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1.
Food Chem ; 324: 126858, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353656

RESUMO

Wheat flour noodles are sometimes fortified with ß-glucan for nutritional value, but this can decrease eating quality. The contributions of ß-glucan and starch molecular fine structure to physicochemical properties of wholemeal oat flour and to the texture of oat-fortified white salted noodles were investigated here. Hardness of oat-fortified noodles was controlled by the longer amylopectin chains (DP ≥ 26) and amount of longer amylose chains (DP ≥ 1000). Higher levels of ß-glucan, in the range from 3.1 to 5.2%, result in increased noodle hardness. Pasting viscosities of wholemeal oat flour positively correlate with the hardness of oat-fortified noodles. The swelling power of oat flour is not correlated with either pasting viscosities of oat flour or noodle hardness. Longer amylopectin chains and the amount of longer amylose chains both control the pasting viscosities of oat flour, which in turn affect noodle texture. This provides new means, based on starch and ß-glucan molecular structure, to choose oats with optimal starch structure and ß-glucan content for targeted oat-fortified noodle quality.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Farinha/análise , Dureza , Viscosidade
2.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 55: 109-117, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428846

RESUMO

The traditional view of starch metabolism has focused on the multiplicity of enzymes and enzyme isoforms contributing to the production of the constituent polymers, amylopectin and amylose. However, knowledge of these enzymes has not provided a full insight into many aspects of starch biosynthesis. This enzyme-centered view has recently been augmented by the discovery and characterization of novel proteins with proposed regulatory, scaffolding, and interactive roles. This begins to reveal an unprecedented level of complexity beyond mere glucan biosynthesis, enabling us to envisage how starch granules are initiated and grow into specific forms, allowing it to serve biological roles beyond just carbohydrate storage. This review focuses on very recent findings in this vibrant field, highlighting the evolutionary novelty.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Amilopectina , Amilose , Evolução Biológica , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Amido
3.
Food Chem ; 324: 126855, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344341

RESUMO

To develop a 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (BE) without homology to known allergens, the glgB gene from Bifidobacterium longum was overexpressed under the control of BLMA promoter in Escherichia coli. B. longum BE (BlBE) had a molecular weight of 86.1 kDa and a specific activity of more than 18.5U/mg protein at 25-35 °C and pH 5.5-7.0, and exhibited 30% of the maximum activity at 10 °C. The cold-active BlBE preferred to transfer maltohexaose and introduced DP 4-36 branches into amylose. BlBE also increased the proportion of DP 2-10 branches in amylopectin and decreased its Mw from 1.39 × 106 to 1.16 × 105 g/mol. As the BlBE concentration increased from 0.0 to 0.5U/mg substrate, the retrogradation enthalpy of BlBE-modified wheat starch decreased from 4.50 to 1.83 J/g (p < 0.05) at day 14 and the slowly digestible starch content increased from 2.10% to 17.39% (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/enzimologia , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/classificação , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
4.
Food Chem ; 318: 126477, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126465

RESUMO

Water-extractable arabinoxylan (WEAX) could effectively improve the cereal food quality, while its regulatory effect on wheat starch properties has yet to be well-understood. This study selected the WEAX with different molecular weight (Mw) but same branched degree, and comparatively investigated their effects on the gelatinization and retrogradation behavior of wheat starch. The decreased degree of swelling power, solubility and peak viscosity suggested that low Mw WEAX (L-WEAX) could hinder starch gelatinization more evidently compared with high Mw WEAX (H-WEAX), due to the pronounced inhibition effect on amylose leaching and amylose-lipid complex formation. L-WEAX suppressed the recrystallization of amylose and thus the short-term retrogradation. However, H-WEAX mainly retarded the recrystallization of amylopectin, exerting a more significant inhibition effect on the long-term retrogradation. This study could provide a theoretical basis for enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of starchy foods by selecting the optimum structure of WEAX.


Assuntos
Amido/química , Triticum/química , Xilanos/isolamento & purificação , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalização , Gelatina/química , Microscopia Confocal , Peso Molecular , Viscosidade , Água/química , Difração de Raios X , Xilanos/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 318: 126492, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131043

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the primary influences of amylopectin (AP) on starch properties using two waxy wheat starches with different pasting properties. Compared with Yang Nuo Mai 1 (YNM1) starch, Ning Nuo Mai 1 (NNM1) starch had a greater average granule diameter, hot water solubility, gelatinization enthalpy, higher pasting viscosity, but lower retrogradation enthalpy. NNM1 starch had a greater proportion of AP long chains, and lower proportion of AP short chains. Therefore, NNM1 starch had a greater degree of crystallinity as well as stronger resonance intensities at the C1, C2, C3, C5, and C6 by solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR. These results suggested that the proportion of long AP chains (DP ≥ 37) is the main influencing factor in determining waxy starch physicochemical properties. In addition, the proportion of short AP chains (DP 13-24) plays a role in promoting retrogradation of waxy wheat starch.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Cristalização , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
6.
Food Chem ; 318: 126490, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146307

RESUMO

This study examined the contribution of amylose to the organization of each starch fraction in recrystallized starch. Amylosucrase (AS)-modified waxy potato starches with different branch chain lengths were completely solubilized with amylose (3:1 ratio) and recrystallized at 4 °C for 48 h. The content of rapidly digestible starch and resistant starch (RS) showed linear change with degree of AS modification, while slowly digestible starch (SDS) did not. The changes in structural characteristics were tracked according to serial removal of each fraction. Results from iodine binding property, branch chain length, X-ray diffraction, and thermal property analysis indicated that branch chain length of amylopectin determined the length of the amylose-amylopectin double helix and the mobility of amylose and that formation of SDS or RS could be induced by controlling the length of amylopectin chains. These findings could be used for production of customized starches with specific digestive properties for health benefits.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Glucosiltransferases/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Cristalização , Digestão , Estrutura Molecular , Difração de Raios X
7.
Food Chem ; 320: 126609, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222658

RESUMO

Bread crumb firming is largely determined by the properties of gluten and starch, and the transformations they undergo during bread making and storage. Amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) functionality in fresh and stored bread was investigated with NMR relaxometry. Bread was prepared from flours containing normal and atypical starches, e.g., flour from wheat line 5-5, with or without the inclusion of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase. Initial crumb firmness increased with higher levels of AM or shorter AM chains. Both less extended AM and gluten networks and too rigid AM networks led to low crumb resilience. AP retrogradation during storage increased when crumb contained more AP or longer AP branch chains. Shorter AP branch chains, which were present at higher levels in 5-5 than in regular bread, were less prone to retrogradation, thereby limiting gluten network dehydration due to gluten to starch moisture migration. Correspondingly, crumb firming in 5-5 bread was restricted.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Pão/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias , Farinha/análise , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/enzimologia , Glutens/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Água , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 316: 126036, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062574

RESUMO

Amylopectin internal part refers to the part between the reducing end and the outmost branches. The importance of amylopectin internal structure affecting starch gelatinization and retrogradation as well as enzyme susceptibility of retrograded starch was explored. A total of 13 different starches from a range of plants were used. Great variations in the structure and properties of these starches were obtained. Longer lengths of internal chain segments (e.g., total internal chain length) and more long internal chains (e.g., B3-chains) of amylopectins were related to more ordered physical structure in native and retrograded starches. More clustered A-chains contributed to more ordered physical structure in the starches. The more ordered structure was reflected by a higher thermal stability and melting enthalpy changes of the starches. It was also related to a higher resistance to enzyme hydrolysis of the retrograded starches.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Gelatina/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , beta-Amilase/metabolismo , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Estrutura Molecular , Termodinâmica
9.
Food Chem ; 315: 126245, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004980

RESUMO

Our objective was to investigate the correlation between processing conditions and structural properties of lotus seed starch-lecithin complexes by dynamic high-pressure homogenization and explore the formation mechanism. The complexes formed with 5% lecithin at 90 MPa had the highest complex index among samples, thus protecting the integrity of the particles. The complexes inhibited the degradation of amylopectin and retrogradation of amylose, and displayed different V6II-, V6I- and A-type crystalline patterns. Additionally, the double helix structure was enhanced with increasing pressure, and the addition of lecithin contributed to the formation of single-helix amylose-lecithin complexes. These complexes prevented the single helix structure of starch to further form double helix structures, as demonstrated by visual correlation analysis. Moreover, a formation mechanism was established, and lotus seed starch-lecithin complexes with V6I-type crystalline were formed under appropriate conditions, but a homogenization pressure either too low or too high was not conducive to complex formation.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lecitinas/química , Lotus/química , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pressão , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Sementes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 230: 115656, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887861

RESUMO

How various isoforms of rice-starch biosynthesis enzymes interact during amylose and amylopectin synthesis is explored. The chain-length distributions of amylopectin and amylose from 95 varieties with different environmental and genetic backgrounds were obtained using size- exclusion chromatography, and fitted with biosynthesis-derived models based on isoforms of starch synthase (SSI-SSIV), starch branching enzyme (SBE, including SBEI and SBEII) and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) that are involved in amylose and amylopectin synthesis. It is usually thought that these are synthesized by separate enzymes. However, the amount of longer amylopectin chains correlated with that of shorter amylose chains, indicating that GBSS, SBE and SS affect both amylose and amylopectin synthesis. Further, the activity of GBSS in amylose correlated with that of SS in amylopectin. This new understanding of which enzymes are suggested by the statistics to be involved in both amylose and amylopectin synthesis could help rice breeders develop cereals with targeted properties.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/biossíntese , Amilose/biossíntese , Endosperma/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sintase do Amido/química
11.
Food Chem ; 314: 125082, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982853

RESUMO

The structures and physicochemical properties of ginkgo starches from seven cultivars were investigated and their relationships analyzed. The ginkgo starches had oval or irregular shapes, size distributions with a unimodal peak, and an A-type crystal pattern. The fine structures, crystalline structures, and physicochemical properties varied significantly among these ginkgo starches. Pearson correlation analysis and a PCA loading plot indicated that amylopectin A-chains and amylose had negative effects on the IR ratio, Imax, and D, while amylopectin B-chains had a clear positive effect on the relative crystallinity. Furthermore, the amylopectin short B1-chains and long B-chains contributed amorphous and single-helix structures, respectively. The thermal properties of the ginkgo starches were mainly influenced by the amylopectin B-chains and Imax, while the pasting properties were mainly influenced by amylopectin B-chains and helical structures. These results indicated that the starch fine structures and crystalline structures had significant effects on the physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/química , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Especificidade da Espécie , Amido/ultraestrutura
12.
Food Chem ; 311: 125879, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734012

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CA) performs numerous bioactivities; however, its usage is currently limited because of low stability and poor bioaccessibility. In this study, a amylopectin-CA complex was formed. FTIR studies confirmed that the new complex formed via hydrogen and CH-π bonding, and was involved with the reorganization of the skeletal α-1,4 glucosidic linkages of amylopectin. DSC and XRD studies suggested that complexation affected starch crystallinity and increased the size of the amorphous region. Under high temperature, complex degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics whereas under low acidity, the complex retained maximum CA content at pH 2.5. In vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion studies showed that maximum digestion of the complex took place during the gastric phase (39%). In addition, 81.14% of the retained CA was absorbed after GI digestion. In conclusion, amylopectin complexation may improve the stability of CA during digestion and under various food-processing operations.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Amilose/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Solubilidade , Amido/química , Temperatura
13.
Food Chem ; 310: 125981, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835221

RESUMO

To evaluate the actual response of rice starch physicochemical properties to climate warming, a field warming experiment was conducted with four indica rice cultivars using free-air temperature increase (FATI) facility in a double rice cropping system. FATI facility increased rice canopy temperature by 1.4-2.1 °C during the entire growth period. The responses of starch physicochemical properties to experimental warming were basically consistent for both early and late rice. On average, experimental warming increased the starch relative crystallinity, granule average diameter, and amylopectin average chain length by 14.3%, 6.9%, and 2.4%, respectively. These resulted in starch with lower swelling power, water solubility, and pasting viscosity, but higher gelatinization temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy. Our study indicated that experimental warming affected the rice starch physicochemical properties, and would provide some useful information on how to guide the rice starch end use in food and non-food industries under climate warming.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , China , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Viscosidade
14.
Food Chem ; 310: 125971, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830711

RESUMO

In this study, rice was cooked using high pressure steam (HPS) via the absorption method to form the coated layer. The relationship between the adhesiveness of HPS-cooked rice and the composition of leached materials or the histological structure of its coated layer was studied. We found that as HPS levels increased, degradation of the cell wall structure and adhesiveness of cooked rice increased; moreover, substances leached out from rice more easily so that the weight of the coated layer increased from 0.4685 g/25 g to 0.9379 g/25 g. We also found that the main component of the coated layer was starch [74.71%-84.24% (w/w)], and its average chain length was 15.53-15.81, including 80.27%-82.83% (w/w) amylopectin. A change in relative molecular mass had a greater impact on the adhesiveness of cooked rice than did the chain-length distribution of leached starch.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Oryza/química , Amilopectina/química , Parede Celular/química , Oryza/citologia , Pressão , Amido/química , Vapor
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1868(1): 140294, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676454

RESUMO

Barley limit dextrinase (HvLD) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 is the sole enzyme hydrolysing α-1,6-glucosidic linkages from starch in the germinating seed. Surprisingly, HvLD shows 150- and 7-fold higher activity towards pullulan and ß-limit dextrin, respectively, than amylopectin. This is investigated by mutational analysis of residues in the N-terminal CBM-21-like domain (Ser14Arg, His108Arg, Ser14Arg/His108Arg) and at the outer subsites +2 (Phe553Gly) and +3 (Phe620Ala, Asp621Ala, Phe620Ala/Asp621Ala) of the active site. The Ser14 and His108 mutants mimic natural LD variants from sorghum and rice with elevated enzymatic activity. Although situated about 40 Šfrom the active site, the single mutants had 15-40% catalytic efficiency compared to wild type for the three polysaccharides and the double mutant retained 27% activity for ß-limit dextrin and 64% for pullulan and amylopectin. These three mutants hydrolysed 4,6-O-benzylidene-4-nitrophenyl-63-α-d-maltotriosyl-maltotriose (BPNPG3G3) with 51-109% of wild-type activity. The results highlight that the N-terminal CBM21-like domain plays a role in activity. Phe553 and the highly conserved Trp512 sandwich a substrate main chain glucosyl residue at subsite +2 of the active site, while substrate contacts of Phe620 and Asp621 at subsite +3 are less prominent. Phe553Gly showed 47% and 25% activity on pullulan and BPNPG3G3, respectively having a main role at subsite +2. By contrast at subsite +3, Asp621Ala increased activity on pullulan by 2.4-fold, while Phe620Ala/Asp621Ala retained only 7% activity on pullulan albeit showed 25% activity towards BPNPG3G3. This outcome supports that the outer substrate binding area harbours preference determinants for the branched substrates amylopectin and ß-limit dextrin.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hordeum/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Amilopectina/química , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Dextrinas/química , Glucanos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Pichia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Especificidade por Substrato
16.
Food Chem ; 311: 125972, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864180

RESUMO

Three bacterial glycogen branching enzymes (GBEs) having different branching characteristics were used to produce clustered amylopectin (CAP), and structure and functional properties of CAPs were intensively analyzed. Branch distributions of three CAPs varied from very short (DPn = 6.65) to medium (DPn = 14.1). Branch distribution showed profound correlation with hydrodynamic diameter, water solubility, digestibility, and effects on mice gut-microbiota. All the CAPs showed nearly no viscosity and retrogradation. The very short-branch CAP exhibited more than 100-fold water-solubility, 3.5-fold lower α-amylase catalytic efficiency, and 27% lower digestibility in small intestine-mimicking condition than amylopectin. Intriguingly, medium branch CAP had 1.8-fold larger hydrodynamic diameter than the very short one. Mice gut-microbiota composition statistically varied after 12-day feeding of the CAPs, but only the medium chain CAP brought clear positive changes on the gut-microbiota. Consequently, slowly digestible starch was successfully synthesized by the single GBE, but the CAP structure affects in vivo functions in complicated manner.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilopectina/química , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Amilopectina/farmacologia , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrodinâmica , Hidrólise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
17.
Food Chem ; 311: 126011, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862571

RESUMO

Variations in fine structure of pigmented sweet potato starches and their relationships with starch functional properties were explored in this study. The amylose content (18.63-20.45%), XAM1 (308-387) and hAP2 (0.723-0.810) and hAM2 (0.134-0.167) significantly differed (P < 0.05), while other structural parameters had small variations. The average chain length of amylopectin ranged in degree of polymerization (DP) from 23.3 to 24.7. The proportions of fa, fb1, fb2 and fb3 were 21.88-27.18%, 45.45-50.81%, 11.87-13.29% and 14.02-16.96%, respectively, with significant (P < 0.05) differences among these samples. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that fine structures of both amylose and amylopectin had significant impacts on pasting, gelatinization, and textural properties. XAM2, fa, fb1, XAM2 and fa/fb1 were significantly correlated with pasting parameters, while fa and fa/fb1 were negatively correlated with thermal parameters. XAM1 and hAP2 were negatively correlated with texture. These results may provide an overview of structure-function correlations for sweet potato starches.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Temperatura
18.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 680: 108235, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877265

RESUMO

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the best known unicellular green alga model which has long been used to investigate all kinds of cellular processes, including starch metabolism. Here we identified and characterized a novel enzyme, ChlreSEX4, orthologous to glucan phosphatase SEX4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, that is capable of binding and dephosphorylating amylopectin in vitro. We also reported that cysteine 224 and tryptophan 305 residues are critical for enzyme catalysis and substrate binding. Furthermore, we verified that ChlreSEX4 gene is expressed in vivo and that glucan phosphatase activity is measurable in Chlamydomonas protein extracts. In view of the results presented, we suggest ChlreSEX4 as a functional phosphoglucan phosphatase from C. reinhardtii. Our data obtained so far contribute to understanding the phosphoglucan phosphatases evolutionary process in the green lineage and their role in starch reversible phosphorylation. In addition, this allows to position Chlamydomonas as a potential tool to obtain starches with different degrees of phosphorylation for industrial or biotechnological purposes.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Clorófitas/química , Glucanos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Especificidade por Substrato
19.
Food Chem ; 311: 125687, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862570

RESUMO

The bioavailability of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa is limited by their high degradation rates and poor stability. One way to protect anthocyanins is to deliver them using amylopectin nanoparticles (APNPs). In this study, we used distilled water as the reaction system, and achieved the most stable formulation of anthocyanins and APNPs using a mass ratio of 1:12, a pH of 3, and a binding time of 60 min, at which the binding rates were 81.52%, 82.67%, and 84.00%, respectively. Moreover, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to observe microstructural changes with each combination. The observed stabilities and antioxidant activities indicated that binding played a role in protecting anthocyanins from heat, oxidization, reduction reactions, and metallic ions. Finally, our in vitro-digestion results suggested that the optimized compound can partially avoid degradation and diffusion, wherein the anthocyanin retention rate and FRAP value increased to 17.05% and 24.85%, respectively.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/química , Antocianinas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Photinia/química , Antioxidantes/química , Estrutura Molecular
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115337, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590880

RESUMO

A gel delivery system was developed in the present work using whey protein isolate and lotus root amylopectin via regulating pH. The texture, thermodynamics, rheology and microstructure of gels were evaluated. Results showed that pH at 7.0 induced a more compact and stable gel structure than other pH. The composite gel formed at pH 7.0 was accordingly employed to encapsulate vitamin D3. Results exhibited that the encapsulation of composite gel of whey protein isolate and lotus root amylopectin could enhance the storage stability of vitamin D3 and protect vitamin D3 from photochemical degradation. Moreover, this encapsulation could control the release of vitamin D3 in simulated intestinal fluid. Animal experiments exhibited that the bioavailability was significantly increased after vitamin D3 was encapsulated by the composite gel. This work indicated that the whey protein isolate-lotus root amylopectin gel is a good delivery system to improve the stability and bioavailability of vitamin D3.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Amilopectina/química , Amilopectina/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colecalciferol/química , Colecalciferol/farmacocinética , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Géis , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lotus , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Raízes de Plantas , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/farmacocinética , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacocinética
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