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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(3): 95-105, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530258

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Association of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and pituitary stalk thickening (PST) may have several etiologies (including malignancies) and differential diagnosis remains often difficult. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify which clinical, biochemical or radiological features could help clinicians to make an etiological diagnosis, especially distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions. DESIGNS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological data of 38 adult patients diagnosed with CDI and PST of proven etiology. RESULTS: Of the 38 pituitary stalk lesions included, 11 (29%) were neoplastic. A histopathological diagnosis was obtained in 22/38 (58%) patients. The three most frequently observed etiologies of PST were neuroinfundibulitis (34%), germinoma (21%) and histiocytosis (18%). Pituitary stalk thickness was larger for neoplastic lesions, particularly germinomas. Male gender and a very young age were statistically associated with a risk of germinoma. At least one anterior pituitary deficit was observed in nearly 60% of patients. Patients with neoplastic PST were more affected by multiple anterior pituitary dysfunction than patients with benign PST. A high serum prolactin level was individually the best predictor of a neoplastic origin (90% sensitivity and 60% specificity for a serum prolactin level 1.27-fold above the normal upper limit (ULN)). CONCLUSION: We confirm a relatively high risk of malignancy in adult patients presenting with the association of CDI and PST. Young age, male gender, a very large thickening of the stalk, multiple anterior pituitary deficits and prolactin above 1.3× ULN increase the likelihood of a neoplastic origin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/patologia , Doenças da Hipófise/patologia , Hipófise/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Germinoma/complicações , Germinoma/patologia , Histiocitose/complicações , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Adeno-Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Adeno-Hipófise/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolactina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Wiad Lek ; 73(3): 504-507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Determine the possible relationship between prolactin levels and the results of Holter monitoring in patients with stable angina of tension and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study included 118 patients with stable angina of tension of I-II functional class. Of these, 88 patients with stable angina of tension with comorbid GERD (A, B, C), who were included in the second group of the study and 30 patients with isolated stable angina of tension which formed the 1st group. All patients who were included in the study prior to treatment were evaluated for serum prolactin levels and Holter monitoring. RESULTS: Results: In patients with stable angina of tension and GERD, prolactin levels exceed the norm levels and are higher than the level of prolactin in the group with isolated stable angina (p<0,05), as well as the number of episodes of painful and painless myocardial ischemia and their duration (p<0,05). The presence of a comorbidity with GERD provokes an increase in the total duration of episodes of ischemia per day in patients with stable angina compared to those in patients with no GERD. A direct linear relationship was founded between prolactin serum levels and the number of episodes of pain in myocardial ischemia in patients with stable angina and GERD per day, and between the total duration of episodes of myocardial ischemia and prolactin levels. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In patients with stable angina and GERD, in 70.4% of cases, the level of prolactin exceeds the norm in 2,6 times, and is higher than the level of prolactin in the isolated group of stable angina. For the comorbidity of stable angina and GERD, the number of episodes of painful, painless myocardial ischemia and their duration is more than once in the group of patients with stable angina without GERD (p<0.05).


Assuntos
Angina Estável , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Humanos , Prolactina
4.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 011003, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063733

RESUMO

Introduction: This case report is about the importance of sleeping status for analysis of thyroid hormone stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) which arose from discordant results of a patient who was referred for serum TSH and PRL testing within 12-hour period after an intercontinental flight. Case description: An adult male patient was admitted to our laboratory for serum TSH and PRL tests and came back questioning the accuracy of his previous results. Further investigations: A new analysis with a new sample was offered. His new results were not consistent with his previous results. What happened: It was revealed that the night before the first sampling, he travelled back to Turkey from The United States of America and came to testing within 12 hours after the arrival. Discussion: Sleeping status is one of the factors that can affect laboratory results. Intercontinental flights causing jet-lag can alter the secretions of TSH and PRL which are predominantly modulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Main lesson: Travel history and sleeping status are important factors to be evaluated prior sampling for hormone analysis. Patients must be informed about the importance of sampling timing.


Assuntos
Prolactina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of edaravone on depression relief in symptomatic patients with intracranial stenosis and its relationship with the expression of sex hormones. METHODS: We recruited 112 patients with symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis from Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, between October 2014 and October 2017. All patients were divided into the traditional or experimental (traditional treatment + intravenous infusion of edaravone 30 mg twice a day for 14 days) treatment groups. The general clinical data were collected, and neurological functional recovery using the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used to assess the general psychological changes of the patient, followed by the 24 Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) to examine the incidence of post-stroke depression (PSD). This divided the patients into the mild, moderate, and severe depression groups. Next, we measured the serum protein expression of the sex hormones estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), and luteinizing hormone (LH). RESULTS: The mRS and NIHSS scores were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P < .05). There was no significant difference in SCL90 score before intervention (P > .05); the scores were significantly lower in the experimental group after intervention (P < .05). There was a significant difference in SCL-90 and HAMD scores between groups before treatment (P < .05), with significantly lower scores in the experimental group post-treatment (P < .05). The incidence of depression was significantly reduced in the experimental group post-treatment. Furthermore, the expression of E2 and FSH was significantly higher (P < .01) and lower (P < .001), respectively, in women than in men in the experimental group post-treatment. Interestingly, the expression of T was significantly lower in men in the experimental group post-treatment (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Edaravone significantly improved the clinical efficacy of stent implantation in intracranial artery stenosis treatment by alleviating depression and reducing the incidence of PSD.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/terapia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Edaravone/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Stents , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolactina/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Testosterona/sangue
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medication, stress, gender, and age are factors that influence prolactin levels in patients with psychosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of prolactin response to antipsychotic treatment in acute patients, taking into account the total duration of psychosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 170 acute patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder. Subjects were divided into three subgroups according to the duration of the psychosis (less than 5 years, between 5 and 10 years and more than 10 years of disorder duration). The initial prolactin response under antipsychotic treatment was measured, while the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was assessed with the BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale). Hyperprolactinemia was found in 120 (70.6%) patients, amongst which 80 (66.7%) were females and 40 (33.3%) were males. The average increase in prolactinemia was 2.46 times the maximum value in women, and 1.59 times in men. Gender (ß = 0.27, p<0.0001), type of antipsychotic medication according to potency of inducing hyperprolactinemia (ß = -0.23, p<0.003), and the duration of psychosis over 10 years (ß = -0.15, p = 0.04) significantly predicted prolactin levels, when age, diagnosis, antipsychotic category (conventional/atypical/combinations of antipsychotics), and BPRS total scores were controlled for. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prolactin levels in patients treated with antipsychotic medication appeared to depend on patients' gender, on the type of antipsychotic medication according to potency of inducing hyperprolactinemia, and on the duration of the psychosis. An increase in prolactin levels was associated with female gender, while the use of prolactin sparing antipsychotics and a duration of psychosis over 10 years were associated with lower prolactin levels.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Hiperprolactinemia/etiologia , Prolactina/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/diagnóstico , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olanzapina/efeitos adversos , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Prolactina/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 28-33, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074187

RESUMO

METHODS: Prolactin (PRL) secreting adenomas are associated with high incidence of headache. The role of hyperprolactinemia in the headache context is not clear, nor is the effect of its treatment on headache. The present longitudinal study evaluated hyperprolactinemic patients (69), in terms of presence and characteristics of headache before and after hyperprolactinemia treatment. RESULTS: Headache was reported by 45 (65.2%) patients, independent of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. The migraine phenotype was the most prevalent (66.6%). Medications used in the treatment of headache not changed during the study. The first line of treatment of hyperprolactinemia was dopaminergic agonists. In the last reevaluation, PRL level under treatment was within the reference range in 54.7% of the cases, and it was observed complete or partial resolution of the headache in 75% of the cases. The median PRL at this time in patients with complete headache resolution was 17 ng/mL, in those who reported partial recovery was 21 ng/mL, and in those in whom the headache did not change was 66 ng/mL, with a significant difference between the group with complete headache resolution vs. the group with unchanged headache (p=0.022). In the cases with complete headache resolution, the median fall on PRL levels was 89% and in those cases with partial headache resolution 86%, both significantly different (p<0.001) from the fall in the cases with an unchanged headache. CONCLUSION: Data allow us to conclude that, in this series, in the majority of cases the reduction in the level of PRL was followe3d by cessation or relief of the pain.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/sangue , Cefaleia/prevenção & controle , Hiperprolactinemia/terapia , Prolactina/sangue , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/terapia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(2): E297-E309, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770013

RESUMO

As a model of extreme conditions, eight healthy women, part of a 40-member Nepal mountain-climbing expedition, were monitored for dynamic endocrine adaptations. Endocrine measurements were made at frequent intervals over a 6-10-h period at four altitudes: 450 m, 4,800 m (base camp), 6,050 m, and again at 4,800 m (on descent) after an acclimatization (A) period (4,800 mA). Quantified hormones were growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PROL), cortisol (Cort), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and free thyroxine. These hormones are important to the anabolic/catabolic balance of the body, and are vital to growth, homeostasis, hypothalamic inhibition, regulation of stress, and metabolism. A key secondary question was the degree to which acclimatization can stabilize hormonal disruption. On the basis of statistical false discovery rates, the present analyses unveil marked adaptive changes in the thyroid axis at the level of pulsatile secretion of the pituitary hormone TSH and its downstream product, free thyroxine; strong effects on the mass of GH, TSH, Cort, and PROL secretion per burst; and prominent pulsatile frequency disruption and recovery for PROL and Cort. Because pulsatility changes reflect de facto perturbations in hypothalamo-pituitary control mechanisms, the present data introduce the concept of both frequency- and amplitude-dependent adaptive control of brain-pituitary neuroendocrine signals under conditions of extreme altitude exertion and exposure.


Assuntos
Altitude , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Montanhismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Prolactina/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(2): 177-183, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770105

RESUMO

Objective: The association between prolactin level variation and prolactinoma size reduction remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prolactin level cut-off predictive of a tumor size reduction. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We reviewed medical records of patients with prolactinoma who received primary cabergoline therapy and for whom complete data on pituitary hormone assays and sellar MRI at baseline and 3 months post treatment were available. We tested whether the certain prolactin level after 3 months post treatment predicted better response. Results: Prolactin levels normalized in 109 (88.6%) of 123 included macroprolactinoma patients. The mean tumor size reduction was 22.9%, and patients in the lowest prolactin tertile (≤0.7) had the highest frequency of tumor size reductions of ≥20% (73.7 vs 52.9% and 45.9% in tertiles 2 (>0.7 to 2.6) and 3 (>2.6 to 20), P = 0.015). Patients with prolactin levels ≤1 ng/mL exhibited larger tumor size reductions vs those with prolactin levels of 1-20 (27.2 ± 18.3% vs 19.5 ± 13.9%, P = 0.014), 1-10 (19.3 ± 13.7%, P = 0.017) and 1-5 ng/mL (19.2 ± 14.3%, P = 0.039). A multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a prolactin level ≤1 ng/mL at 3 months and high-dose cabergoline therapy were significantly associated with tumor size reductions of ≥20% (odds ratio (OR): 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-6.7, P = 0.017; OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0-3.9, P = 0.043). Conclusions: A prolactin level ≤1 ng/mL at 3 months after cabergoline treatment was correlated with a significant tumor size reduction in patients with macroprolactinoma. This finding may help clinical decision making when treating macroprolactinoma patients.


Assuntos
Cabergolina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/sangue , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Prolactina/sangue , Prolactinoma/sangue , Prolactinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Prolactinoma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(4): 376.e1-376.e17, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decidualization defects in the endometrium have been demonstrated at the time of delivery in women with severe preeclampsia and to linger for years, which suggests a maternal contribution to the pathogenesis of this condition. Global transcriptional profiling reveals alterations in gene expression, which includes down-regulation of Annexin A2 in severe preeclampsia patients with decidualization resistance. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the functional role of Annexin A2 deficiency during endometrial decidualization and its potential contribution to shallow trophoblast invasion during implantation and subsequent placentation using in vitro and in vivo modeling. STUDY DESIGN: Annexin A2 gene and protein levels were assessed during in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells isolated from biopsy specimens that were collected from women with previous severe preeclampsia (n=5) or normal obstetric outcomes (n=5). Next, Annexin A2 was inhibited with small interference RNA in control human endometrial stromal cells that were isolated from endometrial biopsy specimens (n=15) as an in vitro model to analyze decidualization defects at the morphologic level and the secretion of prolactin and insulin-like growth binding protein-1. Annexin A2-inhibited cells were used to evaluate motility and promotion of embryo invasion. Decidualization and placentation defects of Annexin A2 deficiency were confirmed with the use of an Annexin A2-null mouse model. RESULTS: Annexin A2 gene and protein levels were down-regulated during in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells from women with previous severe preeclampsia compared with control individuals. To assess its role in the endometrial stroma, we inhibited Annexin A2 expression and detected decidualization failure as evidenced by impaired morphologic transformation, which was associated with altered actin polymerization and low prolactin and insulin-like growth binding protein-1 secretions. Functionally, in vitro models demonstrated that Annexin A2 inhibition failed to support embryo invasion. This finding was corroborated by reduced trophoblast spreading through human endometrial stromal cells, lack of motility of these cells, and reduced trophoblast invasion in the presence of conditioned media from Annexin A2-inhibited cells. Extending our discovery to an animal model, we detected that Annexin A2-null mice have a functional deficiency in decidualization and placentation that impairs fetal growth as a feature that is associated with severe preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Together, in vitro and in vivo results suggest that endometrial defects in Annexin A2 expression impair decidualization of endometrial stromal cells as well as the uterine microenvironment that promotes embryo implantation and placentation. Our findings highlight the maternal contribution to the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia and suggest that evaluation of Annexin A2 may provide a novel strategy to assess a woman's risk of experiencing this disease and perhaps discover therapeutic interventions to improve decidualization.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/genética , Anexina A2/metabolismo , Decídua/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A2/antagonistas & inibidores , Anexina A2/deficiência , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Decídua/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Placentação/genética , Gravidez , Prolactina/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Células Estromais , Trofoblastos/fisiologia
11.
Animal ; 14(2): 330-338, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337460

RESUMO

Calcium homeostasis is crucial for the normal function of the organism. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and calcitonin play critical roles in the homeostatic regulation of calcium. Serotonin and prolactin have also been shown to be involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. In modern dairy cows, the endocrine pathways controlling calcium homeostasis during non-lactating and non-pregnant physiological states are unable to fully support the increased demand of calcium required for milk synthesis at the onset of lactation. This review describes different endocrine systems associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis in mammalian species around parturition with special focus on dairy cows. Additionally, classic and novel strategies to reduce the incidence of hypocalcemia in parturient dairy cows are discussed.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Homeostase , Hipocalcemia/metabolismo , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Parto , Gravidez , Prolactina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo
12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(2): 216-223, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sex hormones have been hypothesized to explain the strong male predominance in esophageal adenocarcinoma, but evidence is needed. This study examined how circulating sex hormone levels influence future risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This case-control study was nested in a prospective Norwegian cohort (Janus Serum Bank Cohort), including 244 male patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma and 244 male age-matched control participants. Associations between prediagnostic circulating levels of 12 sex hormones and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma were assessed using conditional logistic regression. In addition, a random-effect meta-analysis combined these data with a similar prospective study for 5 sex hormones. RESULTS: Decreased odds ratios (ORs) of esophageal adenocarcinoma were found comparing the highest with lowest quartiles of testosterone (OR = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.88), testosterone:estradiol ratio (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72), and luteinizing hormone (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.98), after adjustment for tobacco smoking and physical activity. These associations were attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.27-1.13 for testosterone; OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.91 for testosterone:estradiol ratio; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.08 for luteinizing hormone). No associations were observed for sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-OH progesterone, progesterone, androstenedione, or free testosterone index. The meta-analysis showed an inverse association between testosterone levels and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (pooled OR for the highest vs lowest quartile = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.97), whereas no associations were identified for androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol, or testosterone:estradiol ratio. DISCUSSION: Higher circulating testosterone levels may decrease the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Progesterona/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/metabolismo
13.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(1): 33-39, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image in women with prolactinoma. METHODS: Body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image were evaluated in 80 women with prolactinoma. All patients were in menacme, 34% had normal body mass index (BMI), and 66% were overweight. Most patients (56.2%) had normal prolactin (PRL) levels and no hyperprolactinemia symptoms (52.5%). The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to assess the patients' dissatisfaction with and concern about their physical form, and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) was used to assess body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image. The patients were divided according to PRL level (normal vs. elevated) and the presence or absence of prolactinoma symptoms. RESULTS: The normal and elevated PRL groups had similar incidences of body dissatisfaction and distorted body self-image. However, symptomatic patients reported a higher incidence of dissatisfaction than asymptomatic patients. Distorted body self-image was less common among symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic patients showed higher body dissatisfaction, but lower body self-image distortion. The presence of symptoms may have been responsible for increased body awareness. The perception of body shape could have triggered feelings of dissatisfaction compared to an ideal lean body. Therefore, a distorted body self-image might not necessarily result in body dissatisfaction in women with prolactinomas.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Hiperprolactinemia/psicologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/psicologia , Prolactinoma/psicologia , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/sangue , Hiperprolactinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Prolactinoma/sangue , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(1): E62-E71, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794265

RESUMO

Bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist originally used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, is largely successful in reducing hyperglycemia and improving glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetics. However, the mechanism behind bromocriptine's effect on glucose intolerance is unclear. Here, we tested three hypotheses, that bromocriptine may exert its effects on glucose metabolism by 1) decreasing prolactin secretion, 2) indirectly increasing activity of key melanocortin receptors in the central nervous system, or 3) improving/restoring circadian rhythms. Using a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model, we established that a 2-wk treatment of bromocriptine is robustly effective at improving glucose tolerance. We then demonstrated that bromocriptine is effective at improving the glucose tolerance of both DIO prolactin-deficient and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R)-deficient mice, pointing to bromocriptine's ability to affect glucose tolerance independently of prolactin or MC4R signaling. Finally, we tested bromocriptine's dependence on the circadian system by testing its effectiveness in environmental (e.g., repeated shifts to the light-dark cycle) and genetic (e.g., the Clock mutant mouse) models of circadian disruption. In both models of circadian disruption, bromocriptine was effective at improving glucose tolerance, indicating that a functional or well-aligned endogenous clock is not necessary for bromocriptine's effects on glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results do not support the role of prolactin, MC4R, or the circadian clock as integral to bromocriptine's underlying mechanism. Instead, we find that bromocriptine is a robust diabetic treatment and resilient to genetically induced obesity, diabetes, and circadian disruption.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Prolactina/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110069, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841894

RESUMO

Carbon disulfide (CS2) is regarded as a common occupational poison that is widely used in the textile industry in China. Our previous research suggests that CS2 can induce significant implantation disorders in pregnant mice; however, the specific mechanism remains unclear. Uterine conception in mice must undergo decidualization, which is the prerequisite for propitious blastocyst implantation into the endometrium. Therefore, in this study, we established models of pregnant mice to explore the toxic effects of CS2 on decidualization to elucidate the basic mechanism of implantation disorder after CS2 exposure. The uterine tissues were immediately collected according to the predetermined endpoints to measure the expression levels of IGFBP1 and PRL (markers of decidualization differentiation), IL-11 (representing the secretory function of decidual cells), AKT and pAKT by western blotting, RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining, H&E staining and ELISA. N-carbamoyl glutamic acid (NCG) acted as an agonist of AKT to verify the upstream regulatory mechanism of decidualization disorder by CS2. The results showed that the normal reaction of decidual transformation was obviously disrupted by CS2 upon 3.5 dpc and 4.5 dpc exposure. The blastocyst did not adhere to the epithelium after 3.5 dpc-exposure and did not invade the endometrium after 4.5 dpc-exposure, resulting in its suspension in the uterine cavity, stagnation and eventual loss. The proteins expression levels were decreased by 95.2% for IGFBP1 and 76.2% for PRL at the 4.5 dpc endpoint after 3.5 dpc CS2 exposure compared with the control. Simultaneously, the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-11 in uterine tissues were significantly reduced by CS2, and consistent decreasing trends over time were observed for IGFBP1 and PRL, compared with the control. Additionally, the ratio of pAKT/AKT protein expression was decreased by 72.2% and 94.8% at 12 h and 18 h after 3.5 dpc exposure and by 53.3% and 74.3% at 6 h and 12 h after 4.5 dpc exposure, respectively, compared with the corresponding controls. Furthermore, NCG could recover the IGFBP1 and PRL protein expression, which was increased by 27.5% and 52.3% at 4.5 dpc and 6.5 dpc, respectively, after 3.5 dpc exposure for IGFBP1 and by 30.3% at 6.5 dpc after 4.5 dpc exposure for PRL, compared with CS2 exposure alone. Collectively, this study suggested that the decidualization disorder caused by CS2 at the window of implantation in pregnant mice, which is triggered by pAKT, contributed to the implantation disorder and eventually led to embryo loss. It is worth noting that our study may provide a new perspective and reference for exploring the toxic mechanism of implantation disorder and even infertility in harmful circumstances.


Assuntos
Dissulfeto de Carbono/toxicidade , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Endométrio/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/genética , Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Camundongos , Gravidez , Prolactina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1969-1981, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864734

RESUMO

Eleven mid-lactation Holstein cows were milked twice daily during the first 2 experimental weeks. During wk 3 to 10, the cows were differentially milked: right quarters were milked thrice daily (3×) and left quarters were milked once daily (1×). During wk 11 to 14, all quarters were milked twice daily. After 4 wk of differential milking, the cows received daily i.m. injections of the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOMP; 300 mg; n = 6) or of dimethyl sulfoxide as the control (CTL; n = 5) for 8 wk (wk 7-14). During the differential milking period (wk 3-6), milk production was greater for quarters milked 3× than for those milked 1× but did not differ between DOMP and CTL cows. During the differential milking + injection period (wk 7-10), milk production continued to differ according to milking frequency. However, DOMP injection did not have an effect or interact with milking frequency on milk production. During the injection period (wk 11-14), milk production remained greater in the quarters previously milked 3× and milk production increased in DOMP injected cows but not in CTL cows. Injections of DOMP increased prolactin concentration, which was greater in the serum of DOMP cows than in that of CTL cows during the differential milking + injection and the injection periods. The expression of genes that are directly related to milk synthesis (CSN2, LALBA, and ACACA) was greater in the 3× quarters than in the 1× quarters. In addition, DOMP increased CSN2 expression during the injection period. The expression of both isoforms of the PRLR gene was greater in the 3× quarters during the differential milking + injection and the injection periods. At the protein level, injections of DOMP tended to increase the number of long PRLR isoform during the differential milking + injection period. The number of short PRLR isoform was greater in the 1× quarters than in the 3× quarters during the differential milking, the differential milking + injection, and the injection periods. The total amount of STAT3 protein was greater in the 1× quarters during the differential milking and the differential milking + injection periods. The amount of phosphorylated STAT3 protein was greater in the 1× quarters during the differential milking period. The total amount of phosphorylated STAT5 protein was greater in the 3× quarters during the differential milking and the differential milking + injection periods. The results of this experiment support the hypothesis that the responsiveness of the mammary gland to PRL is modulated by milking frequency, although the underlying mechanism remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Domperidona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Prolactina/sangue , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/química , Fosforilação , Prolactina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Serotonina/análise , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850497

RESUMO

Fescue toxicosis is problematic for growing steers, causing lower DMI and productivity when fed endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue. A complete understanding of underlying mechanisms of how fescue toxicosis affects growing steers is lacking. Therefore, the overall objective of this multiexperiment study was to determine whether ruminally dosed ergovaline (ERV) affects rumen motility, rumen contents, and eating patterns. In Exp. 1, an 8-h period to assess ruminal motility began 4 h after feeding by monitoring pressure changes using a wireless system for 21 d. Eight ruminally cannulated steers (283 kg BW) were pair fed with alfalfa cubes (1.5 × NEm) and assigned to endophyte free (E-; 0 µg ERV/kg BW/d) or E+ treatment (20 µg ERV/kg BW/d). Overall, E+ steers had more frequent rumen contractions (Seed P = 0.05 and day of feeding P = 0.02). On days 7 to 9, both treatments showed lower frequencies and E- steers had greater amplitude of contractions (P < 0.001) that corresponded with decreased DMI. In Exp. 2, steers remained in pairs assigned in Exp. 1 (322 kg BW), but reversed seed treatments while increasing ERV levels (titrated 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg ERV/kg BW/d over 57 d). There were no differences between E- and E+ for frequency (P = 0.137) or amplitude of contractions (P = 0.951), but increasing ERV dosage, decreased frequency (P = 0.018) and amplitude (P = 0.005), coinciding with lower DMI. In Exp. 3, 8 steers (589 kg) were pair fed and ruminally dosed 15 µg ERV/kg BW/d, and rumen motility data were collected for 21 d. E- steers showed higher amplitude and lower frequency of contractions than E+ steers with seed (P < 0.001), day (P < 0.001), and seed × day (P < 0.04) effects, but rumen fill was not different between E- and E+ (P > 0.29). Serum prolactin concentrations were lower in E+ steers in Exp. 1 to 3. Eating patterns of pair-fed E- and E+ steers were relatively slower in E+ than E- (Exp. 4) by measuring every 2 h across 24 h. Number of meals were higher in E+ than E- steers, but meal duration and meal size were not different between treatments. Rumen content (DM%) tended to be higher in E+ than in E- when steers were fed once a day (P = 0.07), but there was no difference for rumen content (DM%) when E- and E+ steers were fed 12 times a day (P = 0.13). These results suggest the changes in rumen fill associated with fescue toxicosis may be driven more by changes in feeding behavior and eating pattern rather than by changes in motility.


Assuntos
Ergotaminas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Festuca/química , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Endófitos , Masculino , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Prolactina , Distribuição Aleatória , Sementes/microbiologia
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6467134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828112

RESUMO

For several years, research has been carried out on the effectiveness of solutions for perfusion and preservation of organs, including the liver. There is a search for an optimal pharmacological composition of these solutions, allowing to preserve or improve vital functions of the organ for as long as possible until it is transplanted into a recipient. Hormones due to their properties, often resulting from their pleiotropic effects, may be a valuable component for optimizing the composition of liver perfusion and preservation solutions. The paper presents the current state of knowledge on liver perfusion and preservation solutions modified with hormones. It also shows the characteristics of the hormones evaluated, taking into account their physiological functions in the body.


Assuntos
Hormônios/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Dopamina/farmacologia , Glucagon/farmacologia , Hormônios/química , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/normas , Melatonina/farmacologia , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/química , Prolactina/farmacologia , Sobrevivência de Tecidos/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 521-527, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833323

RESUMO

Changes in mRNA levels of prolactin (PRL) during upstream movement were examined in juvenile Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica. Glass eels and elvers were collected from 2007 to 2009 near the entrance of Hamana Lake, and in a small inflowing stream, the Egawa River. Quantification of mRNA was performed by real-time PCR and expressed as whole-body content. PRL mRNA levels of glass eels caught in the coastal zone and tidal area were low. Eels that moved downward in the tidal zone and migrated upstream to enter into freshwater showed increased levels of PRL mRNA. These changes suggest the importance of up-regulation of PRL gene expression in juvenile eels during their upstream movement from seawater to fresh water, particularly in relation to hyperosmoregulation.


Assuntos
Anguilla/fisiologia , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Prolactina/metabolismo , Rios , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética
20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 202, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775658

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To investigate the value of prolactin (PRL) in diagnosing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Metabolic parameters and serum PRL levels were measured in 452 males and 421 females, who were randomized to the estimation or the validation group as a 1:1 ratio. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed via abdominal ultrasound. Variables that significantly associated with NAFLD in univariate analysis were included in multiple logistic regression. We used the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to test the model performance. Besides, 147 patients underwent metabolic and liver biopsy were analyzed to validate the diagnostic value of this model. RESULTS: Body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, prolactin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c were included into models. In males, the area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.86 (95%CI: 0.82-0.91) for the validation group. With two cut-off points (- 0.79 and 1.71), the sensitivity and specificity for predicting NALFD was 95.2 and 91.1% in the validation group, respectively. In females, the AUC was 0.82 (95%CI: 0.76-0.88) for the validation group. With two cut-off points (- 0.68 and 2.16), the sensitivity and specificity for predicting NALFD was 97.1 and 91.4% in the validation group, respectively. In subjects with liver pathology, the AUC was higher than that of fatty liver index. A positive correlation between the scores of the model and the severities of NAFLD was observed. Importantly, we demonstrated a potential value of this model in predicting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. CONCLUSION: We established a mathematic model that can conveniently and effectively diagnose the existence and severities of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Prolactina/sangue , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Aleatória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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