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1.
Orthop Nurs ; 38(5): 336-339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568125

RESUMO

Corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for a variety of indications due to the wide range of effects on the human body. Although they exhibit many therapeutic uses, corticosteroids are unfortunately known for their many dose- and duration-dependent toxicities. The purpose of this review is to explore indications for corticosteroid use, differences among formulations, and adverse effects and their management.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicorticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/toxicidade , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10633, 2017 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878267

RESUMO

Carbonyl Reductase 1 (CBR1) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic enzyme important in exogenous drug metabolism but the physiological function of which is unknown. Here, we describe a role for CBR1 in metabolism of glucocorticoids. CBR1 catalyzes the NADPH- dependent production of 20ß-dihydrocortisol (20ß-DHF) from cortisol. CBR1 provides the major route of cortisol metabolism in horses and is up-regulated in adipose tissue in obesity in horses, humans and mice. We demonstrate that 20ß-DHF is a weak endogenous agonist of the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pharmacological inhibition of CBR1 in diet-induced obesity in mice results in more marked glucose intolerance with evidence for enhanced hepatic GR signaling. These findings suggest that CBR1 generating 20ß-dihydrocortisol is a novel pathway modulating GR activation and providing enzymatic protection against excessive GR activation in obesity.


Assuntos
Carbonil Redutase (NADPH)/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Animais , Carbonil Redutase (NADPH)/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Glucocorticoides/química , Glucocorticoides/urina , Cavalos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hidroxicorticosteroides/metabolismo , Hidroxicorticosteroides/urina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/agonistas , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Toxicol Pathol ; 45(3): 416-426, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349785

RESUMO

Despite the use of rabbits in biomedical research, including regulatory toxicology and cardiovascular studies, little data exist on heart findings in this species. This study was designed to document myocardial findings in female rabbits and the impact of study-related procedures typical for vaccine toxicology studies. One hundred and forty 6- to 8-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided equally into 2 groups, high and low study procedure groups (group 1 and group 2, respectively). All animals received intramuscular (IM) injections of sterile saline every 2 weeks for 5 times and were necropsied 2 days after the final IM injection. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis were evaluated. Blood for stress biomarkers (norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and corticosterone), C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, and creatine kinase were collected at time 0 (just before dose administration) and then at 4, 24, and 48 hr after dose administration in group 1 only. Hearts were assessed histologically. Focal to multifocal minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates were common (∼80%), particularly in the left ventricle and interventricular septum, and were similar to the types of infiltrates identified in other laboratory animal species. Additionally, study-related procedures elevated serum stress biomarkers and exacerbated the frequency and severity of myocardial inflammatory cell infiltrates.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Miocárdio , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Catecolaminas/sangue , Catecolaminas/urina , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Hidroxicorticosteroides/sangue , Hidroxicorticosteroides/urina , Injeções Intramusculares , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Coelhos , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
4.
Behav Pharmacol ; 26(7 Spec No): 681-90, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25932719

RESUMO

We have recently found that isolation-reared mice show hyperactivity during an encounter with an intruder. However, it is not known whether encounter-induced hyperactivity may model some aspects of psychiatric disorders. The present study examined the pharmacological profile of encounter-induced hyperactivity in isolation-reared mice. Encounter-induced hyperactivity was reduced by acute administration of various antidepressants including the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (10 mg/kg), the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and paroxetine (10 mg/kg), the 5-HT/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors venlafaxine (10 mg/kg) and duloxetine (10 mg/kg), the antipsychotic drug risperidone (0.01 mg/kg), the 5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin (1 mg/kg), and the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-43044 (30 mg/kg). The α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (0.03 mg/kg) and the 5-HT4 receptor agonist BIMU8 (30 mg/kg) also reduced encounter-induced hyperactivity. The effect of desipramine was blocked by the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (0.3 mg/kg). The effect of fluvoxamine was blocked by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR125487 (3 mg/kg), but not the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist azasetron (3 mg/kg), or the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB399885 (3 mg/kg). The effect of venlafaxine was blocked by the simultaneous administration of idazoxan (0.3 mg/kg) and GR125487 (3 mg/kg), but not by either compound alone. These findings suggest that encounter-induced hyperactivity in isolation-reared mice is a robust model for testing the pharmacological profile of antidepressants, although the range of antidepressants tested is limited and some non-antidepressants are also effective. The present study also shows a key role of α2 and 5-HT4 receptors in the antidepressant effect in this model.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Desipramina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/farmacologia , Fluvoxamina/farmacologia , Hidroxicorticosteroides/farmacologia , Idazoxano/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Risperidona/farmacologia , Ritanserina/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/farmacologia
5.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 158(6): 715-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25894769

RESUMO

It was found that in 8-9-year-old children, the hormonal part of the sympathoadrenal system more rapidly develops in boys, while the transmitter part develops more rapidly in girls. The androgenic and glucocorticoid function of the adrenal cortex matures earlier in girls. To the end of the school year, excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine decreased, which attests to the development of fatigue.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Epinefrina/urina , Norepinefrina/urina , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/urina , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 20: 83-90, 2014 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24441932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in Bell's palsy (BP) were reviewed to assess the current trends in its management and prognosis. MATERIAL/METHODS: We retrieved the literature on BP using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Key words and phrases used during the search included 'Bell's palsy', 'Bell's phenomenon', 'facial palsy', and 'idiopathic facial paralysis'. Emphasis was placed on articles and randomized controlled trails (RCTs) published within the last 5 years. RESULTS: BP is currently considered the leading disorder affecting the facial nerve. The literature is replete with theories of its etiology, but the reactivation of herpes simplex virus isoform 1 (HSV-1) and/or herpes zoster virus (HZV) from the geniculate ganglia is now the most strongly suspected cause. Despite the advancements in neuroimaging techniques, the diagnosis of BP remains one of exclusion. In addition, most patients with BP recover spontaneously within 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids are currently the drug of choice when medical therapy is needed. Antivirals, in contrast, are not superior to placebo according to most reliable studies. At the time of publication, there is no consensus as to the benefit of acupuncture or surgical decompression of the facial nerve. Long-term therapeutic agents and adjuvant medications for BP are necessary due to recurrence and intractable cases. In the future, large RCTs will be required to determine whether BP is associated with an increased risk of stroke.


Assuntos
Paralisia de Bell/tratamento farmacológico , Paralisia de Bell/epidemiologia , Paralisia de Bell/fisiopatologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Paralisia de Bell/diagnóstico , Paralisia de Bell/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Proteína Vmw65 do Vírus do Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 229(1-3): 60-5, 2013 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23683909

RESUMO

In the course of hypothermia, biochemical changes occur that are associated with stimulation of protective thermogenic mechanisms as well as mobilization of internal energy resources mediated by the hormone system. The objective of the investigation was the assessment of validity of determinations of cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone as hypothermia markers in cases of fatal hypothermia combined with concomitant insobriety of the victims. The experimental group consisted of blood samples collected in the course of medico-legal autopsies of 23 hypothermia victims. The controls included blood samples originating from 34 victims of violent sudden deaths (deaths by hanging and traffic road accidents at the scene) and from ten individuals deceased after prolonged agony in consequence of post-traumatic subdural hematomas. In both groups, three subgroups were distinguished that included cases with ethanol levels within the following ranges: 0.0-0.99, 1.0-2.99 and ≥3.0‰. The comparison of determination results showed that irrespectively of blood ethanol concentration, cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone levels seen in hypothermia victims were significantly higher as compared to the controls (P<0.001).


Assuntos
Hidroxicorticosteroides/sangue , Hipotermia/sangue , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Hipotermia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 260(3): 294-302, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22464980

RESUMO

There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of only 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (>20×10(-6) cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (>5×10(-6) cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glucocorticoides/farmacocinética , Hidroxicorticosteroides/farmacocinética , Administração por Inalação , Administração Oral , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Resistência a Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Permeabilidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22214335

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been prescribed to treat a variety of diseases, including inflammatory myopathies and Duchenne muscular dystrophy for over 50 years. However, their prescription remains controversial due to the significant side effects associated with the chronic treatment. It is a common belief that the clinical efficacy of GCs is due to their transrepression of pro-inflammatory genes through inhibition of inflammatory transcription factors (i.e. NF-κB, AP-1) whereas the adverse side effects are attributed to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated transcription of target genes (transactivation). The past decade has seen an increased interest in the development of GR modulators that maintain the effective anti-inflammatory properties but lack the GR-dependent transcriptional response as a safe alternative to traditional GCs. Many of these analogues or "dissociative" compounds show potential promise in in vitro studies but fail to reach human clinical trials. In this review, we discuss molecular effects of currently prescribed GCs on skeletal muscle and also discuss the current state of development of GC analogues as alternative therapeutics for inflammatory muscle diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzilideno/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzilideno/uso terapêutico , Desoximetasona/análogos & derivados , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/agonistas , Glucocorticoides/química , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/farmacologia , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/agonistas
11.
Allergy ; 64(8): 1194-201, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19614621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Masitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting stem cell factor receptor (c-kit) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, which are expressed on several cell types including mast cells and bronchial structural cells, respectively. We hypothesized that c-kit and PDGF receptor inhibition may decrease bronchial inflammation and interfere with airway remodeling, which are crucial features of severe asthma. OBJECTIVES: The primary endpoint was the percent change from baseline in oral corticosteroids after 16 weeks of treatment. Change in asthma control (asthma control questionnaire), exacerbation rate, pulmonary function tests, rescue medication requirement and safety were secondary endpoints. METHODS: A 16-week randomized, dose-ranging (3, 4.5, and 6 mg/kg/day), placebo-controlled study was undertaken in 44 patients with severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma who remained poorly controlled despite optimal asthma management. RESULTS: At 16 weeks of treatment, a comparable reduction in oral corticosteroids was achieved with masitinib and placebo (median reduction of -78% and -57% in the masitinib and placebo arms, respectively). Despite this similar reduction, the Asthma Control Questionnaire score was significantly better in the masitinib arm as compared to placebo with a reduction by 0.99 unit at week 16 (P < 0.001) vs 0.43 unit in the placebo arm. Masitinib therapy was associated with more transient skin rash and edema. CONCLUSIONS: Masitinib, a c-kit and PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may represent an innovative avenue of treatment in corticosteroid-dependent asthma. These preliminary results warrant further long-term clinical studies in severe asthma


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Edema/etiologia , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Allergy ; 64(8): 1179-84, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19243364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection and treatment of asthma is important to minimize morbidity and healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to investigate asthma awareness and management in a western society. METHODS: In a random sample of 10 400 subjects aged 14-44 years, 686 (6.6%) reported symptoms of asthma in a standardized screening questionnaire. All 686 were evaluated by respiratory specialists and diagnosed by history, symptoms, lung function tests, bronchial challenges and allergy testing. Of these 686 participants, 69 (10%) had asthma alone, 205 (30%) had rhinitis alone and 217 (32%) had both asthma and rhinitis; 195 (28%) had nonasthmatic respiratory reports. RESULTS: Awareness of asthma was found among 163 (57%) of the 286 asthmatics, and 204 (95%) had doctor-diagnosed rhinitis as well. In a multivariate regression analysis, comorbidity with rhinitis (beta = 0.489, P < 0.001), smoking (beta = -0.116, P < 0.01), doctor-diagnosed bronchitis (beta = 0.086, P < 0.05), and earlier emergency visits at hospital (beta = 0.147, P < 0.001) was significantly associated with awareness. A difference in awareness was found between those who had asthma and rhinitis (62.2%) and those who had asthma alone (40.6%) (P < 0.01). Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were used by 27% of those with asthma, including 12% who used both ICS and long-acting beta-agonist. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the persons with asthma were aware of their disorder; and the awareness was more likely in those with comorbidity of rhinitis. In general, asthma management was inadequate.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Rinite/diagnóstico , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/epidemiologia
13.
Synapse ; 63(1): 7-14, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18925659

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are involved in psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity, but the exact mechanism is not known. This study used the selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU-43044, to determine whether prefrontal neurotransmission is involved in glucocorticoid-mediated modulation of methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperactivity in mice. Pretreatment with RU-43044 (10-30 mg/kg) attenuated the increased spontaneous locomotor activity induced by METH (1-2 mg/kg). The psychostimulant effect of METH was also attenuated by adrenalectomy. RU-43044 inhibited METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine (DA), but not serotonin (5-HT), levels in the prefrontal cortex, but did not affect METH-induced increases in extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens shell, although it inhibited increases in extracellular 5-HT levels. Adrenalectomy also attenuated the METH-induced increases in extracellular DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. RU-43044 did not affect METH-induced increases in plasma corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that glucocorticoid receptors are involved in METH-induced hyperactivity, and that prefrontal dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in glucocorticoid-mediated modulation of METH-induced behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Dopamina/fisiologia , Hipercinese/fisiopatologia , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adrenalectomia , Animais , Hidroxicorticosteroides/farmacologia , Hipercinese/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Neuropharmacology ; 55(8): 1355-63, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18796307

RESUMO

Chronic corticosterone and isolation rearing paradigms may provide reliable mouse models of depression. Using these models, the present study examined if the specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU-43044, has an antidepressant-like effect, and studied the possible role of prefrontal neurotransmission on the behavioral effects. Chronic administration of corticosterone and isolation rearing increased the immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Subchronic treatment with RU-43044 decreased the immobility time in the forced swim test in chronic corticosterone-treated and isolation-reared mice, but not the control mice. Chronic corticosterone decreased the levels of cortical glucocorticoid receptors and stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone levels, and blocked the response of plasma corticosterone to dexamethasone, while isolation rearing did not cause any changes in the glucocorticoid receptor system. Both chronic corticosterone and isolation rearing markedly increased high K+ -induced dopamine release, but not serotonin release, in the prefrontal cortex. Subchronic RU-43044 reversed the enhanced release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex of chronic corticosterone-treated and isolation-reared mice. These results suggest that chronic corticosterone and isolation rearing increase the depressive-like behavior in glucocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent manners, respectively, and that RU-43044 shows an antidepressant-like effect, probably via an inhibition of enhanced prefrontal dopaminergic neurotransmission in these mouse models.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão , Dopamina/metabolismo , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Dexametasona , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/métodos , Resposta de Imobilidade Tônica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microdiálise , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Natação , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 25(12): 2643-52, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18799714

RESUMO

Specific interactions among proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites drive virtually all cellular functions and underlie phenotypic complexity and diversity. Despite the fundamental importance of interactions, the mechanisms and dynamics by which they evolve are poorly understood. Here we describe novel interactions between a lineage-specific hormone and its receptors in elasmobranchs, a subclass of cartilaginous fishes, and infer how these associations evolved using phylogenetic and protein structural analyses. The hormone 1alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1alpha-B) is a physiologically important steroid synthesized only in elasmobranchs. We show that 1alpha-B modulates gene expression in vitro by activating two paralogous intracellular transcription factors, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), in the little skate Leucoraja erinacea; MR serves as a high-sensitivity and GR as a low-sensitivity receptor. Using functional analysis of extant and resurrected ancestral proteins, we show that receptor sensitivity to 1alpha-B evolved millions of years before the hormone itself evolved. The 1alpha-B differs from more ancient corticosteroids only by the addition of a hydroxyl group; the three-dimensional structure of the ancestral receptor shows that the ligand pocket contained ample unoccupied space to accommodate this moiety. Our findings indicate that the interactions between 1alpha-B and elasmobranch GR and MR proteins evolved by molecular exploitation: a novel hormone recruited into new functional partnerships two ancient receptors that had previously interacted with other ligands. The ancestral receptor's promiscuous capacity to fortuitously bind compounds that are slight structural variants of its original ligands set the stage for the evolution of this new interaction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Hidroxicorticosteroides/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Rajidae/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/química , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/química , Rajidae/genética
16.
Arkh Patol ; 70(5): 46-51, 2008.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19137786

RESUMO

The paper presents the currently available data on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of autoimmune pancreatitis, as well as the capacities and markers of its morphological, laboratory, and radiation diagnosis. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a special type of chronic pancreatitis in which autoimmune mechanisms are the most important and leading link of pathogenesis. The specific features of treatment for this condition are mentioned. These are the use of corticosteroid hormones without surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite Crônica/epidemiologia
17.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 145(3): 244-8, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17914276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, leading to an increased rate of hospitalization. We performed this study to better understand the factors leading to admission among asthmatic children. METHODS: We performed a study among asthmatic children in a referral hospital for asthma and allergy in Tehran. Sixty-three cases were selected from asthmatic children admitted to the emergency room (ER) who still had an indication for ward or intensive care unit admission after primary treatment. Our control group was the asthmatic children discharged after primary treatment and patients who were referred to the asthma and allergy clinic (63 patients). Data were obtained by structured questionnaires filled out during clinical interviews. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in mean age (5 years for cases vs. 6 years for controls; p = 0.049), personal and familial allergic history (69.8 and 57.1% for cases vs. 34.9 and 36.5% for controls; p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively), history of recent respiratory infections (79.4% for cases vs. 49.2% for controls; p < 0.01), hospitalization history due to asthma (57.1% for cases vs. 23.8% for controls; p < 0.01) and regular use of inhaled corticosteroid (66.7% for cases vs. 33.3% for controls; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm most previous observations, suggesting that recent respiratory infections, hospitalization, personal or familial allergy, disease severity and lower ages are important factors leading to hospitalization. We also found that regular clinical follow-up, regular use of inhaled corticosteroids, higher IgE levels and O2 saturation may lower the probability of hospitalization during asthmatic attacks.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
19.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 21(2): 331-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17913526

RESUMO

In inflammation, nitric oxide (NO) is produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by bacterial products and cytokines, and NO acts as a regulatory and pro-inflammatory mediator. Glucocorticoids are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit the expression of iNOS and various other inflammatory factors. Histone deacetylation has been recently described as a novel mechanism how glucocorticoids down-regulate transcriptional activation of some inflammatory genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inhibitors of histone deacetylation on the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids on NO production and iNOS expression. Dexamethasone and a dissociated glucocorticoid RU24858 inhibited NO production, and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the presence of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone, dexamethasone and RU24858 had no effect on NO production. The role of histone deacetylation in the glucocorticoid effect was studied by using three structurally different inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs): trichostatin A, apicidin and MC1293. HDAC inhibitors reversed the effects of dexamethasone and RU24858 on iNOS expression and NO production. Stably transfected A549/8 cells containing luciferase gene under the control of human iNOS promoter were used in promoter-activity studies. iNOS promoter activity induced by IL-1beta was inhibited by dexamethasone and the inhibitory effect was reversed by HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. The results suggest that glucocorticoids inhibit iNOS expression and NO production by a GR-mediated and GRE-independent manner through histone deacetylation and transcriptional silencing.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases , Hidroxicorticosteroides/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Desoximetasona/análogos & derivados , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
20.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 28 Suppl 1: S11-7, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18307839

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) often requires regular prophylactic use of allergy medications for the effective long-term management of nasal symptoms. However, patient adherence to AR treatment is frequently poor. The Allergies in America survey of nasal allergy sufferers assessed 2500 adults diagnosed with AR. Four hundred healthcare professionals also participated in this survey. Participants were interviewed about their perceptions of the effectiveness and tolerability of AR medications and the relationship of these parameters to patient satisfaction with therapy. Only 15% of nasal allergy sufferers reported that their intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) provided complete symptom relief, and 48% of patients indicated that their INCS did not provide 24-hour symptom relief. Healthcare professionals agreed that intranasal corticosteroids do not provide complete 24-hour symptom relief. The most commonly reported adverse effects of all nasal allergy medications were a drying feeling (47%), dripping down the throat (41%), drowsiness (37%), bad taste (32%), burning (17%), and headaches (16%). Many patients indicated that these adverse effects were moderately or extremely bothersome. Thirty-two percent and 25% of patients, respectively, discontinued treatment because their nasal allergy medications did not provide 24-hour symptom relief or were associated with bothersome adverse effects. Patients and healthcare professionals do not believe that INCSs provide complete 24-hour symptom relief. In general, allergy medications also are perceived as conferring unpleasant adverse effects. Lack of efficacy and bothersome adverse effects contribute to lack of satisfaction with treatment and treatment discontinuation in patients with AR.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Rinite Alérgica Perene/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicorticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicorticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Xerostomia/etiologia
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