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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000742, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511234

RESUMO

The genetic adaptation of humans to the consumption of milk from dairying animals is one of the most emblematic cases of recent human evolution. While the phenotypic change under selection, lactase persistence (LP), is known, the evolutionary advantage conferred to persistent individuals remains obscure. One informative but underappreciated observation is that not all populations whose ancestors had access to milk genetically adapted to become lactase persistent. Indeed, Central Asian herders are mostly lactase nonpersistent, despite their significant dietary reliance on dairy products. Investigating the temporal dynamic of the -13.910:C>T Eurasian mutation associated with LP, we found that, after its emergence in Ukraine 5,960 before present (BP), the T allele spread between 4,000 BP and 3,500 BP throughout Eurasia, from Spain to Kazakhstan. The timing and geographical progression of the mutation coincides well with the migration of steppe populations across and outside of Europe. After 3,000 BP, the mutation strongly increased in frequency in Europe, but not in Asia. We propose that Central Asian herders have adapted to milk consumption culturally, by fermentation, and/or by colonic adaptation, rather than genetically. Given the possibility of a nongenetic adaptation to avoid intestinal symptoms when consuming dairy products, the puzzle then becomes this: why has LP been selected for at all?


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Lactase/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Ásia , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Fermentação , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Leite , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9793-9799, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284419

RESUMO

The development of pastoralism transformed human diets and societies in grasslands worldwide. The long-term success of cattle herding in Africa has been sustained by dynamic food systems, consumption of a broad range of primary and secondary livestock products, and the evolution of lactase persistence (LP), which allows digestion of lactose into adulthood and enables the milk-based, high-protein, low-calorie diets characteristic of contemporary pastoralists. Despite the presence of multiple alleles associated with LP in ancient and present-day eastern African populations, the contexts for selection for LP and the long-term development of pastoralist foodways in this region remain unclear. Pastoral Neolithic (c 5000 to 1200 BP) faunas indicate that herders relied on cattle, sheep, and goats and some hunting, but direct information on milk consumption, plant use, and broader culinary patterns is rare. Combined chemical and isotopic analysis of ceramic sherds (n = 125) from Pastoral Neolithic archaeological contexts in Kenya and Tanzania, using compound-specific δ13C and Δ13C values of the major fatty acids, provides chemical evidence for milk, meat, and plant processing by ancient herding societies in eastern Africa. These data provide the earliest direct evidence for milk product consumption and reveal a history of reliance on animal products and other nutrients, likely extracted through soups or stews, and plant foods. They document a 5,000-y temporal framework for eastern Africa pastoralist cuisines and cultural contexts for selection for alleles distinctive of LP in eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Dieta , Análise de Alimentos/história , Leite/química , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Bovinos , Cerâmica/história , Dieta/história , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Cabras , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Lactase/química , Lactose/química , Gado , Carne/análise , Ovinos
3.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(1): 1-7, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101819

RESUMO

Lactose, a disaccharide and main carbohydrate in milk, requires hydrolysis in the intestinal tract to release its monosaccharides galactose and glucose for use as energy source by enterocytes. This hydrolysis is catalyzed by the enzyme lactase, a ß-galactosidase located in the brush border membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. In most mammals, lactase activity declines after the weaning, a condition known as lactase non-persistence (LNP). Lactase persistence (LP) is an autosomal dominant trait enabling the continued production of the enzyme lactase throughout adult life. Non-persistence or persistence of lactase expression into adult life being a polymorphic trait has been attributed to various single nucleotide polymorphisms in the enhancer region surrounding lactase gene (LCT). However, latest research has pointed to 'genetic-epigenetic interactions' as key to regulation of lactase expression. LNP and LP DNA haplotypes have demonstrated markedly different epigenetic aging as genetic factors contribute to gradual accumulation of epigenetic changes with age to affect lactase expression. This review will attempt to present an overview of latest insights into molecular basis of LNP/LP including the crucial role of 'genetic-epigenetic interactions' in regulating lactase expression.


Assuntos
Lactase , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Lactase/metabolismo , Intolerância à Lactose/genética , Intolerância à Lactose/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 915, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human population history in the Holocene was profoundly impacted by changes in lifestyle following the invention and adoption of food-production practices. These changes triggered significant increases in population sizes and expansions over large distances. Here we investigate the population history of the Fulani, a pastoral population extending throughout the African Sahel/Savannah belt. RESULTS: Based on genome-wide analyses we propose that ancestors of the Fulani population experienced admixture between a West African group and a group carrying both European and North African ancestries. This admixture was likely coupled with newly adopted herding practices, as it resulted in signatures of genetic adaptation in contemporary Fulani genomes, including the control element of the LCT gene enabling carriers to digest lactose throughout their lives. The lactase persistence (LP) trait in the Fulani is conferred by the presence of the allele T-13910, which is also present at high frequencies in Europe. We establish that the T-13910 LP allele in Fulani individuals analysed in this study lies on a European haplotype background thus excluding parallel convergent evolution. We furthermore directly link the T-13910 haplotype with the Lactase Persistence phenotype through a Genome Wide Association study (GWAS) and identify another genomic region in the vicinity of the SPRY2 gene associated with glycaemic measurements after lactose intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Eurasian admixture and the European LP allele was introduced into the Fulani through contact with a North African population/s. We furthermore confirm the link between the lactose digestion phenotype in the Fulani to the MCM6/LCT locus by reporting the first GWAS of the lactase persistence trait. We also explored other signals of recent adaptation in the Fulani and identified additional candidates for selection to adapt to herding life-styles.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Lactase/genética , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Migrantes
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809511

RESUMO

AIM: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Debaryomyces hansenii on the diversity of bacterial lactase gene in the intestinal mucosa of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) mice. METHODS: Eighteen mice were randomly divided into three groups (6 mice per group): healthy control group, diarrhea model group and D. hansenii treatment group. The antibiotic-associated diarrhea model was established by intragastric administration with a mixture of cephradine and gentamicin sulfate (23.33 mL·kg-1·d-1) twice a day for 5 days continuously. After establishing the AAD model, the mice in the D. hansenii treatment group were gavaged with D. hansenii for three days, while other groups were gavaged with distilled water. Then, the intestinal mucosa of all three groups was collected and DNA was extracted in an aseptic environment for the following analysis. RESULTS: The difference in the richness and homogeneity of the bacterial lactase gene among all samples were inapparent, as the difference in the Chao1, ACE, Simpson and Shannon indices among the three groups were insignificant (P>0.05). NMDS analysis also showed that the distance of the samples among the three groups was unobvious. Furthermore, the bacterial lactase gene in the mucosa mainly originated from Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Compared with the healthy control group, the abundance of lactase genes originating from Cupriavidus, Lysobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas was increased in the D. hansenii treatment group, while the lactase gene from Acidovorax and Stenotrophomonas decreased (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) in the diarrhea model group and the D. hansenii treatment group. CONCLUSION: D. hansenii was capable of improving the growth of some key lactase-producing bacteria like Deinococcus, Cupriavidus and Lysobacter for treating AAD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactase/genética , Saccharomycetales/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(6): 779-794.e8, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784260

RESUMO

Fecal transfer from healthy donors is being explored as a microbiome modality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to affect the microbiome. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been shown to have an altered gut microbiome. Here, we unexpectedly found that transfer of feces harvested at peak disease from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS ameliorates disease in recipients in a miRNA-dependent manner. Specifically, we show that miR-30d is enriched in the feces of peak EAE and untreated MS patients. Synthetic miR-30d given orally ameliorates EAE through expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Mechanistically, miR-30d regulates the expression of a lactase in Akkermansia muciniphila, which increases Akkermansia abundance in the gut. The expanded Akkermansia in turn increases Tregs to suppress EAE symptoms. Our findings report the mechanistic underpinnings of a miRNA-microbiome axis and suggest that the feces of diseased subjects might be enriched with miRNAs with therapeutic properties.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Verrucomicrobia , Administração Oral , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Lactase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verrucomicrobia/imunologia , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718111

RESUMO

Lactose is a unique component of breast milk, many infant formulas and dairy products, and is widely used in pharmaceutical products. In spite of that, its role in human nutrition or lactose intolerance is generally not well-understood. For that reason, a 2-day-long lactose consensus meeting with health care professionals was organized in Mexico to come to a set of statements for which consensus could be gathered. Topics ranging from lactase expression to potential health benefits of lactose were introduced by experts, and that was followed by a discussion on concept statements. Interestingly, lactose does not seem to induce a neurological reward response when consumed. Although lactose digestion is optimal, it supplies galactose for liver glycogen synthesis. In infants, it cannot be ignored that lactose-derived galactose is needed for the synthesis of glycosylated macromolecules. At least beyond infancy, the low glycemic index of lactose might be metabolically beneficial. When lactase expression decreases, lactose maldigestion may lead to lactose intolerance symptoms. In infancy, the temporary replacing of lactose by other carbohydrates is only justified in case of severe intolerance symptoms. In those who show an (epi)genetic decrease or absence of lactase expression, a certain amount (for adults mostly up to 12 g per portion) of lactose can still be consumed. In these cases, lactose shows beneficial intestinal-microbiota-shaping effects. Avoiding lactose-containing products may imply a lower intake of other important nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin B12 from dairy products, as well as an increased intake of less beneficial carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Dieta , Intolerância à Lactose , Lactose , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lactente , Lactase , México , Ciências da Nutrição/organização & administração
8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405126

RESUMO

Lactase persistence (LP) is a trait in which lactose can be digested throughout adulthood, while lactase non-persistence (LNP) can cause lactose intolerance and influence dairy consumption. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP ID: rs4988235) is often used as a predictor for dairy intake, since it is responsible for LP in people in European descent, and can occur in other ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether rs4988235 genotypes and ethnicity influence reported dairy consumption in the United States (U.S.). A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple Automated Self-Administered 24-h recalls (ASA24®) were used to measure habitual and recent intake, respectively, of total dairy, cheese, cow's milk, plant-based alternative milk, and yogurt in a multi-ethnic U.S. cohort genotyped for rs4988235. Within Caucasian subjects, LP individuals reported consuming more recent total dairy and habitual total cow's milk intake. For subjects of all ethnicities, LP individuals consumed more cheese (FFQ p = 0.043, ASA24 p = 0.012) and recent total dairy (ASA24 p = 0.005). For both dietary assessments, Caucasians consumed more cheese than all non-Caucasians (FFQ p = 0.036, ASA24 p = 0.002) independent of genotype, as well as more recent intake of yogurt (ASA24 p = 0.042). LP subjects consumed more total cow's milk than LNP, but only when accounting for whether subjects were Caucasian or not (FFQ p = 0.015). Fluid milk and alternative plant-based milk consumption were not associated with genotypes or ethnicity. Our results show that both LP genotype and ethnicity influence the intake of some dairy products in a multi-ethnic U.S. cohort, but the ability of rs4988235 genotypes to predict intake may depend on ethnic background, the specific dairy product, and whether intake is reported on a habitual or recent basis. Therefore, ethnicity and the dietary assessment method should also be considered when determining the suitability of rs4988235 as a proxy for dairy intake.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Dieta/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Lactase/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Intolerância à Lactose/etnologia , Intolerância à Lactose/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos
9.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398828

RESUMO

One of the conventional ways to produce lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) milk is via the addition of commercial lactases into heat-treated milk in which lactose is hydrolyzed throughout storage. This post-hydrolysis method can induce proteolysis in milk proteins due to protease impurities remaining in commercial lactase preparations. In this work, the interplay between lactose hydrolysis, proteolysis, and glycation was studied in a model system of purified ß-casein (ß-CN), lactose, and lactases using peptidomic methods. With a lactase presence, the proteolysis of ß-CN was found to be increased during storage. The protease side-activities mainly acted on the hydrophobic C-terminus of ß-CN at Ala, Pro, Ile, Phe, Leu, Lys, Gln, and Tyr positions, resulting in the formation of peptides, some of which were N-terminal glycated or potentially bitter. The proteolysis in ß-CN incubated with a lactase was shown to act as a kind of "pre-digestion", thus increasing the subsequent in vitro digestibility of ß-CN and drastically changing the peptide profiles of the in vitro digests. This model study provides a better understanding of how the residual proteases in commercial lactase preparations affect the quality and nutritional aspects of ß-CN itself and could be related to its behavior in LH milk.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Lactase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Digestão , Hidrólise , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteólise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Discov Med ; 28(151): 39-45, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is widely accepted that a possible etiopathogenic factor associated with IgA nephropathy is the glycosylation of IgA1 molecule O-glycans. The present study aimed to determine if galactose-deficient IgA1 is related to glucose metabolism. METHODS: IgA nephropathy was identified from the renal biopsies of 108 adult patients enrolled in our study with 60 healthy controls. The concentration of serum lactose, galactose, and lactase was measured. The relationship between glucose metabolism, proteinuria, and renal pathological changes was studied. RESULTS: The circulating lactose level was higher in IgAN patients compared to that in the healthy controls [143.9 (93.9-225.6) vs. 77.9 (54.9 - 209.6); p < 0.001]. The circulating lactase level was lower in IgAN patients than that in the healthy controls (229.9 ± 57.56 vs. 270.0 ± 69.30; p < 0.001). Serum galactose level of IgAN patients was lower than that of healthy controls but without significant differences. Lactose levels showed a significant positive correlation with 24-h proteinuria (r = 0.222; p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: The differences in lactose and lactase from the IgAN patients and healthy controls may be an indicator of the possible pathogenesis of IgAN. The level of serum lactose was correlated with the level of 24-h urinary protein during the same period, suggesting that it plays a role in IgA kidney disease progression. Future studies are required to validate our findings during the follow-up and investigate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Galactose/sangue , Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Lactase/sangue , Proteinúria , Adulto , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/sangue , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/sangue , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Proteinúria/patologia
11.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 152(6): 742-746, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Disaccharidase (DS) activity in duodenal biopsy specimens is the gold standard for diagnosing DS deficiency. We investigated strategies to reduce the need for DS testing and whether clinical or histopathologic factors predict DS deficiency. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analyzed 1,678 DS results in children, biopsy indication(s), and duodenal histopathology. RESULTS: One or more DSs were abnormal in 42.8%. Sufficient lactase predicted sucrase, palatinase, and maltase sufficiency (negative predictive value 97.7%). Three patients had sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (0.2%). DS deficiency was more common in biopsy specimens for positive celiac serology (78.0%). Villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and active inflammation predicted DS deficiency; a combination of any two had an 81.4% positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization could be reduced by only testing cases with normal duodenal histopathology and ongoing clinical suspicion for DS deficiency after reviewing pathology. In cases with suspected celiac disease and/or mucosal injury, DS deficiency is common and likely secondary, limiting test utility.


Assuntos
Dissacaridases/deficiência , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Adolescente , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Duodeno/patologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Lactase/deficiência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sacarase/deficiência , alfa-Glucosidases/deficiência
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6959-6970, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255265

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk supplemented with a powder of microencapsulated lactase. The core material was lactase (ß-galactosidase), the primary coating material was medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and the secondary (enteric) coating material was either hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) or shellac, comparing both against market milk as a control. The physicochemical properties of both types of microcapsules were analyzed, including the particle size, zeta potential, and in vitro release behavior. To survey the stability of the microcapsules in milk during storage, we studied the residual lactose content and pH. Furthermore, to determine the properties of milk supplemented with the microcapsules, changes in color and sensory properties were evaluated during storage. The particle sizes (volume-weighted mean; D[4,3]) of the microcapsules coated with HPMCP or shellac were 2,836 and 7,834 nm, respectively, and the zeta potential of the capsules coated with shellac was higher than the zeta potential of those coated with HPMCP. The pH levels of milk supplemented with the lactase microcapsules were similar to those of the control (unsupplemented market milk); however, for milk supplemented with HPMCP-coated microcapsules, the pH was slightly lower. The core material, lactase, was released from the microcapsules during 12-d storage, and 18.82 and 35.09% of lactose was hydrolyzed in the samples for HPMCP- and shellac-coated microcapsules, respectively. The sensory characteristics of milk containing microcapsules coated with HPMCP did not show significant differences from the control, in terms of sweetness or off-taste, until 8 d of storage. However, shellac-coated microcapsules showed significant difference in sweetness and off-taste at d 8 and 6 of storage, respectively. The color of milk containing HPMCP-coated microcapsules did not show a significant difference during storage. However, that containing shellac-coated microcapsules was somewhat higher in color values than others. In particular, it showed significance from 0 to 4 d storage in L* and C* values. In conclusion, a powder of lactase microcapsules coated with HPMCP can be suitable as a supplement for milk.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Kluyveromyces/enzimologia , Lactase/administração & dosagem , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Leite/química , Animais , Cápsulas , Fenômenos Químicos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Hidrólise , Lactose/metabolismo , Metilcelulose/química , Leite/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Resinas Vegetais/química , Paladar , Triglicerídeos/química
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8513-8526, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255268

RESUMO

Intensive milk feeding and butyrate supplementation in calves stimulate body growth and affect gastrointestinal development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergistic effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding and butyrate supplementation of MR on rumen and small intestinal growth and on gene expression in the small intestine related to growth and energy metabolism at weaning. Male Holstein calves (n = 32) received colostrum from birth to d 3 of age and MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res; 6 L of MR/d; 12.5% solids) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0.24% butyrate from d 4 until wk 8 of age. From wk 9 to 10, all calves were weaned and were fed 2 L/d until the end of the trial. Concentrate, hay, and water were freely available. At d 80, calves were slaughtered, volatile fatty acids were measured in rumen fluid, and rumen and small intestine samples were taken for histomorphometric measurements. The expression of mRNA associated with the local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and glucose metabolism as well as lactase and maltase activities were measured in the intestinal mucosa. The small intestine was 3 m longer in Adl than in Res. In the atrium ruminis, papilla width was greater in Res than in Adl. Villus circumference, cut surface, and height in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were greater in Adl than in Res and in the proximal, mid, and distal jejunum and ileum were greater in calves treated with butyrate. Crypt depth in the duodenum and proximal jejunum was greater in Adl than in Res and in the ileum was smaller in calves treated with butyrate. The villus height:crypt depth ratio was greatest in AdlB+ calves. In the proximal and mid jejunum, IGF1 mRNA abundance was lower in calves treated with butyrate. In the proximal jejunum, INSR mRNA abundance was greater in Res than in Adl. The abundance of PCK2 mRNA was greater in Res than in Adl in the duodenum and was greatest in ResB- in the mid jejunum. Lactase activity tended to be greater in Res than in Adl and after butyrate treatment in the proximal jejunum. The results indicated an elevated growth of the small intestinal mucosa at weaning due to intensive milk feeding and butyrate supplementation, and the local IGF system was involved in intestinal growth regulation. Rumen development was not affected by butyrate supplementation of MR and was slightly delayed due to ad libitum MR feeding.


Assuntos
Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Colostro , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Lactase/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes , Rúmen/química , Somatomedinas/genética , Desmame
14.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226742

RESUMO

The physiological decline of lactase production in adulthood, in some individuals, is responsible for the so-called "Lactose Intolerance." This clinical syndrome presents with gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal symptoms following the consumption of dairy containing food. Lactose intolerance can be evaluated by means of the Lactose Breath Test (phenotype) and/or genetic evaluation of lactase-gene polymorphism (genotype). A comparison of the two tests was carried out in a large number of symptomatic adult subjects, which are selected and not representative of the general population. Congruency was as high as 88.6%. Among lactase non-persistent (genotype C/C), 14 subjects showed a negative Lactose Breath Test (LBT), possibly due to young age. Among lactase-persistent (genotype C/T), four subjects showed a positive LBT, which helps to diagnose secondary lactose intolerance. Symptoms, both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal, were reported by 90% of patients during the breath test. Clinical use of both tests in the same patients could be taken into consideration as a sharp diagnostic tool. We suggest considering the use of the genetic test after LBT administration, when secondary hypolactasia is suspected, for completion of diagnostic procedures.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Testes Genéticos , Lactase/genética , Intolerância à Lactose/diagnóstico , Lactose/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 273-279, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175813

RESUMO

Globally, ∼70% of adults are deficient in intestinal lactase, the enzyme required for the digestion of lactose. In these individuals, the consumption of lactose-containing milk and dairy products can lead to the development of various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The primary solution to lactose intolerance is withdrawing lactose from the diet either by eliminating dairy products altogether or substituting lactose-free alternatives. However, studies have shown that certain individuals erroneously attribute their GI symptoms to lactose and thus prefer to consume lactose-free products. This has raised the question whether consuming lactose-free products reduces an individual's ability to absorb dietary lactose and if lactose-absorbers should thus avoid these products. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the acclimatization of lactose processing in humans. Human studies that have attempted to induce intestinal lactase expression with different lactose feeding protocols have consistently shown lack of enzyme induction. Similarly, withdrawing lactose from the diet does not reduce intestinal lactase expression. Evidence from cross-sectional studies shows that milk or dairy consumption is a poor indicator of lactase status, corroborating the results of intervention studies. However, in lactase-deficient individuals, lactose feeding supports the growth of lactose-digesting bacteria in the colon, which enhances colonic lactose processing and possibly results in the reduction of intolerance symptoms. This process is referred to as colonic adaptation. In conclusion, endogenous lactase expression does not depend on the presence of dietary lactose, but in susceptible individuals, dietary lactose might improve intolerance symptoms via colonic adaptation. For these individuals, lactose withdrawal results in the loss of colonic adaptation, which might lower the threshold for intolerance symptoms if lactose is reintroduced into the diet.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Lactase/metabolismo , Lactose/metabolismo , Humanos , Intolerância à Lactose/genética
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 986-997, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176856

RESUMO

A full-factorial central composite rotational design (FFCCRD) was applied for studying the immobilization of lactase in Arabic gum-based and chitosan-based hydrogels, and hydrolysis of lactose. The optimal immobilization capacities of both hydrogels aiming to obtain high immobilized enzyme activity and low released fraction were determined at 25.0 °C, 39.88 mg mL-1 initial enzyme concentration and pH 6.5. The immobilized enzyme activity and released fraction from the Arabic gum-based hydrogel were 0.322 U mg-1 and 0.193, respectively, during the hydrolysis of lactose contained in UHT milk. These values were 0.289 U mg-1 and 0.136, respectively, using a chitosan-based hydrogel. The immobilized enzyme activity and released fraction from these hydrogels during the hydrolysis of standard lactose were 0.246 U mg-1 and 0.407, and 0.211 U mg-1 and 0.245, respectively. The best conditions for the immobilization of lactase and hydrolysis of lactose were achieved by applying FFCCRD, which were compared with experimental results.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Hidrogéis/química , Lactase/química , Lactose/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Quitosana , Ativação Enzimática , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética , Temperatura
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 146(2): 244-249, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of women with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) refractory to initial management and in a state of hypoperfusion between management with a non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) and Bakri balloon and management with other surgical interventions. METHODS: A retrospective observational descriptive study of women with PPH and hemorrhagic shock who were treated at a high complexity obstetric unit in Columbia between 2011 and 2017. Clinical records were reviewed and women were divided in two groups by clinical management. Group 1 women were managed with surgical interventions; group 2 women were managed with NASG plus a Bakri balloon. RESULTS: Overall, 142 women were treated for PPH, with 69 in group 1 and 73 in group 2). There were differences between group 1 and group 2 in the degree of hypovolemic shock (shock index: 1.1 vs 0.9, P=0.02), indicators associated with hypoperfusion (lactic acid, 2.9 vs 1.9 mmol/L, P=0.001), and frequency of transfusion of blood components (68% vs 44%, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The joint use of NASG and Bakri balloon in PPH management seemed to improve hypoperfusion-related markers such as lactic acid and shock index, and reduce the frequency of additional blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Trajes Gravitacionais , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Tamponamento com Balão Uterino , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colômbia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactase/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(2): 173-175, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137035

RESUMO

This study provides up-to-date findings on lactose malabsorption, lactose intolerance and genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia in 72 patients after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC). The lactose malabsorption was assessed by hydrogen-methane breath test. Genetic predisposition to adult-type hypolactasia was assessed by detecting -13910T/C polymorphism in the lactase gene. Lactose intolerance was more frequent in UC (ulcerative colitis) patients than FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis) patients (77.5% vs. 55.2%; p=0.01). The C/C genotype of the lactase gene was observed in 39.1% subjects with no significant difference between UC and FAP patients. Lactose malabsorption occurred in 10.1% of subjects and almost only in patients with genetic predisposition, with the same frequency in UC and FAP patients.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/cirurgia , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lactase/deficiência , Intolerância à Lactose/etiologia , Intolerância à Lactose/genética , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(23): 6559-6568, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099562

RESUMO

To deliver lactase in milk, dispersible capsules were fabricated by anti-solvent precipitation of zein to form a zein-lactase core and a shell of low-methoxyl sugar beet pectin cross-linked by Ca2+, involving electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and Ca2+-bridging forces. At optimal conditions, an encapsulation efficiency of 93.0% and Z-average diameter of 652.7 nm were observed, and spherical particles smaller than 200 nm were observed in scanning electron microscopy. Contrasting with complete hydrolysis within 1 week by unencapsulated lactase, 50 units/mL encapsulated lactase resulted in 33.1 and 40.0% lactose hydrolysis in whole and skim milk, respectively, after 3 weeks of storage at 4 °C. In separate in vitro digestion assays, 50 units/mL encapsulated lactase resulted in 100% lactose hydrolysis in milk, contrasting with negligible activity by free lactase. These findings suggest the potential of the studied biopolymer particles to incorporate lactase in milk, prevent lactose hydrolysis during storage, and hydrolyze lactose in milk after ingestion.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Lactase/química , Lactose/química , Leite/química , Animais , Biocatálise , Cápsulas/química , Bovinos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Excipientes/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
20.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 7(2): 210-216, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080605

RESUMO

Background: Primary lactose intolerance (PLI) is a gradual decrease of lactase activity that usually manifests at the age of 1-5 years. It has been proved that PLI is related to a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the lactase (LCT) gene. Objective: An evaluation was performed on the usefulness of genetic tests in detecting LCT 13910C>T and 22018G>A polymorphisms in diagnosing lactose intolerance in children. Methods: The study group included 99 children aged from 2 months to 16.5 years with different digestive tract symptoms. In all patients a hydrogen breath test (HBT) was conducted and blood samples were collected to determine LCT polymorphisms. PLI was defined as the presence of the 13910CC and/or 22018GG polymorphism in patients with a positive HBT result. Results: In the group younger than 6 years, no statistically significant correlation was observed between the 13910CC and/or 22018GG LCT polymorphisms and HBT result. In the group of children older than 6, a statistically significant correlation between the 13910CC (p = 0.0011) and 22018GG (p = 0.003) LCT polymorphisms and HBT result was detected. Conclusions: In children older than 6, the result of genetic testing based on LCT 13910C>T and 22018G>A polymorphisms may diagnose lactose intolerance.


Assuntos
Alelos , Lactase/genética , Intolerância à Lactose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Lactose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente
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