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1.
Waste Manag ; 116: 58-65, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784122

RESUMO

In the current scenario, used paper cups are disposed of without any proper treatment, thereby damaging the environment. Hence, the vermicomposting technique is preferred for managing these wastes. The ability of bacterial strains on cellulase enzyme (Endoglucanase, exoglucanase and ß-glucosidase) production at altered pH and temperatures were focused in this study. Among nine bacterial strains Acinetobacter baumannii was found to have high enzyme activity. HPLC analysis confirms that about 45% of cellulose degradation occurred due to the action of bacterial consortia at 37 °C with pH 7. The overall period required for degradation takes only three months with the help of bacterial consortia while comparing to our previous study, which takes six months. The insilico study on three cellulose-degrading enzymes sequence were retrieved from NCBI, and analysed for multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. From the analysis, the endoglucanase SVK46152 (Acinetobacter baumannii) sequence got docked with cellopentaose with a high score value -11.07. Thereby we confirm that organism Acinetobacter baumannii was effective in paper cup degradation.


Assuntos
Celulase , Bactérias , Celulose , Filogenia , beta-Glucosidase
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16776-16781, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636260

RESUMO

A particularly promising approach to deconstructing and fractionating lignocellulosic biomass to produce green renewable fuels and high-value chemicals pretreats the biomass with organic solvents in aqueous solution. Here, neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics simulations reveal the temperature-dependent morphological changes in poplar wood biomass during tetrahydrofuran (THF):water pretreatment and provide a mechanism by which the solvent components drive efficient biomass breakdown. Whereas lignin dissociates over a wide temperature range (>25 °C) cellulose disruption occurs only above 150 °C. Neutron scattering with contrast variation provides direct evidence for the formation of THF-rich nanoclusters (Rg ∼ 0.5 nm) on the nonpolar cellulose surfaces and on hydrophobic lignin, and equivalent water-rich nanoclusters on polar cellulose surfaces. The disassembly of the amphiphilic biomass is thus enabled through the local demixing of highly functional cosolvents, THF and water, which preferentially solvate specific biomass surfaces so as to match the local solute polarity. A multiscale description of the efficiency of THF:water pretreatment is provided: matching polarity at the atomic scale prevents lignin aggregation and disrupts cellulose, leading to improvements in deconstruction at the macroscopic scale.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Lignina/química , Madeira/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Celulase/metabolismo , Furanos/química , Gluconacetobacter xylinus/enzimologia , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Populus/química , Solventes/química , Tensoativos/química
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123772, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653750

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and/or cellulase on fermentation, aerobic stability and bacterial community of mixed high-moisture amaranth (AF) and rice straw (RS) silage. The mixtures were treated with no addition (C), L. plantarum (L), cellulase (F) and their combination (LF). Additives increased the abundances of Lactobacillus and reduced the abundances of Weissella, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, decreased pH, acetic acid, ammonia nitrogen and increased lactic acid concentration as compared to C silage over the ensiling period. The LF silage had the highest lactic acid concentration among all silages over the 7 d of ensiling and also the lowest abundance of Enterobacteriaceae over 30 d of ensiling. Aerobic spoilage occurred in C and LF silages after 2 d of aerobic exposure, whereas the L and F silages remained stable > 4 d. In conclusion, silage treated with LF showed best silage quality.


Assuntos
Celulase , Lactobacillus plantarum , Oryza , Aerobiose , Fermentação , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123789, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682260

RESUMO

To assess the impact of alkalinity on sulfonation and the enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of softwood cellulose, Lodgepole pine chips were impregnated with 8% sodium sulfite and increasing loadings of sodium carbonate before thermomechanical pulping. It was apparent that alkali addition enhanced lignin sulfonation with an additional 4% loading of sodium carbonate proving optimal. TEM indicated that sulfonation predominantly occurred within the secondary-cell-wall lignin, increasing cellulose accessibility to the cellulase enzymes. Although increasing alkalinity did not significantly enhance lignin sulfonation, likely due to the lower acetyl content of the softwood chips, it increases mannan solubilization. Despite their smaller particle size, softwood pellets were more poorly sulfonated, probably due to their higher lignin content and lower amount of acid groups. This more condensed lignin structure was confirmed by 2D-NMR and GPC analyses which indicated that the EMAL derived from softwood pellets contained less native ß-O-4 linkages and had a higher molecular weight.


Assuntos
Celulase , Madeira , Celulose , Hidrólise , Lignina
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 314: 123716, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650262

RESUMO

ß-Glucans as emerging biopolymer are widely produced by microorganisms in fermentation processes using commercial sugars which make process non-economic. Lignocellulosic substances are inexpensive carbon sources, which could be exploited for sustainable production of ß-glucans. In this study, a lignocellulosic material, namely sugarcane straw (SCS) was utilized for the production of extracellular ß-glucan by Lasiodiplodia theobromae CCT3966. SCS was subjected to acid and subsequent alkaline pretreatment, followed by enzymatic saccharification using cellulase enzyme. Quantity of 48.65 g/L glucose was released after enzymatic hydrolysis. ß-Glucan production was performed by cultivation of fungal strain in SCS hydrolysate at 28 °C and initial culture pH 7. Highest ß-glucan yield and productivity of 0.047 gg-1 and 0.014 gL-1h-1, respectively was obtained at 72 h fermentation time. Kinetic study of ß-glucan production revealed experimental biosynthesis of ß-glucan from SCS hydrolysate followed the trend generated by Logistic and Luedeking-Piret models. Chemical structure of biopolymer produced showed ß-glucan constitution.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Celulase , Saccharum , beta-Glucanas , Biopolímeros , Fermentação , Hidrólise
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36498-36509, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562224

RESUMO

Lipase enzyme has a critical role in deinking process along with other lignocellulosic enzymes. In this paper, we try to demonstrate the role of lipase in the enzyme cocktail used for enzymatic deinking. For this, we identified a potential lipolytic bacterium, Pseudomonas mendocina ED9 isolated from elephant dung with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. During the Box-Benhken model optimization, a maximum lipase activity of 105.12 U/g, which was 12.36-fold higher than the initial enzyme activity and 1.3-fold higher than the activity obtained during the Plackett Burman design, was achieved. A maximum lipase activity of 105.12 U/g was obtained after optimization. Ammonium sulphate (60%) precipitation resulted in a specific activity of 68.19 U/mg with a 1.4-fold purification and yield of 64%. Lipase from P. mendocina ED9 exhibited a Km of 0.5306 mM and Vmax of 25.0237 µmol/min/mg. A Δ brightness of approximately 14.5% were achieved during the enzymatic deinking using cocktail comprised of cellulase, xylanase and lipase. This reports the significant role and efficacy of lipase in enzyme cocktails for deinking applications. This formulation will reduce the pollution and environmental toxicity of conventional chemical deinking.


Assuntos
Celulase , Pseudomonas mendocina , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tinta , Lipase , Papel
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 310: 123458, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380436

RESUMO

Cell growth of Trichoderma reesei is greatly inhibited by furan derivatives (furfural and HMF) generated during pretreatment of lignocellulose, and the cellulase production is hence suppressed. In this study, a novel recombinant strain of T. reesei with high tolerance to furans was constructed by homologously co-expressing nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase and alcohol dehydrogenase. We observed that furfural had a stronger inhibitory effect than HMF and cellulase production was decreased by 35% in T. reesei with the stress of 2.5 mM furfural. The activities of nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase and alcohol dehydrogenase increased 8.6-fold and 2.9-fold in the recombinant strain, respectively. Furfural was effectively converted into furfuryl alcohol which was then depleted, thus the production of cellulase could be recovered when the recombinant strain was grown in 5% (w/v) two-step stem explosion pretreated rice straw without detoxification. This work presents an important strategy for efficient enzyme production in T. reesei from non-detoxified pretreated lignocellulose feedstocks.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Álcool Desidrogenase , Lignina , Pentosiltransferases
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 310: 123476, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402987

RESUMO

The effects of feruloyl esterase-producing Lactobacillus plantarum A1, cellulase, or their combination on the fermentation characteristics, carbohydrate composition, and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed corn stalk and potato pulp silage were investigated. Two mixture ratios were used: a weight ratio of rehydrated corn stalk to potato pulp of 35:1 (HD) and a weight ratio of dry corn stalk to potato pulp of 5:11 (LD). No advantage was observed with the addition of strain A1 alone for lignocellulosic degradation and cellulose conversion, while its combination with cellulase enhanced the lignocellulosic degradation and preserved more fermentable carbohydrates in co-ensiled corn stalk and potato pulp. The enzymatic hydrolysis results indicated a potential benefit of pretreatment for biogas production, as the co-ensiled HD ratio mixture without additive treatment showed high glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis following 60 d of fermentation.


Assuntos
Celulase , Lactobacillus plantarum , Solanum tuberosum , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico , Celulose , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina , Silagem , Zea mays
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 731: 138806, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413652

RESUMO

The objective of this work is to find a simple and environmentally friendly way to prepare high efficiency adsorbent from maize stover by cellulase. The characteristics of the original maize cob (MC), maize husk (MH), maize straw (MS), and its cellulase modified form (MMC, MMH and MMS) were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the adsorption capacity of sulfamethazine (SMT) to adsorbents was in order of MMC > MMS > MMH > MC > MS > MH. The adsorption isotherm data of SMT on original materials were consistent with Freundlich models, while Henry models were more suitable for the modified materials. The adsorption was affected by pH and ionic strength which demonstrated the interaction between π-π EDA and H bonds might be an important factor in the adsorption of SMT on maize stover. The results of FTIR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) analysis further demonstrated that oxhydryl and aromatic structures in the modified maize stover could interact with SMT via H bonds and π-π EDA interaction, respectively. This work provides a green way to remove SMT from aqueous solution, and new insights into the mechanisms of adsorption of SMT on stover materials.


Assuntos
Celulase , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Biomassa , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Soluções , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Sulfametazina
10.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127126, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470736

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization and consumption of fossil fuels have led to considerable progress in the production of renewable biofuels like bioethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass such as grasses serves as cheap feedstocks for the production of bioethanol. However, the process involved in lignocellulosic bioethanol production is expensive which restricts its industrial production. The present study thus attempted to investigate a partially consolidated bioprocessing (PCB) approach using two isolated anaerobic thermophiles i.e. Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus nitratireducens for direct conversion of ultra-sonication assisted sodium hydroxide (UA-NaOH) pretreated Denannath grass to bioethanol in co-culture consortium batch fermentation experiments. The process parameters for the PCB approach were optimized using the Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The parameters that were considered were substrate concentration (5-10 g), incubation time (30-66 h), inoculum volume [1:1 to 3:3 (% v/v) and temperature (50-65 °C). The maximum ethanol concentration of 8.46 mM (0.39 g/L from 7.5 g/L of substrate loading) and ethanol yield (Yp/s) of 0.55 g/g of reducing sugar was obtained at 57.5 °C. In the same conditions the cellulase and xylanase activities were 0.8 U/mL and 11.53 U/mL respectively, while the lactate and acetate concentrations were 0.2 mM (0.009 g/L) and 2.9 mM (0.13 g/L) correspondingly. An increase in the substrate loadings to 250 g/L in a batch fermenter (3 L) resulted in the production of 373.35 mM (17.1 g/L) of ethanol concentration and Yp/s of 0.16 g/g of reducing sugar.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Etanol/análise , Pennisetum/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Celulase/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Hidróxido de Sódio
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 311: 123548, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454421

RESUMO

A novel seaweed-hydrolyzing strain designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. Alg6B was isolated from the surface of brown seaweed (Laminaria japonica). The activity of crude alginate lyase produced by Alg6B was 54.5 U/ml and the main products of hydrolyzing alginate were disaccharide and tetrasaccharide. The hydrolysis rate of seaweed reached up to 97% after combining 3% (v/v) Alg6B and 0.2% (w/v) solid cellulase. In kelp hydrolysate, the contents of nutrients are much more than raw seaweed. Alg6B grows quickly and has the ability of producing alginate oligosaccharides with low molecular weight (MW) (≤2 kDa). Furthermore, this study demonstrates that a combination of microbial alginate lyase and cellulase could almost hydrolyze seaweed completely. This research indicated that Alg6B could provide a feasible pathway to produce alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), and the synergistic effect of alginate lyase and cellulase on seaweed bioconversion can potentially pave the way to the sustainable production of seaweed fertilizer.


Assuntos
Celulase , Laminaria , Alga Marinha , Alginatos , Polissacarídeo-Liase
12.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(2): 137-141, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331776

RESUMO

We had developed a new pretreatment system using cow rumen fluid to improve the methane production from lignocellulosic substrates. However, the pretreatment conditions differ from the in-situ rumen environment, therefore different microbes may be involved in plant cell wall decomposition. In the current study, shotgun metagenomic analysis using MiSeq platform was performed to elucidate the bacteria which produce cellulase and hemicellulase in this pretreatment system. The rumen fluid which contained waste paper pieces (0.1% w/v) were incubated at 37°C during 120 h. The fluid samples were collected from the reactor at each time-point and analyzed for chemical properties. Rumen microbial DNA was extracted from 0-h and 60-h samples and subjected to shotgun-metagenomic analysis. After pretreatment, approximately half of cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the waste paper were decomposed and some volatile fatty acids were accumulated. Clostridia (e.g., Ruminococcus and Clostridium) were the predominant bacteria before and after 60-h pretreatment, and their relative abundance was increased during pretreatment. However, Prevotella and Fibrobacter, one of the most dominant bacteria in-situ rumen fluid, were observed less than 3% before incubation and they were decreased after pretreatment. Genes encoding cellulase and hemicellulase were mainly found in Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Caldicellulosiruptor. Calicellulosiruptor, which had not been previously identified as the predominant genus in lignocellulose decomposition in in-situ rumen conditions, might be considered as the main fibrolytic bacterium in this system. Thus, this study demonstrated that the composition of fibrolytic bacteria in this system was greatly different from those in the in-situ rumen.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Microbiologia Industrial , Lignina/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Bovinos , Celulase/genética , Celulase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 890-895, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237490

RESUMO

The solid wastes of Chinese materia dedica industrialization represented by Salvia miltiorrhiza residues have a strong small-molecule bio-recalcitrance in the process of high-value utilization of biotransformation. Highly tolerant strains were bred to break bio-recalcitrance of Salvia miltiorrhiza residues and produce high-value added cellulose, which has a significant significance for recycling and industrial utilization of solid waste. In this study, a strain of fungus, Penicillium expansum SZ13, was found with small-molecule antibacterial substance tanshinone contained in Salvia miltiorrhiza residues by a biological method. The optimal enzyme production process and peak period of SZ13 were determined. It was found that SZ13 could maintain peak enzyme production for 5 days by degrading residues under the conditions of temperature 35 ℃, rotation speed 180 r·min~(-1), 5% of residues addition, and 5% seed solution addition. Meanwhile, the ability of SZ13 to degrade the enzyme production of multiple types of residues was explored. The results showed a high enzyme activity and stable enzyme production of SZ13 in the process of degrading residues. SZ13 could efficiently utilize various types of Chinese medicine residues, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza residues, to realize the high-value utilization of cellulose in multiple types of residues.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Fermentação , Materia Medica , Penicillium/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Resíduos Sólidos , China , Indústria Farmacêutica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas
14.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126727, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289609

RESUMO

The major bottleneck for industrial applications of microbial flocculants is the high production cost. Here, a novel bacterium, Diaphorobacter nitroreducens R9, was isolated that can secret ligninase and cellulase and simultaneously produce bioflocculants (MBF-9) through conversion of ramie biomass. The production of MBF-9 was closely related to the ligninase and cellulase activities of D. nitroreducens. Both ligninase and cellulase showed peak activity at pH 8.5 and 6.0 and retained approximately 80% of cellulase activity and 95% of ligninase activity at pH 8.0. The optimal production conditions with the highest bioflocculant yield (3.86 g/L degumming wastewater) were determined at a fermentation time of 48 h, fermentation temperature of 30 °C, inoculum size of 4.0%, CODCr of ramie degumming wastewater of 1500 mg/L and initial pH of 8.0. In addition, MBF-9 removed 96.2% turbidity, 79.5% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 59.2% lignin, and 63.1% sugar from the pulping wastewater at an MBF-9 dosage of 831.57 mg/L.


Assuntos
Boehmeria/metabolismo , Comamonadaceae/metabolismo , Floculação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biomassa , Celulase/metabolismo , Comamonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 308: 123324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278994

RESUMO

This study aimed to provide a low cost feasible pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) method for the effective dissolution of xylan and the high glucan digestibility of reed with a low enzyme loading. The combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000-enhanced EH and hydrothermal-alkaline/oxygen pretreatment was studied. Process conditions were optimized through response surface methodology. Three models of glucan conversion rate, pretreated solids yield and lignin removal rate were established, and their determination coefficient (R2) values were 0.9218, 0.7939, and 0.8156, respectively. The models and experiments were reliable and significant. The optimal conditions favored 94.5% xylan dissolution rate and 95.6% glucan digestibility by using a cellulase loading of 3 filter paper units (FPU)/g-pretreated solids, which obviously enhanced 30.7% of the glucan conversion rate. This method was applicable due to effective xylan dissolution, lignin removal, and EH with PEG 3000 addition, which can help saved 85% cellulase loading.


Assuntos
Celulase , Hidrólise , Lignina , Oxigênio , Tensoativos
16.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219952

RESUMO

To effectively use local available grass resources to cover the winter feed shortage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, direct-cut and wilted reed canary grass (RCG) silages were prepared by using a rolled-bale system, and their ensiling characteristics and in vitro digestibility were studied. Silages were treated without (control) or with inoculants including LP (Lactobacillus plantarum), LPLB (L. plantarum, L. buchneri), and LPLBc (L. plantarum, L. buchneri, and cellulase), and were stored at ambient temperature (5.7-14.6°C) for 90 days. Compared with control, the inoculated silages increased (p < .05) lactic acid and acetic acid contents, and reduced (p < .05) final pH value and ammonia-N ratio of total N. The highest WSC content (41.2 g/kg DM) occurred for LPLB-inoculated silage, whereas LPLBc-treated silage displayed the lowest contents of NDF (522.9 g/kg DM) and ADF (275.5 g/kg DM). In addition, LPLBc-inoculated silage had the highest in vitro gas production (51.0 ml/g DM), in vitro DM digestibility (619.3 g/kg DM), and metabolic energy (9.6 kJ/kg DM). These results confirmed that treatments with inoculants at ensiling could improve silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of RCG, and this could be a potential winter feed for animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Celulase , Digestão , Fermentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus , Phalaris , Silagem , Ácido Acético/análise , Amônia/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Ácido Láctico/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Silagem/análise , Temperatura , Tibet , Fatores de Tempo
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 51, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157408

RESUMO

Culture-independent molecular-based approaches can be used to identify genes of interest from environmental sources that have desirable properties such as thermo activity. For this study, a putative thermo stable endoglucanase gene was identified from a mixed culture resulting from the inoculation of Brock-CMcellulose (1%) broth with mudspring water from Mt. Makiling, Laguna, Philippines that had been incubated at 90 °C. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cellulose-enriched mixed culture and endo1949 forward and reverse primers were used to amplify the endoglucanase gene, which was cloned into pCR-script plasmid vector. Blastn alignment of the sequenced insert revealed 99.69% similarity to the glycosyl hydrolase, sso1354 (CelA1; Q97YG7) from Saccharolobus solfataricus. The endoglucanase gene (GenBank accession number MK984682) was determined to be 1,021 nucleotide bases in length, corresponding to 333 amino acids with a molecular mass of ~ 37 kDa. The endoglucanase gene was inserted into a pET21 vector and transformed in E. coli BL21 for expression. Partially purified recombinant Mt. Makiling endoglucanase (MM-Engl) showed a specific activity of 187.61 U/mg and demonstrated heat stability up to 80 °C. The thermo-acid stable endoglucanase can be used in a supplementary hydrolysis step to further hydrolyze the lignocellulosic materials that were previously treated under high temperature-dilute acid conditions, thereby enhancing the release of more glucose sugars for bioethanol production.


Assuntos
Celulase/genética , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA , Genômica , Água/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Archaea/enzimologia , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Filipinas , Proteínas Recombinantes , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sulfolobales/enzimologia , Sulfolobales/genética , Temperatura , Microbiologia da Água
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1619: 460915, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008824

RESUMO

Considering the huge difference of biological toxicity, it is extremely significant to recognize the exact content of arsenic species in actual samples. In this paper, a novel pretreatment technique for the efficient extraction of arsenic species from herbal samples is developed by dual-frequency ultrasound-assisted enzymatic digestion (DUED). The preservation of arsenic original form, reduction of the actual analysis time, environmental friendliness and free-interference in subsequent detection make this method over the traditional method such as wet digestion, ashing and some solvent extraction technologies. The combination of DUED and atomic fluorescence spectrometry realize the speciation analysis of arsenic in traditional Chinese medicine. The optimizations of experimental parameters have been achieved, and the potential mechanism is discussed. The experimental data showed that cellulase is suitable for the digestion of herbal matrix than α-amylase and papain. Ultrasound can significantly increase the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of biological molecules, especially under dual-frequency ultrasound irradiation. The highest relative extraction efficiency can be obtained by combining 40 kHz ultrasonic bath (UB) with 20 kHz ultrasonic probe (UP). Two certified reference materials [CRMs, GBW(E)090066 and GBW(E)090067] and four practical herbs were used to evaluate the accuracy and practicability of the method. Inorganic arsenic, including trivalent arsenic and pentavalent arsenic, was the main species in the four herbal samples.


Assuntos
Arsênico/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Arsênico/análise , Celulase , Hidrólise , Papaína , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , alfa-Amilases
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122795, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004810

RESUMO

To elevate the glucose yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar wood for bio-ethanol production, quick hydrothermal treatment (QHT) was conducted at 200 °C for a short period of time from 5 min to 25 min. It was found that the QHT could remove >85% of the hemicelluloses and ~30% of the lignin in the poplar wood, and achieve 82% cellulose conversion at a low cellulase dosage of 10 FPU/g substrate. The enhancement digestibility of poplar wood was ascribed to the higher accessibility of cellulose, as the specific surface area of the substrate increased from 3.0 m2/g to 7.1 m2/g from the of untreated wood to the QHT-treated wood. The results demonstrate the improvements in digestibility and hydrolysis rates after QHT.


Assuntos
Celulase , Populus , Hidrólise , Lignina , Madeira
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122902, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019709

RESUMO

Cellulase production, lignocellulose saccharification and bioethanol fermentation were integrated to efficiently produce bioethanol. A modified gas lift bioreactor was developed for bioethanol production by the integrated process. Cellulase production was achieved using Aspergillus niger mycelia immobilized within the reactor in wire meshes, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in resin beads. During four repeated batches fermentation, cellulase activities were more than 6.28 U/mL and bioethanol production was over 45.9 g/L for 48 h. The factual bioethanol conversion efficiency was 86.8%. By the modification of the modified gas lift bioreactor, immobilization of Aspergillus niger mycelia and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, aerobic cellulase production, substrate saccharification and anaerobic bioethanol fermentation were successfully integrated in tandem. The integrated processes is of great significance in bioethanol production.


Assuntos
Celulase , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Etanol , Fermentação , Lignina , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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