves, over 10 hours, a minimum of 90 per cent PET depolymerization into monomers, with a productivity of 16.7 grams of terephthalate per litre per hour (200 grams per kilogram of PET suspension, with an enzyme concentration of 3 milligrams per gram of PET). This highly efficient, optimized enzyme outperforms all PET hydrolases reported so far, including an enzyme8,9 from the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis strain 201-F6 (even assisted by a secondary enzyme10) and related improved variants11-14 that have attracted recent interest. We also show that biologically recycled PET exhibiting the same properties as petrochemical PET can be produced from enzymatically depolymerized PET waste, before being processed into bottles, thereby contributing towards the concept of a circular PET economy.


Assuntos
Hidrolases/química , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Plásticos/química , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Reciclagem , Actinobacteria/enzimologia , Burkholderiales/enzimologia , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Fusarium/enzimologia , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Polimerização
7.
Waste Manag ; 105: 309-316, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097877

RESUMO

The recycling of packaging plastics is hindered by the various plastic mixtures and their similar surface properties. Plastic separation is a key step to improve recycling efficiency of waste plastics. We proposed a simple and efficient protocol to separate polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from polycarbonate (PC), acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene copolymer (ABS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by converting PET surface from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. PET surface was modified by potassiumhydroxide (KOH)and ethylene glycol ((CH2OH)2) with the aid of sonication. Contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to research the reactions on PET surface. It can be confirmed that the reaction of base-catalyzed transesterification occurs, leading to a hydrophilic PET plastic. We investigated the effects of ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, (CH2OH)2 dosage, KOH dosage, flotation time, and frother concentration on the flotation separation. The flotation recovery and purity of PET are 98.8% and 100%, respectively when (CH2OH)2 dosage is 10 mL, KOH dosage is 2 g, ultrasonic time is 5 min, ultrasonic intensity is 160 W, flotation time is 4 min, and frother concentration is 52.7 mg/L. This study provided a novel surface modification with reliable mechanisms for the flotation of PET from plastic mixtures.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Etilenoglicol , Polietilenotereftalatos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Reciclagem , Sonicação
8.
Food Chem ; 317: 126427, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092611

RESUMO

Determination of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dimer up to heptamer 1st series cyclic oligomers, applying an LC-qTOF-MS method, has been developed and validated. Recoveries ranged between 80 and 112% with RSDs lower than 15%. An innovative semi-quantitative approach has been applied for 2nd and 3rd series cyclic oligomers, using the closest structural-similar 1st series cyclic oligomer standard as analytical reference. Oligomers from the three series were quantified in PET teabags after migration experiments with water and food simulants C (20% v/v ethanol in water) and D1 (50% v/v ethanol in water). No legal migration limits exist currently for these substances. In silico genotoxicity assessment of all identified oligomers has been performed and showed no genotoxicity alert for linear or cyclic molecules. Exposure assessment was performed using EFSA's approach on the total sum of migrating oligomers and on toxicological threshold-of-concern. Amounts found in water were in some cases significantly higher than the respective limits, especially in the worst-case scenario of multiple consumption.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Polietilenotereftalatos/toxicidade , Simulação por Computador , Dimerização , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Chá
9.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110062, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941625

RESUMO

A large number of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are discarded daily after usage. Thus, plastic bottle recycling has elicited considerable attention in recent years. In this context, this study aims to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of blanket production from 100% recycled waste plastic bottles in China through a life cycle assessment coupled with life cycle costing method. In addition, the environmental impact of replacing coal with natural gas and solar energy was evaluated. Results show that impact categories of global warming and fossil depletion have significant influence on the overall environment. Carbon dioxide, water, iron, coal and chromium (VI) to water are the main contributors to the overall environmental burden. The internal and external costs are $6433/metric ton and $370/metric ton, respectively. Analysis results indicate that the optimization of organic chemicals, recycled polyester filament and steam production processes can reduce environmental and economic burdens substantially. Energy substitutions with natural gas and the use of solar photovoltaic in steam production and electricity generation are effective measures for decreasing environmental impacts. Finally, suggestions based on research results and the current status of waste plastic bottle recycling in China are proposed.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Reciclagem , Água
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110639, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706724

RESUMO

Little is known about the degradability of oxo-biodegradable polyethylene (OXO-PE) and its surface fouling bacterial communities in the marine environment. The degradation of OXO-PE, PE and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was compared at two depths (2 m and 6 m) in the Arabian Gulf. Scanning electron microcopy (SEM) revealed more fissure formation on OXO-PE and PE than on PET, indicating physical degradation. The formation of hydroxyl groups and carbonyl bonds, by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), suggests chemical degradation of OXO-PE. Plastisphere bacterial communities on OXO-PE and PE were different than on PET. Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Planctomycetes were detected on all plastics, however, sequences of Alteromonas and Zoogloea were OXO-PE-specific suggesting a possible involvement of these bacterial genera in OXO-PE degradation. We conclude that OXO-PE shows increased signs of degradation with time owing to the combination of abiotic and biotic processes, and its degradation is higher in the benthic than in the planktonic zone.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Incrustação Biológica , Plâncton/fisiologia , Polietileno , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Plásticos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(1): 18-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fibrin glue is used to reinforce anastomosis in aortic surgery. There has not yet been a consensus on how it should be applied optimally. This study aimed to define the optimal condition of applying fibrin glue. METHODS: In experiment 1, we determined the optimal condition for spraying fibrin glue using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft within a needle hole. The length and area of the fibrin cap within the hole were measured. In experiment 2, methods for applying fibrinogen were assessed by comparing brushing and spraying. In experiment 3, swine aorta segments sutured with a Dacron graft were divided into the following three groups: nothing was applied; fibrinogen was sprayed and rubbed using brush. The aorta was clamped and blood was infused from an occlusion catheter inserted into the graft. The pressure at the first appearance of blood leak was recorded. RESULTS: In experiment 1, among the four groups divided by the pressure and distance of spraying, the fibrin cap area in the group with 0.075 MPa and 2-cm spray distance was significantly larger than that in the group with 0.15 MPa and 2 cm (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the fibrin cap area in the brushing group was significantly larger than that in the spraying group (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, the capacity to resist endoluminal pressure was higher in the brushing and combined spraying group compared with that in the sequential combined spraying group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The brush and spray methods showed excellent hemostatic outcomes.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/farmacologia , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Administração Tópica , Animais , Prótese Vascular , Cateterismo , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/administração & dosagem , Fibrinogênio/administração & dosagem , Fibrinogênio/farmacologia , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Polietilenotereftalatos , Politetrafluoretileno , Suínos , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Trombina/farmacologia
12.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 96(2): 206-213, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682776

RESUMO

Purpose: We present an α-irradiation setup for the irradiation of primary human cell cultures under controlled conditions using 241Am α-particles.Materials and Methods: To irradiate samples with α-particles in a valid manner, a reliable dosimetry is a great challenge because of the short α-range and the complex energy spectrum. Therefore, the distance between α-source and sample must be minimal. In the present setup, this is achieved by cells growing on a 2 µm thick biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (boPET) foil which is only 2.7 mm apart from the source. A precise and reproducible exposure time is realized through a mechanical shutter. The fluence, energy spectra and the corresponding linear energy transfer are determined by the source geometry and the material traversed. They were measured and calculated, yielding a dose rate of 8.2 ± 2.4 Gy/min. To improve cell growth on boPET foils, they were treated with air plasma. This treatment increased the polarity and thus the ability of cells attaching to the surface of the foil. Several tests including cell growth, staining for a marker of DNA double-strand breaks and a colony-forming assay were performed and confirm our dosimetry.Conclusion: With our setup, it is possible to irradiate cell cultures under defined conditions with α-particles. The plasma-treated foil is suitable for primary human cell cultures as shown in cell experiments, confirming also the expected number of particle traversals.


Assuntos
Partículas alfa , Amerício , Transferência Linear de Energia , Cultura Primária de Células , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno/química , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Polietilenotereftalatos , Radiometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124728, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499314

RESUMO

Numerous of pollutants threaten our planet, for instance plastic wastes causes a huge potential risk on the environment in addition to many of emergened pollutants as pharmaceutical residue in aquatic environments which affecting ecological balance and in-turn affecting human health. Accordingly, this research proposed an innovative facile, one-step synthesis of functionalized magnetic fullerene nanocomposite (FMFN) via catalytic thermal decomposition of sustainable poly (ethylene terephthalate) bottle wastes as feedstock and ferrocene as a catalyst and precursor of magnetite. Growth mechanism of FMFN was discussed and batch experiments were achieved to examine its adsorption efficiency in relation to Ciprofloxacin antibiotic. Different adsorption parameters including time, initial Ciprofloxacin concentration, and solution temperature were investigated and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) model. In addition, a study on the antibiotic adsorption process impact on the organisms of an ecosystem was conducted using E. coli DH5α, and results validated method's efficiency in overcoming problem of appearance of antibiotic-resistant microbes.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/isolamento & purificação , Fulerenos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Ciprofloxacino/química , Ecossistema , Escherichia coli , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Plásticos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Reciclagem , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Purificação da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124560, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437632

RESUMO

Plastics are the most abundant marine debris globally dispersed in the oceans and its production is rising with documented negative impacts in marine ecosystems. However, the chemical-physical and biological interactions occurring between plastic and planktonic communities of different types of microorganisms are poorly understood. In these respects, it is of paramount importance to understand, on a molecular level on the surface, what happens to plastic fragments when dispersed in the ocean and directly interacting with phytoplankton assemblages. This study presents a computer-aided analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of selected spin probes able to enter the phyoplanktonic cell interface and interact with the plastic surface. Two different marine phytoplankton species were analyzed, such as the diatom Skeletonema marinoi and dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, in absence and presence of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fragments in synthetic seawater (ASPM), in order to in-situ characterize the interactions occurring between the microalgal cells and plastic surfaces. The analysis was performed at increasing incubation times. The cellular growth and adhesion rates of microalgae in batch culture medium and on the plastic fragments were also evaluated. The data agreed with the EPR results, which showed a significant difference in terms of surface properties between the diatom and dinoflagellate species. Low-polar interactions of lipid aggregates with the plastic surface sites were mainly responsible for the cell-plastic adhesion by S. marinoi, which is exponentially growing on the plastic surface over the incubation time.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietilenotereftalatos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Microalgas/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química , Resíduos/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124593, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446275

RESUMO

This paper presents the abundance, concentration and variability of microplastics (MP) in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), according to different water parameters and environmental factors, their possible sources and removal efficiency. A total of 352.6 L of wastewater from four stages of the treatment process were processed following a standardized extraction protocol by density separation, trinocular microscopic identification and polymeric analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. MP comprised a 46.6% of total microlitter, with a statistically significant removal of 90.3% in the final effluent of the WWTP. Five different shapes were isolated; i.e. fragment, film, bead, fiber, and foam. The most prominent MP forms in the final effluent were fragments and fibers, with the most common size class being 400-600 µm. Seventeen different polymer families were identified, with low-density polyethylene being the most prevalent one (52.4%) in a film form (27.7%), mostly from agriculture greenhouses near the sewage plant and single plastic bags (it is noted that only a year ago consumers are charged for them in Spain). Influent wastewater with high concentrations of suspended solids proved to have a low MP burden with a larger MP size, possibly due to a hetero-aggregation with particulate matter. Agglomeration of polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate with organic material is also suggested, both with surface energies higher than 25 mN m-1 enough for a high biofouling rate. The sewage plant cushions sharp-point microplastic concentrations during the warm season, allowing a stable performance of the WWTP.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microplásticos/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Incrustação Biológica , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Poliestirenos/análise , Espanha , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113836, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887586

RESUMO

The perdurability of plastics in the environment is one of the major concerns of plastic pollution and, as a consequence, oceans are accumulating large amounts of plastic. The degradation of conventional and biobased materials was evaluated through a laboratory experiment for a year simulating four different conditions in the marine environment. The water column environmental compartment was simulated under euphotic and aphotic (with and without light availability) conditions. The seafloor environmental compartment was simulated with sediment under non-polluted and polluted conditions. By combining weight loss (%), spectroscopic and thermal analyses, the degradation patterns regarding the polymer structure were assessed. The studied biobased materials were polylactic acid (PLA) based materials and showed higher degradability than conventional ones. The weight loss of conventional materials was not influenced by the water column or sediment, while in PLA-based materials, the degradation rates were ca. 5 times greater in the sediment than in the water column. The absorbance (Abs) value at 3400 cm-1 for polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and carbonyl (CO) index for PET and PLA could be useful to detect early signs of degradation. The crystallization index could be a useful parameter to discriminate degradation stages. The obtained results highlight the different degradability rates of materials depending on the specific environmental marine conditions.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Polímeros , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Polímeros/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 136138, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887523

RESUMO

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most widely used plastics in the world. Accumulation of the discarded PET in the environment is creating a global environmental problem. Recently, a bacterial enzyme named PETase was found to have the novel ability to degrade the highly crystallized PET. However, the enzymatic activity of native PETase is still low limiting its possible use in recycling of PET. In this study, we developed a whole-cell biocatalyst by displaying PETase on the surface of yeast (Pichia pastoris) cell to improve its degradation efficiency. Our data shows that PETase could be functionally displayed on the yeast cell with enhanced pH and thermal stability. The turnover rate of the PETase-displaying yeast whole-cell biocatalyst towards highly crystallized PET dramatically increased about 36-fold compared with that of purified PETase. Furthermore, the whole-cell biocatalyst showed stable turnover rate after seven repeated use and under some chemical/solvent conditions, and its ability to degrade different commercial highly crystallized PET bottles. Our results reveal that PETase-displaying whole-cell biocatalyst affords a promising route for efficient biological recycling of PET.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrolases , Plásticos
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 58-65, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789166

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) in the Arctic Ocean have gained considerable attention due to its ubiquity and impacts within ecosystems. However, little information is available on MPs in the Pacific section of the Arctic Ocean. The present study determined the abundance, distribution, and composition of MPs in surface waters from the Northwestern Pacific, the Bering Sea, and the Chukchi Sea. The MPs abundances varied from 0.018 items/m3 to 0.31 items/m3, with a mean abundance of 0.13 ±â€¯0.11 items/m3. The highest level of MPs was found in the Chukchi Sea. Of all of the detected MPs, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) accounted for the largest proportion of MPs, and fiber was predominant with regard to the total amount. Our results highlighted that the Arctic Ocean is becoming a hotspot for plastic pollution, and the risks posed by MPs need to be paid closer attention in future investigations.


Assuntos
Microplásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Regiões Árticas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos/química , Oceano Pacífico , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
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