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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21460, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756167

RESUMO

Volume status is a key parameter for cardiovascular-related mortality in dialysis patients. Although N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), myeloperoxidase, copeptin, and pro-adrenomedullin have been reported as volume markers, the relationship between body fluid status and volume markers in dialysis patients is uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the utility of volume status biomarkers based on body composition monitor (BCM) analyses.We enrolled pre-dialysis, hemodialysis (HD), and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy Korean individuals (N = 80). BCM and transthoracic echocardiography were performed and NT-proBNP, myeloperoxidase, copeptin, and pro-adrenomedullin concentrations were measured. Relative hydration status (ΔHS, %) was defined in terms of the hydration status-to-extracellular water ratio with a cutoff of 15%, and hyperhydrated status was defined as ΔHS > 15%.Although there were no significant differences in total body water, extracellular water, or intracellular water among groups, mean amount of volume overload and hyperhydrated status were significantly higher in HD and PD patients compared with control and pre-dialysis patients. Mean amount of volume overload and hyperhydrated status were also significantly associated with higher NT-proBNP and pro-adrenomedullin levels in HD and PD patients, although not with myeloperoxidase or copeptin levels. Furthermore, they were significantly associated with cardiac markers (left ventricular mass index, ejection fraction, and left atrial diameter) in HD and PD patients compared with those in the control and pre-dialysis groups.On the basis of increased plasma NT-proBNP and pro-adrenomedullin concentrations, we might be able to make predictions regarding the volume overload status of dialysis patients, and thereby reduce cardiovascular-related mortality through appropriate early volume control.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adrenomedulina/sangue , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diálise/métodos , Diálise/tendências , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Peroxidase/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Environ Radioact ; 220-221: 106299, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658643

RESUMO

Based on the fact that uranyl ions (UO22+) adsorbed on GO can enhanced the peroxidase-like activity of graphene oxide (GO), a novel colorimetric strategy for visualizing quantitative determination of uranyl ions was established. The peroxidase-like activity of GO-UO22+ nanocomposites was assessed by catalyzing H2O2 oxidation of TMB to produce a distinct color reaction. A good linearity between the UO22+ concentration and absorption at 652 nm was acquired in the range of 5.90 × 10-6 to 9.43 × 10-4 M with a detection limit of 4.70 µM. This strategy was also successfully applied to determination of uranyl ions in environmental water samples.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Adsorção , Grafite , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Íons , Limite de Detecção , Peroxidase , Peroxidases , Monitoramento de Radiação
3.
Life Sci ; 257: 118130, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction syndrome arising from uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Liver injury is a crucial factor for the prognosis of sepsis. Camptothecins (CPTs) have been reported to suppress the inflammatory response induced by sepsis. G2, a CPT-bile acid conjugate, has been demonstrated the property of liver targeting in our previous research. This study aimed to research the effects of G2 on liver injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to CLP surgery, and effects of G2 on liver damage and survival rates of CLP-induced mice were evaluated. To detect the related markers of hepatic injury or neutrophil infiltration, inflammatory cytokines and protein levels, hematoxylin-eosin staining assay, corresponding Detection Kits assay, ELISA and Western blot analysis were performed. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of G2 reduced liver injury and enhanced the survival rates in mice with sepsis. Treatment with G2 decreased the levels of hepatic injury markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum of mice induced by CLP. The hepatic level of neutrophil infiltration marker myeloperoxidase (MPO) was reduced in G2 administration group. And the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines, including Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNFα), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1ß, were decreased by G2. Furthermore, the results of Western blot analysis indicated that G2 suppressed the up-regulation of NF-κB p-P65 and p-IκBα. It suggested that G2 suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: G2 alleviated sepsis-induced liver injury via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sepse/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/administração & dosagem , Western Blotting , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peroxidase/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110890, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593096

RESUMO

The presence of tetracycline is ubiquitous and has adverse effects on aquatic systems. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the ecological sensitivity of Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer and Trapa bispinosa Roxb. Exposed to different concentrations of tetracycline (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 and 50 mg/L) for one day (1D) and 14 days (14D). The results showed that after 1D of tetracycline exposure, the physiological indices of H. dubia had no remarkable change except for proline which was significantly stimulated under 0.1 mg/L tetracycline. For T. bispinosa, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and protein and proline content were notably promoted under different concentrations of tetracycline, but PPO activity was significantly decreased in 50 mg/L. After 14D, tetracycline caused no harm to the growth and protein content of H. dubia, but negatively influenced lipid peroxidation product and chlorophyll content in H. dubia under high tetracycline concentrations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and POD activity of H. dubia significantly increased at high tetracycline concentrations, while catalase (CAT) and PPO activity significantly decreased. APX activity in H. dubia increased with tetracycline concentrations at low tetracycline concentrations. For T. bispinosa, high concentrations of tetracycline application significantly inhibited its growth and the content of protein and chlorophyll. SOD, POD, CAT, and PPO activity of T. bispinosa were induced under different concentrations of tetracycline and no lipid peroxidation was observed. APX activity in T. bispinosa was significantly inhibited at high tetracycline concentrations. The results suggest that tetracycline can cause oxidative damage in H. dubia but harm the metabolism process of T. bispinosa without inducing oxidative damage. Overall, the sensitivity of T. bispinosa exposed to tetracycline exposure is higher than that of H. dubia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Hydrocharitaceae/fisiologia , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lythraceae , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase , Prolina/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15827-15836, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571911

RESUMO

Bromine and peroxidasin (an extracellular peroxidase) are essential for generating sulfilimine cross-links between a methionine and a hydroxylysine within collagen IV, a basement membrane protein. The sulfilimine cross-links increase the structural integrity of basement membranes. The formation of sulfilimine cross-links depends on the ability of peroxidasin to use bromide and hydrogen peroxide substrates to produce hypobromous acid (HOBr). Once a sulfilimine cross-link is created, bromide is released into the extracellular space and becomes available for reutilization. Whether the HOBr generated by peroxidasin is used very selectively for creating sulfilimine cross-links or whether it also causes oxidative damage to bystander molecules (e.g., generating bromotyrosine residues in basement membrane proteins) is unclear. To examine this issue, we used nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging to define the distribution of bromine in mammalian tissues. We observed striking enrichment of bromine (79Br, 81Br) in basement membranes of normal human and mouse kidneys. In peroxidasin knockout mice, bromine enrichment of basement membranes of kidneys was reduced by ∼85%. Proteomic studies revealed bromination of tyrosine-1485 in the NC1 domain of α2 collagen IV from kidneys of wild-type mice; the same tyrosine was brominated in collagen IV from human kidney. Bromination of tyrosine-1485 was reduced by >90% in kidneys of peroxidasin knockout mice. Thus, in addition to promoting sulfilimine cross-links in collagen IV, peroxidasin can also brominate a bystander tyrosine. Also, the fact that bromine enrichment is largely confined to basement membranes implies that peroxidasin activity is largely restricted to basement membranes in mammalian tissues.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Bromo/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Bromatos/metabolismo , Brometos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Iminas/metabolismo , Rim/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteômica
6.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 46: 101724, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516737

RESUMO

Hypochlorous acid, produced by myeloperoxidase upon neutrophil activation, can oxidize various compounds and exert antimicrobial activity in vivo. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the reactions of the unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, which abound in cell membranes, with hypochlorous acid, we identified and examined phosphatidylcholine chlorination and oxidation products formed under various reaction conditions. We first investigated the products of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and hypochlorous acid reaction with respect to hypochlorite concentration and reaction time. Next, we examined the lipids extracted postmortem from human abscesses. For all the analyses, we used liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Various compounds, including phosphatidylcholine chlorohydrin and phosphatidylcholine hydroxide/epoxide, were detected. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines were mainly detectable upon reaction with low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, whereas chlorinated phosphatidylcholines formed in the presence of higher concentrations. In human abscesses, oxidized phosphatidylcholines were detected in the cases with high procalcitonin concentration, whereas chlorinated phosphatidylcholines were undetected. The detections of oxidized phosphatidylcholines in human tissues might indicate previous exposure to hypochlorous acid in septic cases. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying pathogen survival following inflammation associated with neutrophil activation and topical myeloperoxidase release and show postmortem biomarkers candidates for sepsis.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/metabolismo , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicina Legal/métodos , Halogenação , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
7.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127258, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585458

RESUMO

This is the first study to investigate the reduction mechanism of Tl (III) to Tl(I) in the presence of plants, especially rice. Smaller plant density could effectively reduce the content of organic acids in the hydroponic system to keep the stability of Tl(III). As the plant density was reduced from 40 seedlings to 10 seedlings in 100 mL Tl(III) solution, the content of oxalate was declined to one-third of the original, and the ratio of Tl(III)/total Tl was increased from 39.6% to 81.0% in the first 2 h treatment. Then the differences in antioxidant capacity of rice exposed to the two Tl species were studied. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2˙-) of rice roots exposed to Tl(III) were all higher than those to Tl(I). Meanwhile, the catalase (CAT) activity was significantly depressed and peroxidase (POD) was increased by Tl(III), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed a rise in both Tl(I) and Tl(III) with no significant difference between them. The expression of metallothionein gene OsMT1a to Tl(I) was upregulated to 255.5 times of Tl(III) though OsMT2c was downregulated to 0.39 times of Tl(III). Overall, the different responses in metallothionein gene expression and antioxidative enzyme activation might result in more ROS accumulation to rice roots by Tl(III) treatment than those by Tl(I).


Assuntos
Metalotioneína/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tálio/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
8.
Blood ; 136(10): 1169-1179, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597954

RESUMO

COVID-19 affects millions of patients worldwide, with clinical presentation ranging from isolated thrombosis to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring ventilator support. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) originate from decondensed chromatin released to immobilize pathogens, and they can trigger immunothrombosis. We studied the connection between NETs and COVID-19 severity and progression. We conducted a prospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients (n = 33) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 17). We measured plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes (NETs), platelet factor 4, RANTES, and selected cytokines. Three COVID-19 lung autopsies were examined for NETs and platelet involvement. We assessed NET formation ex vivo in COVID-19 neutrophils and in healthy neutrophils incubated with COVID-19 plasma. We also tested the ability of neonatal NET-inhibitory factor (nNIF) to block NET formation induced by COVID-19 plasma. Plasma MPO-DNA complexes increased in COVID-19, with intubation (P < .0001) and death (P < .0005) as outcome. Illness severity correlated directly with plasma MPO-DNA complexes (P = .0360), whereas Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen correlated inversely (P = .0340). Soluble and cellular factors triggering NETs were significantly increased in COVID-19, and pulmonary autopsies confirmed NET-containing microthrombi with neutrophil-platelet infiltration. Finally, COVID-19 neutrophils ex vivo displayed excessive NETs at baseline, and COVID-19 plasma triggered NET formation, which was blocked by nNIF. Thus, NETs triggering immunothrombosis may, in part, explain the prothrombotic clinical presentations in COVID-19, and NETs may represent targets for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/patologia , Pandemias , Peroxidase/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Trombose/imunologia , Trombose/patologia
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109181, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569593

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a sudden pancreatic inflammation accompanied by an excessive reactive oxygen species production that provokes inflammation. The present study investigated whether carvedilol can protect against l-arginine induced AP in a rat model and studied the mechanisms associated with its protection. Rats were divided into four groups: a control group, an AP group (injected with 2 doses of l-arginine 250 mg/100 g body weight at 1 h interval, intraperitoneally) on the 22nd day of the experiment, a carvedilol group (10 mg/kg, orally) for 21 successive days, and finally a carvedilol + AP group. It was found that pretreatment with carvedilol decreased α-amylase and lipase activities as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and malondialdehyde levels; on the other hand, it improved the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT) activity. In addition, carvedilol markedly decreased all of the following biomarkers: nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38-MAPK), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1-α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) levels that was induced by l-arginine. Finally, carvedilol noticeably down regulated the pancreatitis associated protein (PAP2) and the pancreas platelets activating factor (PAF) genes expression. In conclusion: carvedilol protected against l-arginine induced AP in rats, via the inhibition of cellular oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways that contributed to pancreas injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carvedilol/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginina , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105548, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593115

RESUMO

Natural algaecides are more likely to be specific and biodegradable, and may offer an environmentally friendly method for control of cyanobacterial blooms. We explored, for the first time, the potential for watermelon peel aqueous extract (WMPAE) to control the growth of the harmful blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. The growth inhibition and several physiological parameters of A. flos-aquae, in response to WMPAE, were analyzed. Results showed that WMPAE significantly inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae in a concentration-dependent way. The highest inhibition reached 94 % after 3 days' treatment with 6 g L-1 of WMPAE and a significant effect was obtained with lower doses and shorter times as well. The cell viability decreased quickly, cell shape changed, and intracellular structural damage occurred. At the same time, the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase SOD, catalase CAT and peroxidase POD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels all increased significantly, indicating that WMPAE between 2-6 g L-1 induced severe oxidative stress and damage to A. flos-aquae. Moreover, production of the four pigments chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoids, phycocyanin (PC), and allophycocyanin (APC) were all stimulated, though photosynthesis of A. flos-aquae was clearly inhibited. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the effective quantum yield of photosystem II ( Fv'/Fm') declined sharply, suggesting the decreased photosystem capacity of A. flos-aquae to convert light energy into chemical energy. In addition, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of A. flos-aquae increased after a very short time exposure to WMPAE, and decreased significantly with prolonged exposure time, which indicated the failure of photo protection mechanisms. These results suggest that the loss of cell viability, and increases in oxidative stress, and damage to intracellular structure and photosynthetic systems might be the mechanisms for the inhibitory effects. Our results suggested that WMPAE could be a novel and effective approach for controlling the growth of A. flos-aquae in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Aphanizomenon/fisiologia , Citrullus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aphanizomenon/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Citrullus/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110869, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585490

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) contamination is a potential threat to the agricultural soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have potential to remediate the heavy metal polluted soils. It was hypothesized that Cr phytoremediation potentiality of AM fungi could be enhanced in combination with saprophytic filamentous fungi and soil amendment. Tomato plants were raised in Cr polluted technosol amended with compost, inoculated with mixed-culture of AM fungi and Aspergillus terreus. It was found that, triple treatment (soil amendment with compost along with AM fungi and A. terreus inoculation) enhanced biomass production (up to 315%), fruit setting (up to 49%), photosynthetic pigments (up to 214%) and carbohydrate content (up to 400%) whereas reduced the proline (up to 76.5%), catalase (up to 34.2%), peroxidase (up to 58.9%) and root membrane permeability (up to 74.2%). The effect of AM fungi with compost amendment was additive, while it was synergistic with A. terreus. AM fungi enhanced the extraction of Cr from the substrate, but retained in the mycorrhizal root, thereby reduced the translocation into shoot and in fruit, Cr translocation was undetectable. At the end of experiment Cr content in the substrate was significantly decreased (up to 37.9%). Soil amendment with compost along with AM fungi and A. terreus inoculation can be used for reclamation of Cr polluted soils at field scale.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/fisiologia , Cromo/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Catalase/metabolismo , Compostagem , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo
12.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(4): e202000402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578722

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of bradykinin on reperfusion injury in an experimental intestinal ischemia reperfusion model. METHODS: We used 32 Wistar-Albino rats. We composed 4 groups each containing 8 rats. Rats in sham group were sacrified at 100 minutes observation after laparotomy. Thirty minutes reperfusion was performed following 50 minutes ischaemia in control group after observing 20 minutes. Ischaemic preconditioning was performed in one group of the study. We performed the other study group pharmacologic preconditioning by infusional administration of 10 µg/kg/minute bradykinin intravenously. We sacrified all of the rats by taking blood samples to evaluate the lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after resection of jejunum for detecting tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. RESULTS: Lactate and LDH levels were significantly higher in control and study groups than the sham group (P<0.001). There is no difference between the study groups statistically. (P>0.05). The results were the same for MPO levels. Although definitive cell damage was determinated in the control group by hystopatological evaluation, the damage in the study groups observed was lower in different levels. However, there was no significant difference between the study groups statistically (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Either ischeamic preconditioning or pharmacologic preconditioning made by bradykinin reduced the ischemia reperfusion injury at jejunum.


Assuntos
Bradicinina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intestino Delgado/irrigação sanguínea , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Laparotomia , Peroxidase/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 520-527, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431271

RESUMO

The microbial communities residing in the child gut are thought to play an important role in child growth, although the relationship is not well understood. We examined a cohort of young children from Mirzapur, Bangladesh, prospectively over 18 months. Four fecal markers of environmental enteropathy (EE) (high levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin, calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and neopterin) were examined and anthropometric measures obtained from a cohort of 68 children. The 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was sequenced from stool samples and used to estimate amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). We age-matched children with poor growth to children with normal growth within 1 month and compared the change in abundance and diversity of ASVs over time. Elevated EE markers and poor linear growth in children were associated with changes in microbial communities in the gut. There were increased amounts of Escherichia/Shigella and Proteobacteria and decreased amounts of Prevotella associated with poorly growing children consistent with the mounting evidence supporting the relationship between intestinal inflammation, child growth, and changes in gut microbiota composition. Future research is needed to investigate this association among young children in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/microbiologia , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Neopterina/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Escherichia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação , Enteropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevotella , Proteobactérias , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Shigella
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233566, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442236

RESUMO

Suspected bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common cause of overuse and misuse of antimicrobials. A bedside diagnostic test that could accurately predict urine culture results would prevent antimicrobial overuse, but accurate biomarkers have not yet been identified in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate urine myeloperoxidase (uMPO) as a rapidly available, accurate marker to predict urine culture results. We hypothesized that uMPO would be higher in dogs with a positive urine culture than in dogs with a negative urine culture, and that uMPO could be used to aid in the accurate diagnosis of significant bacteriuria. Urine samples were collected from a veterinary university clinical pathology lab. uMPO concentration was measured using a commercially available canine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following validation, samples from 98 dogs that had a urinalysis and urine culture performed as part of their diagnostic investigation were included. Forty-seven dogs had a negative urine culture and fifty-one dogs had a positive urine culture. uMPO levels were significantly higher in samples that had a positive culture (median 2.13 ng/ml; IQR 0.98-7.07) versus samples that had a negative culture (median 1.07 ng/ml; IQR 0.52-1.84)(p < 0.005). Based on receiver-operator characteristic, a cutoff of 0.55 ng/ml was chosen to maximize sensitivity and specificity. Using a cutoff of 0.55 ng/ml, uMPO had a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 69% to determine the presence of a positive culture. However, the degree of overlap between groups may preclude the use of this test as a surrogate for urine culture in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Bacteriúria , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças do Cão , Peroxidase/urina , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/urina , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bacteriúria/diagnóstico , Bacteriúria/urina , Bacteriúria/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110747, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460052

RESUMO

The presence of surfactants may affect the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the response of Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer to different concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), naphthalene (NAP) and their mixture (0.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L) for 14 days and 28 days. The results showed that LAS had a greater toxic effect on H. dubia growth than NAP at treatment concentrations of 0.5-20 mg/L. The combined effect of LAS and NAP was damaging to H. dubia at concentrations of LAS + NAP ≥5 + 5 mg/L. When LAS + NAP ≥10 + 10 mg/L, the underground parts of H. dubia suffered more significant damage than the aboveground parts. Under the treatments with LAS, NAP and their mixture, H. dubia experienced oxidative stress. Soluble proteins and antioxidant enzymes were the main substances protecting H. dubia from LAS stress, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were the main protective enzymes. When exposed to NAP, H. dubia growth was stimulated and promoted at the same time. In the short-term treatment (14 d), catalase (CAT) activity was sensitive to NAP stimulation, and soluble proteins and SOD were the main protective substances produced. Soluble sugars, SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) played important protective roles during the longer exposure time (28 d). The physiological response of H. dubia exposed to the combined toxicants was weaker than the response to exposure to individual toxicants. The responses of SOD and CAT activity were positive in the short term (14 d), and these were the main protective enzymes. As the exposure time increased (28 d), the plant antioxidant system responded negatively.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hydrocharitaceae/enzimologia , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Naftalenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(5): 360-365, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370464

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical and prognostic characteristics in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA). Methods: The clinical data of 146 EGPA patients hospitalized in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2000 to 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including clinical manifestations, laboratory results, treatment, complications and outcome at discharge. Birmingham Vasculitis activity score-V3 (BVAS-V3) was used to evaluate disease activity. Results: The ratio of male to female was 1.8∶1 with average age (41.7±16.1) year-old. The median time from disease onset to diagnosis was 18(6, 60) months (0.5~450). The most common clinical manifestations were lung [121(82.9%)] and nose/paranasal sinuses [119(81.5%)] involvement. The positive rate of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was 24.7%, mainly peripheral (P)-ANCA/myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. Compared with ANCA-negative patients, the ANCA-positive patients had a higher incidence of renal involvement and nervous system involvement (66.7% vs. 20.9%, 80.6% vs. 51.8%, P<0.001), fever and optic neuropathy (66.7% vs. 40.9%,8.3% vs. 0, P<0.05), more active disease [median BVAS-V3 25(18,30)vs. 19(14,24),P=0.001] and more elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate [40.5(20.5,82.8)mm/1h vs. 25.0(13.3,50.8)mm/1h,P=0.006] and C-reactive protein [37.1(11.8,72.9)mg/L vs.13.5(3.4,66.1)mg/L,P=0.036]. More ANCA-negative patients had pleural effusion (20.9% vs. 5.6%, P<0.04) compared with ANCA-negative patients. Pulmonary infection was the most common complication. A total of 12 EGPA patients (8.2%)achieved remission and 6 patients (4.1%)died or discharged themselves from the hospital. Conclusion: EGPA is a rare small vessel vasculitis. The clinical manifestations and outcomes are heterogenous. The mortality rate of EGPA is high.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Adulto , Eosinófilos , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peroxidase , Derrame Pleural , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 290-293, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Cu2+ and Cd2+ at different concentrations on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity in Oncomelania hupensis. METHODS: Cu2+- and Cd2+-containing solutions were prepared at 7 concentrations, and O. hupensis snails were exposed to the solutions for 24 h, of 15 snails in each concentration. Then, the snail body was collected following removal of the snail shell and homogenated, and the SOD, CAT and POS activities were detected in the supernatants. RESULTS: With the increase of the Cu2+ concentration, the SOD activity appeared a rise followed by a reduction in O. hupensis snails, and the CTA activity appeared a decline-rise-decline tendency, while the POD activity showed a tendency towards rise followed by decline. With the increase of the Cd2+ concentration, the SOD activity appeared a rise followed by a reduction in O. hupensis snails, and the CTA activity appeared a decline- rise- decline tendency, while the POD activity showed a decline-rise-decline tendency. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to Cu2+ and Cd2+ at high concentrations results in a decline in the activity of SOD, CAT and POD in O. hupensis at the same time.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Cobre , Oxirredutases , Caramujos , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Catalase/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons/toxicidade , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caramujos/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110732, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460049

RESUMO

This paper reports the role of exogenous glycine betaine (25 and 50 mM GB at a rate of 50 mL per plant) in enhancing NaCl-stress tolerance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Irrigating plants by simulated saline water, containing 0, 50 and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl), significantly reduced the growth dynamics, photosynthetic pigments (i.e., Chl a, Chl b, and carotenoids), membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), and pod yield. While, malondialdehyde (MDA), endogenous proline, and glutathione contents, electrolyte leakage (EL), antioxidant defense system, and Na+ accumulation markedly increased upon exposure to NaCl-stress. However, the application of exogenous GB significantly improved salt tolerance of common bean as it increased the antioxidant defense including both enzymatic (i.e., peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) and nonenzymatic (i.e., proline and glutathione) agents. Consequently, MSI, RWC, EL, and photosynthetic pigments have been improved recording significantly higher values than the control. Moreover, the pod yield increased by 29.8 and 59.4% when plants grown under 50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively, were sprayed with 25 mM GB. Our results show that GB-induced slat tolerance in common bean plants mainly depends on the osmoregulation effect of GB and to a lesser extent on its antioxidant capacity. Foliar application of GB significantly reduced the accumulation of Na+ and at the same time induced K+ uptake maintaining a higher K+/Na+ ratio. Despite some changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes induced by the application of GB, no consistent contribution in the salt tolerance could be cited in this study. Therefore, we suggest that salt tolerance is largely unrelated to the antioxidant defense ability of GB in common bean. While the potential role of GB in ameliorating salt tolerance is mainly due to the adjustment of ions uptake through limiting Na+ uptake and alternatively increasing K+ accumulation in plant tissues.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Cátions , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Osmorregulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/enzimologia , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/análise , Prolina/metabolismo , Sódio/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
JCI Insight ; 5(11)2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116202

RESUMO

In severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), viral pneumonia progresses to respiratory failure. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular webs of chromatin, microbicidal proteins, and oxidant enzymes that are released by neutrophils to contain infections. However, when not properly regulated, NETs have the potential to propagate inflammation and microvascular thrombosis - including in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We now report that sera from patients with COVID-19 have elevated levels of cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-DNA (MPO-DNA), and citrullinated histone H3 (Cit-H3); the latter 2 are specific markers of NETs. Highlighting the potential clinical relevance of these findings, cell-free DNA strongly correlated with acute-phase reactants, including C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as absolute neutrophil count. MPO-DNA associated with both cell-free DNA and absolute neutrophil count, while Cit-H3 correlated with platelet levels. Importantly, both cell-free DNA and MPO-DNA were higher in hospitalized patients receiving mechanical ventilation as compared with hospitalized patients breathing room air. Finally, sera from individuals with COVID-19 triggered NET release from control neutrophils in vitro. Future studies should investigate the predictive power of circulating NETs in longitudinal cohorts and determine the extent to which NETs may be novel therapeutic targets in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citrulinação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2031, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341348

RESUMO

Neutrophils employ several mechanisms to restrict fungi, including the action of enzymes such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) or NADPH oxidase, and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Moreover, they cooperate, forming "swarms" to attack fungi that are larger than individual neutrophils. Here, we designed an assay for studying how these mechanisms work together and contribute to neutrophil's ability to contain clusters of live Candida. We find that neutrophil swarming over Candida clusters delays germination through the action of MPO and NADPH oxidase, and restricts fungal growth through NET release within the swarm. In comparison with neutrophils from healthy subjects, those from patients with chronic granulomatous disease produce larger swarms against Candida, but their release of NETs is delayed, resulting in impaired control of fungal growth. We also show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF and GM-CSF) enhance swarming and neutrophil ability to restrict fungal growth, even during treatment with chemical inhibitors that disrupt neutrophil function.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Candidíase/microbiologia , Linhagem Celular , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/microbiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Análise em Microsséries , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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