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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105747, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic thymic peptides (sTPs) are used with chemotherapy to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we have performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published trials to confirm the clinical efficacy and safety of sTPs, and determine the optimal types, usages, and sTP/chemotherapy combinations to produce the desired responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected all studies regarding combined sTP therapy and chemotherapy for NSCLC from the Chinese and English databases (up to October 2018). Bias risk was evaluated for each. Data for meta-analysis was extracted using a pre-designed form. Evidence quality was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: We included 27 randomized controlled trials containing 1925 patients, most with unclear bias risk. Combining sTPs with chemotherapy significantly increased the objective response rate [1.28, (1.13 to 1.45)], disease control rate [1.10, (1.01 to 1.18)], quality of life (QOL) [2.05, (1.62, 2.60)], and 1-year overall survival rate [1.43, (1.15 to 1.78)], with decreased risks of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and gastrointestinal reactions. Optimal conditions included treatment in combination with gemcitabine or navelbine and cisplatin, twice a week, with one 3-week cycle. In these conditions, thymosin α1 improved both antitumor immunity and tumor response. Most results had good robustness, and their quality ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that treatment with sTPs, especially thymosin α1, and concomitant chemotherapy is beneficial to the patient, and provide evidence for optimal treatment regimens that may increase patient QOL and survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Hormônios do Timo/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , China , Humanos , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Hormônios do Timo/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Orv Hetil ; 160(5): 163-171, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686034

RESUMO

The classical histological features of the thymus are the cortex and medulla, the Hassall's bodies as well as the lobules. Anti-pan-cytokeratin immunocytochemistry shows that the keratin staining pattern of the cortical and medullary epithelial cells is different. The medulla is further compartmentalized: it consists of keratin-positive network and keratin-negative areas. Histology of the keratin-negative area is identical with the connective tissue of the septae. The basal lamina is continuous at the capsule and septae, but it becomes discontinuous at the border between the keratin-positive network and keratin-negative area. This immunohistochemical finding is the first histological sign, which may explain that the medulla has no blood-thymus barrier. The supporting tissue of the keratin-negative area is identical with that of the septae. The connective tissue of thymic capsule and septae develops from the cranial neural crest cells, therefore we hypothesize that the keratin-negative area has neural crest origin. Blood vessels of the thymic medulla localize in the keratin-negative area. Every emigrating or immigrating immunologically competent cells should enter the keratin-negative area, therefore this area is the transit zone of the thymus. The hematoxylin-eosin staining of the thymus shows that the thymic cortico-medullary border does not represent cellular background. However, the border between keratin-positive network and keratin-negative area is determined by cellular identity (epithelial and mesenchymal tissues). Therefore, it can be assumed that the real histological and functional border is the border between the keratin-positive network and the keratin-negative area. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(5): 163-171.


Assuntos
Timo/anatomia & histologia , Timo/citologia , Epitélio/imunologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Timo/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 165(1): 80-83, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797130

RESUMO

Pronounced antitumor effect of Thymalin in doses lower than the therapeutic doses was shown in experiments on albino outbred male rats with transplanted sarcoma 45. Tumor growth arrest and its regression were observed in more than half of animals and in other cases, the growth was suppressed by 78%. Microstructural changes in the thymus were analyzed. Significant increase in lymphoproliferative activity and the content of tissue basophils and plasmocytes in the thymus lobules was observed. Tumor regression was accompanied by the development of stable antistress adaptation reactions of calm and elevated activation. High efficiency of Thymalin can be attributed to the use of lower doses of the substance and their modulation during the treatment course in accordance with the regimes of activation therapy.


Assuntos
Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/patologia , Hormônios do Timo/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia
4.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 25(2): 369-75, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627572

RESUMO

Medical science seems to be on the threshold of a revolution: It seems possible that in twenty years, doctors will be able to replace organs in the human body like parts in a car. This is thanks to the recent achievement of a team from the Medical Research Council Center for Regenerative Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland - the group of researchers tried to regenerate the thymus gland in mice. The thymus gland is an essential organ for the development of the immune system, but very few people have any idea that it exists. In the literature and also in people's awareness, the fact is often that the thymus controls and harmonizes the entire immune system and the immune functioning of the organism. It is the primary donor of cells for the lymphatic system, much as bone marrow is the cell donor for the cardiovascular system. It is within the thymus that progenitor cells are created and then undergo maturation and differentiation into mature T cells. The thymus gland is located in the mediastinum, behind the sternum. It is composed of two identical lobes. Each lobe is divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex. The thymus is at its largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods. After this period the organ gradually disappears and is replaced by fat. In elderly individuals the thymus weighs 5 g. The aim of this work is to shed new light on this important immune defense organ, whose function is not confined to the destruction of nonfunctional T cells.


Assuntos
Regeneração , Timócitos/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Seleção Clonal Mediada por Antígeno , Humanos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timócitos/transplante , Timo/citologia , Timo/transplante , Hormônios do Timo/metabolismo
5.
Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ; 63(2): 139-58, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352969

RESUMO

The thymus develops from an endocrine area of the foregut, and retains the ancient potencies of this region. However, later it is populated by bone marrow originated lymphatic elements and forms a combined organ, which is a central part of the immune system as well as an influential element of the endocrine orchestra. Thymus produces self-hormones (thymulin, thymosin, thymopentin, and thymus humoral factor), which are participating in the regulation of immune cell transformation and selection, and also synthesizes hormones similar to that of the other endocrine glands such as melatonin, neuropeptides, and insulin, which are transported by the immune cells to the sites of requests (packed transport). Thymic (epithelial and immune) cells also have receptors for hormones which regulate them. This combined organ, which is continuously changing from birth to senescence seems to be a pacemaker of life. This function is basically regulated by the selection of self-responsive thymocytes as their complete destruction helps the development (up to puberty) and their gradual release in case of weakened control (after puberty) causes the erosion of cells and intercellular material, named aging. This means that during aging, self-destructive and non-protective immune activities are manifested under the guidance of the involuting thymus, causing the continuous irritation of cells and organs. Possibly the pineal body is the main regulator of the pacemaker, the neonatal removal of which results in atrophy of thymus and wasting disease and its later corrosion causes the insufficiency of thymus. The co-involution of pineal and thymus could determine the aging and the time of death without external intervention; however, external factors can negatively influence both of them.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Glândula Pineal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândula Pineal/imunologia , Timo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Biogerontology ; 17(1): 55-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26169108

RESUMO

High level of growth hormone (GH) is necessary for the activation of thymic function to promote T cell differentiation in the early stage of animal life. In the later stage of the life, administration of GH promotes the development of immune system and rejuvenates declined immune function of elderly people. By contraries, GH deficiency is favorable for the longer lifespan, as hypo-pituitary dwarf mice such as Ames and Snell dwarf mice exhibit longer lifespan than control. Furthermore over-expression of heterologous or homologous GH in transgenic mice shortens the lifespan. Ecuadorians carrying mutations of GH receptor gene are short in height, but exhibited low frequency of malignancy and no cases of diabetes. These data indicate that GH is necessary for the development of thymus dependent immune system but GH deficiency is favorable for long life span and decreases occurrence of cancer and DM. This situation is a kind of trade off situation between the immune system and GH. Thus the early decline of high level of GH occurring shortly after the birth is a cause of early decline of thymic functions, but favorable for longer lifespan. This situation could be a kind of trade off situation between thymus and GH.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Longevidade/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo/imunologia
7.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 159(1): 62-5, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26033592

RESUMO

We compared the effectiveness of immunomodulators used in the treatment of patients with chronic salpingitis and oophoritis with or without changes in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in blood lymphocytes at incubation with the drug. Diurnal variations in individual reaction of SDH in blood lymphocytes to thymalin or ridostin were revealed. In the groups of women receiving ridostin or thymalin during the reaction of lymphocyte SDH to it, improvement of clinical laboratory and immunological parameters was observed in the majority of the patients and no effect was found in a lesser group of patients than in the groups treated with drugs during the absence of lymphocyte SDH reaction thereto. The timing of the presence of SDH reaction to drugs in the immunocompetent cells makes it possible to set the optimal daily regime of their application and to select a drug that would be most effective in each particular case.


Assuntos
Cronoterapia Farmacológica , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ooforite/tratamento farmacológico , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/administração & dosagem , RNA Fúngico/administração & dosagem , Salpingite/tratamento farmacológico , Succinato Desidrogenase/sangue , Hormônios do Timo/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Terapia Combinada , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/enzimologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/enzimologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/enzimologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/enzimologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Ooforite/imunologia , Ooforite/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Medicina de Precisão , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/farmacologia , RNA Fúngico/farmacologia , Salpingite/imunologia , Salpingite/terapia , Hormônios do Timo/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Age (Dordr) ; 36(3): 9656, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24771015

RESUMO

Zinc is a relevant nutritional factor for the whole life of an organism because it affects the inflammatory/immune response and antioxidant activity, leading to a healthy state. Despite its important function, the dietary intake of zinc is inadequate in elderly. Possible interventions include food fortification because it does not require changes in dietary patterns, the cost is low and it can reach a large portion of the elderly population, including very old subjects. Studies evaluating the impact of Zn-fortified foods on functional parameters in elderly, in particular, in very old individuals, are missing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of consumption of a zinc-fortified drinking skim milk (Zn-FMilk) for a period of 2 months in comparison to standard non-fortified milk (No-FMilk) on some biochemical parameters, zinc status, inflammatory/immune response and on a key parameter of the T cell-mediated immunity (thymulin hormone) in healthy very old subjects. The treatment with zinc-fortified milk (Zn-FMilk) is a good omen to increase the cell-mediated immunity in very old age represented by thymulin activity and some cytokine (IL-12p70, IFN-γ) release. At clinical level, a good healthy state occurs in 70 % of the subjects with no hospitalization after 1 year of the follow-up in comparison to very old control subjects that did not participate to crossover design. In conclusion, the Zn-FMilk can be considered a good functional food for elderly, including older people. It might be a good replacement to the zinc tablets or lozenges taking into account the attitude of old people to uptake milk as a preferential food.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite , Hormônios do Timo/sangue , Zinco/farmacologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto
10.
Antibiot Khimioter ; 58(11-12): 8-12, 2013.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24734422

RESUMO

The immunomodulatory activity of peptide drugs i.e. tinrostim (dosage form) prepared of squid optical ganglia and pharmacopoeia thymain was studied. Tinrostim showed a stimulating effect on the humoral and cellular nimmune responses when administered parenterally in experimental animals, as well as on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils, comparable to the effect of thymalin. It was demonstrated that both the peptide drugs increased the production of pro-(TNFa, IL-1) and antiinflammatory (IL- 10) cytokines in the culture of intact cells of peripheral blood in vitro. It is essential that when tinrostim was used in 10-fold different doses (0.005 mg / kg and 0.05 mg /kg) in mice, the effect of the lower dose was comparable to the effect of the higher dose.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo/imunologia
11.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (11): 19-23, 2012.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23258355
14.
Adv Gerontol ; 24(2): 207-15, 2011.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21957575

RESUMO

The influence of thymus removal or administration of thymalin, thymic peptide factor, on number of cells-precursors for colonies of fibroblasts (CFC-F) and for granulocyte-macrophageal colonies (CFC-GM), CD(4+)-cells in bone marrow in CBA mice of different age in some seasons was investigated. It was shown that in adult mice the orientation of influence thymic activity modulation on amount of these types cells is dependent from seasons. It was shown the season possibility of direct effect of thymic stroma supernatant, in which was thymic serum factor (FTS), or the synthetic FTS on the amount of CFC-F and CFC-GM in bone marrow of adult mice; in old mice thymic supernatant increased in vitro the amount of CD(4+)-cells. FTS level in old mice increased after administration of thymalin, the rhythm of CD(4+)-cells number in bone marrow and of corticosterone serum content restored.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Fator Tímico Circulante/fisiologia , Timo/fisiologia , Hormônios do Timo/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Hormônios do Timo/farmacologia
15.
Ann Hepatol ; 10(4): 540-51, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21911896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunomodulatory drugs have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Thymic humoral factor (THF), a peptide produced in the thymus, causes a potent immunomodulatory effect on different components of the immune system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of THF on different stages of liver damage and fibrosis induced in rats through the administration of porcine serum (PS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: PS-induced liver fibrosis models serve as a primarily immunological mechanism in the development of liver damage and fibrosis. RESULTS: The intraperitoneal administration of THF in rats with PS-induced liver damage produced a reduction of ALT and AST after 60 days. Histopathological changes in liver sections showed an improved histological appearance and lower % of fibrosis after 60 days in liver damaged rats that received THF treatment. Serum IL-6 levels were visibly reduced by THF administration after 60 days and in comparison with rats that did not receive the treatment. This was due to an increment in serum IL-10 levels caused by the administration of THF, which appears to reduce the inflammatory process by decreasing immune response. CONCLUSION: THF had beneficial effects in combating liver damage and fibrosis processes in an autoimmune model of PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Soro , Hormônios do Timo/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Adv Gerontol ; 24(1): 38-42, 2011.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21809618

RESUMO

The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Glândula Pineal/fisiologia , Timo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuroimunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/fisiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/fisiologia , Timo/metabolismo , Hormônios do Timo/metabolismo , Hormônios do Timo/farmacologia , Hormônios do Timo/fisiologia
17.
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol ; (4): 451-61, 2010.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20799646

RESUMO

Different aspects of the reciprocal regulatory influence of systems producing the immune and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in pre- and postnatal ontogeny are discussed in this review. GnRH is a neurohormone synthesized by a small population of neurons located in the anterior hypothalamus, which regulates the secretion of gonadotropines in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and they finally regulate the synthesis of sex steroids. Particular attention is given to analysis of the data involving the role of thymus peptides and cytokines in GnRH-system regulation in the normal condition and in the case of inflammation development caused by endotoxines in adult animals. The main prospects of the studies involving the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on GnRH-neuron migration and differentiation in prenatal ontogenesis are also discussed.


Assuntos
Citocinas/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/embriologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Imunitário/embriologia , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neuroimunomodulação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Timo/fisiologia , Hormônios do Timo/fisiologia
18.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 14(8): 775-86, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20536297

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Inflammatory diseases are characterized by severe immune imbalances, leading to excessive or inappropriate release of mediators, which, in turn, result in massive damage to organs and systems. Effective means to control inappropriate immune reactions are often life-critical needs. Available data on the role of thymus-derived hormones in inflammation show their great potential. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: The review aims to systematize information for the last two decades on immune system regulation by thymic peptide hormones, with a primary focus on the role of these hormones in the systemic inflammatory response and inflammatory diseases. Anti-inflammatory potential of three thymic hormones - thymulin, thymosin-alpha, and thymopoietin - is discussed, reviewing recently published clinical and experimental studies. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: Our analysis revealed the regulation of inflammatory processes via thymic hormones that could be prospective for therapeutic application. This regulation may be mediated through thymic hormone effects on peripheral immune cell activities and bidirectional coupling between thymic hormones and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. TAKE-HOME MESSAGE: In view of the role of thymic hormones in immune and neuroendocrine systems, they could be suitable as therapeutic agents for inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/fisiologia , Hormônios/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Estresse Fisiológico , Timalfasina , Fator Tímico Circulante/fisiologia , Fator Tímico Circulante/uso terapêutico , Timopoietinas/fisiologia , Timopoietinas/uso terapêutico , Timosina/análogos & derivados , Timosina/fisiologia , Timosina/uso terapêutico , Hormônios do Timo/fisiologia
19.
Biol Res ; 43(3): 291-8, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21249300

RESUMO

Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45). In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.


Assuntos
Fator Tímico Circulante/análise , Timo/química , Hormônios do Timo/análise , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Tecido Linfoide/química , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator Tímico Circulante/imunologia , Hormônios do Timo/imunologia
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