Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 981
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21639, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anabolic steroids are commonly used by athletes, body builders, and young adults to improve muscle strength. Deleterious effects of anabolic steroids on physical health are well-established. Psychiatric aspects are of particular importance and include psychosis, delirium, mania, depression, and aggression. We describe the case of a young gentleman who was managed as a case of androgenic steroid induced delirium. PATIENT CONCERN: A 33-year-old gentleman presented with increased aggression, hostility, and destructive impulses. He was a regular user of testosterone propionate, testosterone cyprionate and trenbolone acetate up to 200 mg daily in injectable form. His mental status examination showed labile effect, flight of ideas and persecutory delusions. Physical examination was positive for atrophic testes. Laboratory results showed a decreased plasma testosterone level of 9.59 nmol/l (10.4-37.4 nmol/l). Sex Hormone Binding Globulin was 23.8 nmol/l (18.3-54.1 nmol/l) and bioavailable testosterone was 5.110 nmol/l (4.36-14.30 nmol/l). DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed as a case of anabolic steroids induced delirium. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME: Patient was treated with regular haloperidol and quetiapine after which his sensorium, speech and behavior improved. He was discharged on haloperidol 7.5 mg and quetiapine 700 mg daily. CONCLUSION: The purpose of this case report is to emphasize on the neuropsychiatric effects and management of anabolic steroids manifested by delirium, increased aggression, hostility, and destructive impulses.


Assuntos
Delírio/induzido quimicamente , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Haloperidol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Fumarato de Quetiapina/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/sangue , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20829, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anabolic steroids are widely administered to patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and are associated with numerous medical complications. To assist with future diagnoses, we report about a young boy with multiple hepatocellular adenomas (HAs) induced by long-term use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) for AA and present a related literature review. PATIENT CONCERN: A 15-year-old boy who was diagnosed with AA in 2011 had been treated with stanozolol (6 mg per day) and ciclosporin A (120-150 mg per day) for almost 4 years. He presented with epigastric pain and fever, and abdominal computed tomography showed a lesion of heterogenous density measuring 13.5 × 13.0 × 8.0 cm in the left hepatic lobe, which was initially misdiagnosed as a liver abscess. DIAGNOSIS: The patient went into hemorrhagic shock twice after invasive manipulation that aimed at diagnosis and was finally diagnosed with HA using fine needle aspiration. INTERVENTIONS: The patient discontinued AAS and only reserved ciclosporin A for AA treatment. OUTCOMES: Follow-up abdominal computed tomography performed 4 years after AAS discontinuation showed obvious regression of the hepatic lesions. CONCLUSION: It is of great importance for hematologists to completely understand that the long-term use of AAS may cause HA, which carries a great risk of hemorrhage and malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Anemia Aplástica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Estanozolol/efeitos adversos , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Hepático/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Estanozolol/uso terapêutico , Congêneres da Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
3.
Quintessence Int ; 51(6): 496-501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080687

RESUMO

Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limiting, inflammatory disease of salivary glands, mainly involving the minor salivary glands in the palate. This lesion can mimic a malignant neoplasm, both clinically and histopathologically, manifesting as a submucosal swelling or as an ulcer of the palate. This report presents a case of an otherwise healthy bodybuilder with anabolic androgenic steroids abuse with bilateral necrotizing sialometaplasia in the palate, and discusses computed tomography findings in the pre-ulceration phase. Literature review revealed another two cases of necrotizing sialometaplasia with preoperative imaging, both performed in the ulceration phase. The importance of radiographic findings as an aid in differential diagnosis is further discussed, as well as the role of possible predisposing factors including anabolic androgenic steroids abuse in the pathogenesis of necrotizing sialometaplasia.


Assuntos
Sialometaplasia Necrosante , Congêneres da Testosterona , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Palato , Glândulas Salivares Menores , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An individual is considered HIV positive when a confirmatory HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test returns positive following an initial reactive antigen/antibody combination screen. Falsely reactive HIV screens have been reported in patients with various concomitant infectious and autoimmune conditions. Falsely positive confirmatory HIV differentiation assays are seen less frequently, but have been observed in cases of pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, and malaria. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 27 year-old man was referred after a reactive ADVIA Centaur® HIV Ag/Ab screen and positive Bio-Rad Geenius™ HIV 1/2 Confirmatory assay, suggesting HIV-1 infection. The patient's HIV viral load was undetectable prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and remained undetectable on subsequent testing after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Both Centaur® and Geenius™ tests were repeated and returned reactive. As this patient was believed to be at low risk of acquiring HIV infection, samples were additionally run on Genscreen™ HIV-1 Ag assay and Fujirebio Inno-LIA™ HIV-1/2 score, with both returning non-reactive. For confirmation, the patient's proviral HIV DNA testing was negative, confirming the initial results as being falsely positive. The patient disclosed that he had been using a variety of anabolic steroids before and during the time of HIV testing. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The erroneous diagnosis of HIV can result in decreased quality of life and adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy if initiated, hence the importance of interpreting the results of HIV testing in the context of an individual patient. This reports suggests a potential association between the use of anabolic steroids and falsely-reactive HIV testing.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/normas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/imunologia , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autoadministração , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Congêneres da Testosterona/imunologia
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(1)2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937628

RESUMO

A 25-year-old man presented generally unwell to the emergency department. Initial assessment identified systemic inflammatory response syndrome markers with an insect bite as a potential source of infection and he was treated for presumed sepsis. Tachycardia persisted and baseline thyroid function testing showed undetectable free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prompting further endocrine investigation. Triiodothyronine (T3) was markedly raised with normal TSH receptor antibodies, and the patient later confessed to supplementary testosterone and T3 use as part of bodybuilding activities. Following counselling, thyroid function normalised and the patient returned to his usual health. This case describes the diagnostic work up in a case of persistent tachycardia caused by T3 supplementation, demonstrating the potential for endocrine supplementation by bodybuilders which may be poorly understood and recognised by clinicians. T3 supplementation should be considered and a thorough drug history obtained in bodybuilders presenting with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis and deranged thyroid function tests.


Assuntos
Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Tireotoxicose/induzido quimicamente , Tri-Iodotironina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Atletas , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Congêneres da Testosterona , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Levantamento de Peso
6.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(1): 72-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072272

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in anthropometric measures and muscle performance in users and non-users of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) performing resistance training (RT) programmes involving only multiple joint (MJ) exercises or a combination of MJ and single joint (SJ) exercises. Thirty recreational bodybuilders were divided into 4 groups: non-AAS users performing only MJ exercises (MJ), non-AAS users performing MJ + SJ (MJ + SJ), AAS users performing only MJ exercises (AAS - MJ) and AAS users performing MJ + SJ exercises (AAS - MJ + SJ). Before and after 8 weeks of training, the participants were tested for 10 repetition maximum (10RM) in different RT exercises. Flexed arm circumference (FAC), biceps and triceps skinfolds were measured. No interactions were found between time and the performance of SJ exercise in any variable (p > .05). However, there was a significant interaction between AAS use and time (p < .001), such that AAS users showed greater 10RM gains in all exercises, skinfold decreases and increases in FAC than non-users. In conclusion, our study shows that the addition of SJ exercises to MJ exercises brings no additional benefit in terms of muscle performance and anthropometric changes in trained men, either if they were using AAS or not. These results suggest that trained men can save time not including SJ in their routines and still achieve optimal results. Moreover, our results show that AAS use is associated with greater increases in muscle strength and FAC and greater reductions in biceps and triceps skinfold thickness.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110927, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678484

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to examine the influence of dietary canola oil (CAN) and partially-hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO) compared to soybean oil (SOY, control) on the morphology and function of testes using miniature pigs as the test subject. Male miniature pigs were fed a diet containing 10%SOY, 9%CAN+1%SOY, or 9%HSO+1%SOY for 18 months. The scheduled autopsies revealed no abnormalities in histopathological examination of the major organs, except the testes. Atrophy of the seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia in the Leydig cells were found in the SOY and CAN groups. DNA microarray analysis indicated downregulation in the CAN and the HSO groups of genes encoding for gonadotropins in the pituitary gland and of enzymes and proteins involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the testes, compared to the SOY group. Plasma levels of sex hormones in the CAN and HSO groups tended to be higher and testosterone and dihydrotestosteorne in the HSO group were significantly higher than in the SOY group. These results demonstrate that testes are morphologically and functionally affected by the dietary oils, while the plasma steroid hormone levels do not necessarily reflect the gene expression, probably owing to feedback regulation via the gonadal hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.


Assuntos
Óleo de Brassica napus/toxicidade , Óleo de Soja/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Congêneres da Testosterona/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1650, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To verify the prevalence and profile of users and non-users of anabolic steroid (AS) among resistance training practitioners. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional survey was performed in 100 gyms in Curitiba city, involving 5773 individuals and self-administered questionnaires. The chi-square and z-tests of proportions were used for comparison between the groups (p < 0.05). RESULTS: 83.2% did not use, 9.1% formerly used, 3.4% currently used, and 4.3% intended used AS. The prevalence of former or current AS users was 16.9 and 6.5% among men and women, respectively. The prevalence ratios were as follows: 1) 2.6 male users for each woman; 2) 3.3 individuals aged 30-44 years and 2.8 individuals aged 18-29 years for each individual aged over 45 years. Beginners were not interested in using AS, but individuals who had trained longer had higher prevalence of AS use. CONCLUSIONS: The gym environment encouraged the use of AS owing to aesthetic appeal. Thus, suggesting the need for actions to prevent abusive use of AS considering the practitioners profile (practitioners were young, university and single).


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/administração & dosagem , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874100

RESUMO

Background Youth population has a common tendency to use androgenic steroids. The reasons for such abuse vary from performance enhancement to muscle building in order to enhance physical appearance. Such rampant abuse, aided by fitness centers and gym trainers, has a huge risk of side effects such as hepatic dysfunctions and increased risk of infections. Case presentation We report a case of 21-year-old man who started with anabolic steroids, namely testosterone enanthate, nandrolone decanoate and boldenone undecylenate injections, for the purpose of muscle building and strength training at his fitness center. He presented to his family physician after 2 months with upper neck swelling on right side 5 × 4 cm for 15-20 days. He was started on Augmentin 625 mg tablet three times a day for 7 days. On seventh day, swelling persisted, and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed, which was suggestive of granulomatous lesion likely to be tuberculosis. The patient was started with anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) under category A, but swelling did not improve and repeated FNAC was advised. The ATT was withheld and Augmentin tablet was restarted for another 3 days. A revised diagnosis of acute suppurative lymphadenitis was made, and an incision and drainage of the abscess was performed. The patient was started on Amikacin 500 intramuscular injection for 5 days along with faropenem and cefuroxime axetil tablets for 14 days. He initially started recovering but returned with pustular discharge from the incision mark. It was decided to reinitiate the ATT-intensive phase medication for another 2 months. The patient finally recovered with complete healing of the wound. The frequent change of treating physician and misuse of antimicrobials made the diagnosis tougher, contributing to delay in the optimum therapy. Conclusion This case highlights the abuse of multiple steroids together in the form of stacking by a young adult, which leads to a rare serious adverse effect such as suspected tubercular reactivation.


Assuntos
Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Congêneres da Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(28): 7563-7571, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641821

RESUMO

Detecting the administration of naturally occurring but synthetically derived steroids (e.g., testosterone) in routine doping controls is particularly laborious and time-consuming. Carbon isotope signatures determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) have been established as the method of choice to generate confirmatory evidence in case of suspicious or atypical findings in steroid profile analyses; however, IRMS measurements require sophisticated sample preparation methods employing up to two high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification steps. Here, an alternative sample preparation approach is presented. Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) was employed to reduce the batch analysis time by omitting the time-consuming HPLC purification steps, while pre- and post-IAC sample handling followed published protocols. IAC exploits specific antibody-immunogen interactions, and the option of combining three immunoaffinity gels containing specific antibodies for testosterone, pregnanediol, and 11-ketoetiocholanolone into a multi-immunoaffinity sample preparation approach was assessed. Due to cross reactivities, also etiocholanolone, androsterone, 5ß-androstanediol, and 5α-androstanediol were co-extracted and included in the testing protocol. The method was validated by determining precision, recovery, and carry over, and performing linear mixing models. IAC was found to be applicable to the determination of carbon isotope ratios in doping controls and the approach allowed for an accelerated sample preparation. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Doping nos Esportes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Congêneres da Testosterona/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Isótopos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Neth J Med ; 77(7): 261-263, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582578
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(18): 2229-2236, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) represents a group of synthetic testosterone derivatives that play an important role in clinical treatment. These drugs are widely abused among the general public to increase lean weight and improve athletic performance. It has been reported that AAS use can produce many adverse effects, especially the occurrence of cardiovascular risk. Although there are many related studies, there has been no consensus on AAS use and cardiovascular risk. The present study was to review the effect of AAS on the cardiovascular system. DATA SOURCES: The data in this review were obtained from articles included in PubMed and the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. STUDY SELECTION: Original articles, case reports, and systematic reviews about AAS were selected for the article. RESULTS: The use/abuse of AAS is correlated with higher cardiovascular risks, and many AAS users/abusers had cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many confounding factors in the studies that explored the causality between AAS intake and disease development, and additional studies are required to determine AAS toxicity. CONCLUSION: AAS produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system, and it is necessary to ensure that more people know this about AAS, including medical personnel.


Assuntos
Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente
16.
J Sep Sci ; 42(21): 3319-3329, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483092

RESUMO

For the detection of 19 steroid hormones in bovine muscle, a fast and sensitive liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed using both positive and negative ionization mode. Chromatographic separation on Poroshell 120-EC C18 column was achieved in less than 10 min using isocratic elution of mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water. The compounds were extracted from muscle tissue using ethyl acetate and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe technique. The purification of the obtained extract was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction with sorbents C18, primary secondary amine and magnesium sulphate. The method was validated in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. For all steroids tested good recoveries were obtained (from 51.2 to 121.4%) in the concentration range from decision limits until 5 µg/kg. The values of decision limits and the detection capabilities for individual compounds were in the range 0.10-0.48 and 0.17-0.95 µg/kg, respectively. The method was characterized by satisfactory linearity for most compounds (correlation coefficients   > 0.99) and the reproducibility was lower than 35%. The elaborated procedure has met the criteria for confirmatory methods and is currently used in the official control of hormones.


Assuntos
Músculos/química , Congêneres da Testosterona/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 97(12): 1185-1192, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505126

RESUMO

Several studies have reported that high doses of synthetic anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can have serious negative effects on health, including the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of AAS and exercise training on ventricular repolarization and cardiac autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were allocated into 4 groups: sedentary rats treated with vehicle, sedentary rats treated with nandrolone decanoate, swimming-trained rats treated with vehicle, and swimming-trained rats treated with nandrolone decanoate. Ventricular repolarization was evaluated by electrocardiographic analysis of QT interval and QT dispersion. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed by heart rate variability. Our results show that AAS increased QT interval and QT dispersion in sedentary rats treated with nandrolone decanoate as compared to sedentary rats treated with vehicle, indicating AAS-induced ventricular repolarization abnormalities. When rats treated with nandrolone decanoate were subjected to concomitant exercise training, ventricular repolarization was normalized. On the other hand, AAS-induced reduction in cardiac parasympathetic modulation was not prevented by exercise training. In conclusion, AAS produced cardiac autonomic dysfunction and ventricular repolarization disturbances in rats. Combining an exercise training protocol during the AAS treatment attenuated the ventricular repolarization abnormalities and did not prevent cardiac autonomic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/inervação , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Congêneres da Testosterona/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 203: 92-97, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) has been associated with increased aggressiveness and violent behavior. We therefore investigated the proposed correlation between the use of AAS and criminality while controlling for important socio-economics covariates and for psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: The primary endpoints were prison sentences, and time to first prison sentence. A retrospective matched cohort study design consisting of 545 males, who tested positive for AAS in Danish gyms during the period January 3, 2006 to January 31, 2017. They were matched with 5450 randomly chosen male controls. Data were cross-referenced with national register information on education, employment status, substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity. In addition, 638 males sanctioned because they rejected to participate in the doping control and 6380 controls were used as a replication cohort. RESULTS: Already at baseline, 20.6% of the AAS users had a previous prison sentence whereas the rate was 3.7% in the control cohort (p < 0.0001). During the follow-up period the cumulative prevalence increased to 29.5% and 4.9%, respectively (unadjusted HR 9.15, 95% CI 6.33-13.20). The associations remained highly significant after controlling for socio-economic factors, drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidity. The results could be replicated in a similar cohort. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that AAS users have a 9-fold increased risk of being convicted of a crime compared to matched controls, randomly chosen from the general population. This association could not be explained by common socioeconomic factors or by psychiatric comorbidity.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Crime/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Crime/tendências , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1024, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since there is a paucity of research on support for people using Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS), we aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence in this field. Gaining an understanding of the support both accessed and wanted by recreational AAS users will be of use to professionals who provide services to intravenous substance users and also to those working in the fields of public health and social care, with the aim to increase engagement of those using AAS. METHODS: A systematic scoping review of the literature to explore and identify the nature and scope of information and support both accessed and wanted by non-prescribed AAS users. Any support services or information designed to help people who use AAS were considered. RESULTS: We identified 23 papers and one report for review, which indicated that AAS users access a range of sources of information on: how to inject, substance effectiveness, dosages and side effects, suggesting this is the type of information users want. AAS users sought support from a range of sources including medical professionals, needle and syringe programmes, friends, dealers, and via the internet, suggesting that, different sources were used dependent on the information or support sought. DISCUSSION: AAS users tended to prefer peer advice and support over that of professionals, and access information online via specialist forums, reflecting the stigma that is experienced by AAS users. These tendencies can act as barriers to accessing services provided by professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Support needs to be specific and targeted towards AAS users. Sensitivity to their perceptions of their drug-use and the associated stigma of being classified in the same sub-set as other illicit drug users is relevant to facilitating successful engagement.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/administração & dosagem , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Humanos
20.
Body Image ; 30: 165-169, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374390

RESUMO

Latino sexual minority men (SMM) have elevated anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse in comparison to their heterosexual and non-Latino peers. Within a gender role framework, desire to present as masculine through heightened muscularity may be related to increased AAS misuse. To assess the association between AAS misuse and a culturally-distinct masculinity, this study examined the relationship of two aspects of machismo, traditional machismo and caballerismo, with AAS misuse in the past month. Participants were 141 young adult Latino SMM recruited from the San Diego area. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire online in English or Spanish, which included measures of machismo and AAS misuse. Out of 141 participants, 27 reported AAS misuse (19.1%). Traditional machismo was positively associated with AAS misuse and caballerismo was negatively associated with AAS misuse. Traditional machismo, which emphasizes dominance, may be positively associated with AAS misuse due to its facilitation of muscle development, which could enable physical intimidation; greater musculature may also counteract assumptions about femininity and sexual orientation. Caballerismo may be negatively associated with AAS by providing a flexible masculinity model that emphasizes social cohesion over dominance. Future AAS misuse interventions could include values-based work and cognitive restructuring of masculinity schemas.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Masculinidade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Congêneres da Testosterona , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA