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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(8): 888-891, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842319

RESUMO

From June 2017 to June 2018, female sanitation workers engaged in road cleaning in a district of Urumqi City, as well as government and logistics women participating in national health examination in the same community were recruited as particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) exposure group and control group respectively. The contents of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the PM2.5 exposed group were lower than those in the control group (all P values < 0.05). Further analysis showed that the content of FSH in the exposure group at the age of 35-39, 40-44 and 45-49 years old was lower than that of the control group (all P values < 0.05). The content of LH in the exposed group at the age of 35-39 and 45-49 years old was lower than that of the control group (all P values < 0.05). The content of FSH in the exposed group with the length of service less than 5, about 5-9 and more than 10 years was lower than that of the control group (all P values < 0.05). The content of LH in the exposed group with the length of service about 5-9 and more than 10 year was lower than that of the control group (all P values < 0.05).


Assuntos
Hormônio Luteinizante , Saneamento , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Material Particulado
2.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 23(6): 276-291, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741292

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental pollutants may produce impairment of male reproductive health. The epidemiological literature evaluating potential consequences of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has grown in recent years with concerns for both pre- and postnatal influences. The aim of this systematic review was to assess available evidence on associations between PFAS exposures in different stages of life and semen quality, reproductive hormones, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. A systematic search of literature published prior to March 9th, 2020, was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase®. Predefined criteria for eligibility were applied by two authors screening study records independently. Among the 242 study records retrieved in the literature search, 26 studies were eligible for qualitative assessment. While several investigations suggested weak associations for single compounds and specific outcomes, a lack of consistency across studies limited conclusions of overall evidence. The current gap in knowledge is particularly obvious regarding exposures prior to adulthood, exposure to combinations of both PFAS and other types of environmental chemicals, and outcomes such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. Continued efforts to clarify associations between PFAS exposure and male reproductive health through high-quality epidemiological studies are needed.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Reprodutiva , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Testiculares/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Life Sci ; 257: 118138, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712298

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypertension is a relevant sex and sex hormones-dependent risk factor where the cardiovascular and renal health of the population are concerned. Men experience greater losses of renal function (RF) than women, but the mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activities and RF in male and female SHR. MAIN METHODS: Twelve-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were submitted to either castration or SHAM surgery and divided into 4 groups, SHAM or Castrated (CAST) males or females. After 51 days we evaluated RF (inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate), ACE and ACE2 activities (fluorimetry), OS (flow cytometry), collagen deposition (picrosirius red) and protein expression (western blot). KEY FINDINGS: Males presented lower RF than females and castration impaired this parameter in both groups. Sexual dimorphism was not observed regarding OS and inflammation; however, castration increased this parameter more severely in males than in females. SHAM males exhibited higher collagen deposition than females, though castration increased it in both sexes, eliminating the difference. We found sexual dimorphism regarding renal ACE and ACE2 activities, which were lower in males than in females. Although castration did not alter ACE activity, it reduced ACE2 activity in females and increased it in males. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that sex hormones affect RF in SHR. As alterations in the oxidative system were capable of promoting podocyte injury, inflammation, and collagen deposition, we put forward that these effects are differently modulated by ACE and ACE2.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Nefropatias/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Colágeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 405, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646459

RESUMO

More men than women have died from COVID-19. Genes encoded on X chromosomes, and sex hormones may explain the decreased fatality of COVID-19 in women. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene is located on X chromosomes. Men, with a single X chromosome, may lack the alternative mechanism for cellular protection after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Some Toll-like receptors encoded on the X chromosomes can sense SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids, leading to a stronger innate immunity response in women. Both estrogen and estrogen receptor-α contribute to T cell activation. Interventional approaches including estrogen-related compounds and androgen receptor antagonists may be considered in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Pandemias , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
5.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(4): 438-441, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600476

RESUMO

Studies have reported a sex bias in case fatalities of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, it is observed that men have a higher risk of developing a severe form of the disease compared to women, highlighting the importance of disaggregated data of male and female COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, other factors (eg, hormonal levels and immune functions) also need to be addressed due to the effects of sex differences on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. An insight into the underlying causes of sex differences in COVID-19 patients may provide an opportunity for better care of the patients or prevention of the disease. The current study reviews the reports concerning with the sex differences in COVID-19 patients. It is explained how sex can affect angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), that is a key component for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and summarized the gender differences in immune responses and how sex hormones are involved in immune processes. Furthermore, the available data about the impact of sex hormones on the immune functions of COVID-19 cases are looked into.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20200722, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635860

RESUMO

Many animals differentially express behaviours across the annual cycle as life stages are coordinated with seasonal environmental conditions. Understanding of the mechanistic basis of such seasonal changes in behaviour has traditionally focused on the role of changes in circulating hormone levels. However, it is increasingly apparent that other endocrine regulation mechanisms such as changes in local hormone synthesis and receptor abundance also play a role. Here I review what is known about seasonal changes in steroid hormone receptor abundance in relation to seasonal behaviour in vertebrates. I find that there is widespread, though not ubiquitous, seasonal variation in the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the brain, with such variation being best documented in association with courtship, mating and aggression. The most common pattern of seasonal variation is for there to be upregulation of sex steroid receptors with the expression of courtship and mating behaviours, when circulating hormone levels are also high. Less well-documented are cases in which seasonal increases in receptor expression could compensate for low circulating hormone levels or seasonal downregulation that could serve a protective function. I conclude by identifying important directions for future research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Endócrino , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Vertebrados
7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 374, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641750

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of infections and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 represent one of the most severe threats to human health in more than a century. Emerging data from the United States and elsewhere suggest that the disease is more severe in men. Knowledge gained, and lessons learned, from studies of the biological interactions and molecular links that may explain the reasons for the greater severity of disease in men, and specifically in the age group at risk for prostate cancer, will lead to better management of COVID-19 in prostate cancer patients. Such information will be indispensable in the current and post-pandemic scenarios.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Previsões , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Internalização do Vírus
8.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(3): E562-E567, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726128

RESUMO

Epidemiological data in COVID-19 mortality indicate that men are more prone to die of SARS-CoV-2 infection than women, but biological causes for this sexual dimorphism are unknown. We discuss the prospective behavioral and biological differences between the sexes that could be attributed to this sex-based differentiation. The female sex hormones and the immune stimulatory genes, including Toll-like receptors, interleukins, and micro-RNAs present on X-chromosome, may impart lesser infectivity and mortality of the SARS-CoV-2 in females over males. The sex hormone estrogen interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, one of the most critical pathways in COVID-19 infectivity, and modulates the vasomotor homeostasis. Testosterone on the contrary enhances the levels of the two most critical molecules, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2 (TMPRSS2), transcriptionally and posttranslationally, thereby increasing viral load and delaying viral clearance in men as compared with women. We propose that modulating sex hormones, either by increasing estrogen or antiandrogen, may be a therapeutic option to reduce mortality from SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(3): 343-355, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508310

RESUMO

Objective: Retrospective studies suggest that women have more active brown adipose tissue (BAT) than men, but little is known of the effect of fluctuating sex steroids across the menstrual cycle on thermogenesis in women. Design: To characterise the effects of sex and sex steroids on BAT activity we recruited healthy weight men (n = 14) and women at two stages of the menstrual cycle (luteal, n = 9; follicular, n = 11). Methods: Infrared thermography measured supraclavicular temperature to index BAT thermogenesis in response to both cold (immersion of one hand in water at 15°C) and meal (Ensure, 10 kcal/kg body weight) stimuli. Results: Adaptive BAT temperature responses were greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, irrespective of stage of menstrual cycle. Whereas during cold exposure, the increase in BAT temperature was abrogated (P < 0.05) in women during follicular phase compared to men and women during luteal phase. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, 17ß-estradiol, testosterone and cortisol were measured. Regression analyses demonstrated that baseline BAT temperature was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with progesterone levels, but was inversely associated (P < 0.05) with cortisol concentration. Both cold- and meal-induced changes in BAT temperature mildly correlated (P = 0.07; P < 0.05) with 17ß-estradiol levels, but not with testosterone concentrations. Conclusions: Baseline supraclavicular temperature is elevated in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which correlated with elevated progesterone concentrations. Women exhibited greater thermogenic responses than men, irrespective of the state of the menstrual cycle, which was associated with plasma levels of 17ß-estradiol. We conclude that sex steroids may regulate BAT thermogenesis in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 117-131, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher than average risk of antisocial behaviour, both in girls and boys. Most studies of such association, however, have focused on psychosocial mediating and moderating factors. Few refer to coterminous hormonal measures. AIM: The aim of this review is to consider the role of hormonal markers as potential mediating or moderating factors between puberty timing and antisocial behaviour. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Just eight studies were found to fit criteria, all cross-sectional. Measurements were too heterogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The most consistent associations found were between adrenal hormones-both androgens and cortisol-which were associated with early adrenarche and antisocial behaviours in girls and later adrenarche and antisocial behaviour in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our review suggest that longitudinal studies to test bidirectional hormone-behaviour associations with early or late puberty would be worthwhile. In view of the interactive processes between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, integrated consideration of the hormonal end products is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adrenarca/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adrenarca/fisiologia , Androgênios , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234622, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acrylamide is widely present in heat-processed food, cigarette smoke and environment. Reproductive toxicity was reported in animals treated with acrylamide, particularly in males. The reproductive toxicity of acrylamide and its active metabolite, glycidamide, was reported to be mainly mediated through DNA damage in spermatocytes. However, the effect of acrylamide on sex hormones in men is unknown. METHODS: There were 468 male subjects (age ≧ 12 years) enrolled to determine the relationships between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and hemoglobin adducts of glycidamide (HbGA) with several sex hormones using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003 to 2004. All potential confounding variables in the data set were properly adjusted. RESULTS: We found that one unit increase in the natural log-transformed HbAA level was associated with an increase in natural log transformed serum inhibin B level by 0.10 (SE = 0.05; P = 0.046), and natural log transformed serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by 0.15 (SE = 0.15; P = 0.036). With respect to HbGA, one unit increase in the natural log-transformed HbGA level was associated with an increase in natural log transformed serum anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) level by 0.31 (SE = 0.00; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In this representative cohort, we identified positive associations between acrylamide exposure and several sex hormones in men. The HbAA is positively associated with inhibin B and SHBG, and HbGA is positively associated with AMH. Other than genotoxicity, our findings suggested that altered sex hormones might also play a role in acrylamide-related reproductive toxicity in males.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Acrilamida/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Compostos de Epóxi/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20300, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481314

RESUMO

To study the effects of Tui Na therapy on patients with mammary gland hyperplasia.A total of 68 female patients with mammary gland hyperplasia were included in this retrospective study from May 2016 to May 2017 and assigned into control group (N = 34) treated with Rupixiao only (a proprietary Chinese medicine) or Tui Na group (N = 34) treated with Tui Na (Chinese massage) combined with Rupixiao. The pain intensity (visual analogous scale, VAS) and serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (P) were examined before and after the treatment.The efficacies were 94.1% (32/34) in the Tui Na group and 76.5% (26/34) in the control group (P = .04). After treatment, VAS in Tui Na groups was significantly lower than that in control group (2.1 ±â€Š1.1 vs 3.1 ±â€Š1.1, P < .05). After follow-up for five months, the recurrence rates were 12.5% (4/32) in the Tui Na group and 23.1% (6/26) in the control group (P = .01). The levels of all 4 hormones in the Tui Na group increased significantly after treatment. In control group, only LH and E2 levels were significantly increased after treatment.In patients with mammary gland hyperplasia, Tui Na combined with Rupixiao could improve clinical symptoms, regulate sex hormone levels, and decrease the recurrence rate than Rupixiao alone. Our finding suggests that Tui Na can be potentially used for the treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia.


Assuntos
Acupressão/métodos , Doenças Mamárias/terapia , Massagem/métodos , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças Mamárias/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Hiperplasia/sangue , Hiperplasia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574226

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate markers of systemic inflammation in pre- and postmenopausal women and identify possible predictors of systemic inflammation with menopause. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 69 healthy women between 45- and 60 years. Blood samples were collected to assess leukocyte subsets and plasma cytokines. MRI and DXA scans were performed to assess body composition. Through uni- and multivariate analyses, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), visceral fat mass and age were evaluated as predictors of systemic inflammation in relation to menopause. RESULTS: Postmenopausal women tended to have higher leukocyte counts (5.4 x109 vs. 4.9 x109 cells/l, p = 0.05) reflected in increased total lymphocytes (1.8 x109 vs. 1.6 x109 cells/l, p = 0.01) and monocytes (0.5 x109 vs. 0.4 x109 cells/l, p = 0.02), compared to premenopausal women. Increased visceral fat mass was a strong predictor of high leukocyte subsets. Postmenopausal women had higher plasma TNF-α (2.24 vs. 1.91 pg/ml, p = 0.01) and IL-6 (0.45 vs. 0.33 pg/ml, p = 0.004) compared to premenopausal women and high FSH was a significant predictor of increased plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6. Menopause was further associated with increased T-cells (1,336 vs. 1,128 cells/µl, p = 0.04) reflected in significantly higher counts of exhausted-, senescent-, and memory CD4+ T-cell subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Menopause is associated with increased systemic inflammation as well as exhausted- and senescent T-cells. We suggest, that both increased visceral fat mass and declining sex hormone levels might contribute to postmenopausal systemic inflammation and calls for further large-scale studies to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Pós-Menopausa/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Composição Corporal , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/imunologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/imunologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 97-106, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599024

RESUMO

As important members in steroids related signal pathways, bile acids are very important in regulating substance metabolism and immune homeostasis. However, bile acids are highly cytotoxic, and the excessive accumulation can induce several abnormalities such as cholestatic liver injury. It is known that the bile acid metabolism alters during pregnancy and mostly will not result in pathologies. However, the effect of dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy on bile acid metabolism is still unknown. In this study, pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg.d) or saline from gestation day 9-21, while virgin rats were given the same treatment for 13 days. We found that, physiological pregnancy or dexamethasone exposure during non-pregnancy did not affect maternal serum TBA level and liver function. Nevertheless, dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy increased serum TBA level and accompanied with liver injury. Furthermore, we discovered that the conservation of bile acid homeostasis under pregnancy or dexamethasone exposure was maintained through compensatory pathways. However, dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy tipped the balance of liver bile acid homeostasis by increasing classical synthesis and decreasing efflux and uptake. In addition, dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy also increased serum estrogen level and nuclear receptors mRNA expression levels. Finally, two-way ANOVA analysis showed that dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy could induce or facilitate maternal cholestasis and liver injury by up-regulating ERα and CYP7A1 expression. This study confirmed that dexamethasone exposure during pregnancy was related to maternal intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and should be carefully monitored in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Dexametasona/toxicidade , Animais , Colestase Intra-Hepática , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/biossíntese , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Infusões Subcutâneas , Testes de Função Hepática , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Estrogênicos/biossíntese
15.
Prostate ; 80(11): 895-905, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraprostatic inflammation is an emerging prostate cancer risk factor. Estrogens are pro-inflammatory while androgens are anti-inflammatory. Thus, we investigated whether serum sex steroid hormone concentrations are associated with intraprostatic inflammation to inform mechanistic links among hormones, inflammation, and prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 247 men in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial who had a negative end-of-study biopsy, most (92.7%) performed without clinical indication per trial protocol. Serum estradiol, estrone, and testosterone were previously measured by immunoassay in pooled baseline and Year 3 serum. Free estradiol and free testosterone were calculated. Inflammation was visually assessed (median of three prostate biopsy cores per man). Polytomous or logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of some or all cores inflamed (both vs none) or any core inflamed (vs none) by hormone tertile, adjusting for age, race, and family history. We evaluated effect modification by waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: In all, 51.4% had some and 26.3% had all cores inflamed. Free (P-trend = .11) but not total estradiol was suggestively inversely associated with all cores inflamed. In men with waist circumference greater than or equal to 102 cm (P-trend = .021) and BMI ≥ 27.09 kg/m2 (P-trend = .0037) free estradiol was inversely associated with any core inflamed. Estrone was inversely associated with all cores inflamed (T3: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.95, P-trend = .036). Total (T3: OR = 1.91, 95% CI 0.91-4.02, P-trend = .11) and free (T3: OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.01-4.74, P-trend = .05) testosterone were positively associated with any core inflamed, especially free testosterone in men with waist circumference less than 102 cm (T3: OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.03-12.11, P-trend = .05). CONCLUSIONS: In this first study in men without prostate cancer and irrespective of clinical indication for biopsy, contrary to the hypothesis, circulating estrogens appeared to be inversely associated, especially in heavy men, whereas androgens appeared to be positively associated with intraprostatic inflammation.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Prostatite/sangue , Idoso , Biópsia , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Prostatite/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 128(6): 1533-1538, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327196

RESUMO

In recent months, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sent many countries into crisis. Studies have shown that this virus causes worse outcomes and a higher mortality in men than in women. It has been recognized that sex can affect the immune response to a pathogenic agent, as well as the susceptibility for some respiratory diseases. These different responses in males and females may be related to the actions of sex hormones. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acts as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. The expression of ACE2 is influenced by sex hormones; therefore, we discuss in this article that this could be one of the reasons why COVID-19 is more prevalent in men than in women.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 128(6): 1533-1538, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437244

RESUMO

In recent months, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sent many countries into crisis. Studies have shown that this virus causes worse outcomes and a higher mortality in men than in women. It has been recognized that sex can affect the immune response to a pathogenic agent, as well as the susceptibility for some respiratory diseases. These different responses in males and females may be related to the actions of sex hormones. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acts as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. The expression of ACE2 is influenced by sex hormones; therefore, we discuss in this article that this could be one of the reasons why COVID-19 is more prevalent in men than in women.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(2): 267.e1-267.e6, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an abundance of reports on the surgical techniques for vaginoplasty surgery. However, careful review reveals a paucity of evidence-based data in addition to few reports on outcomes related to all of the varying techniques. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the perioperative adverse events related to vaginoplasty surgery for transgender women and to determine a threshold case number needed to reduce adverse events. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of all women who underwent vaginoplasty surgery for gender affirmation at a tertiary care center. All cases were performed by a single board-certified female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery specialist. Women were included if 6-month outcomes were available. Once patients were identified, perioperative data were collected. Comparisons of adverse events and perioperative outcomes were made between varying threshold case numbers to determine the case number needed to significantly reduce adverse events. An a priori review of the literature was done to determine the incidence of commonly reported adverse events, and these incidences were used as a frame of reference to determine a threshold case number needed to replicate these reported incidence rates. Once this threshold was determined, outcomes were compared between cases performed before and after this threshold. RESULTS: Between December 2015 and March 2019, 76 vaginoplasty surgeries were performed. Six-month outcomes data were available for all patients. Mean age and body mass index of all patients were 41 (±17) years and 27.3 (±5.1) kg/m2, respectively. Median (range) time on hormone therapy preceding surgery was 36 (12-360) months, and 7.9% (6) of patients had undergone previous orchiectomy. Of the patients, 83.4% (71) underwent full-depth vaginoplasty, whereas the remaining patients underwent a zero-depth procedure. Median (range) surgical time was 210 (138-362) minutes. Median (range) follow-up for all patients was 12.5 (6-50) months. The incidence of any intraoperative adverse event was 2.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.1) for all patients, whereas the incidence of any immediate (<30 days) and delayed (>30 days and <6 months) postoperative event was 19% (95% confidence interval, 16.4-22.2) and 25% (95% confidence interval, 22.4-28.4), respectively. Performance of 50 cases was identified to be a threshold that reduced adverse events in both clinically and statistically significant ways. Cases performed after the first 50 cases had lower surgical times (187 (138-224) vs 240 (162-362) minutes, P<.0001), a lower incidence of delayed postoperative adverse events (15.4% vs 36%, P=.007), including a lower incidence of urinary stream abnormalities, introital stenosis, and the need for revision surgery. The incidence of intraoperative and immediate adverse events was not different between the groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence of serious adverse events related to vaginoplasty surgery is low, whereas minor events are common. After a threshold of 50 vaginoplasty surgeries, these events were reduced, including the need for revision surgery.


Assuntos
Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Transtornos Urinários/epidemiologia , Vagina/cirurgia , Vulva/cirurgia , Adulto , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquiectomia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
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