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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia in malaria involves platelet destruction and consumption; however, the cellular response underlying this phenomenon has still not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To find associations between platelet indices and unbalanced Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines as a response to thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax infected (Pv-MAL) patients. METHODS: Platelet counts and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine levels were compared in 77 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria and 37 healthy donors from the same area (endemic control group - ENCG). FINDINGS: Thrombocytopenia was the main manifestation in 55 patients, but was not associated with parasitaemia. The Pv-MAL patients showed increases in the mean platelet volume (MPV), which may be consistent with larger or megaplatelets. Contrary to the findings regarding the endemic control group, MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW) did not show an inverse correlation, due the increase in the heterogeneity of platelet width. In addition, the Pv-MAL patients presented increased IL-1ß and reduced IL-12p70 and IL-2 serum concentrations. Furthermore, the reduction of these cytokines was associated with PDW values. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that an increase in MPV and the association between reductions of IL-2 and IL-12 and PDW values may be an immune response to thrombocytopenia in uncomplicated P. vivax malaria.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/patologia , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Trombocitopenia/parasitologia
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2010895, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492165

RESUMO

Importance: The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, but information on immune features associated with disease severity is scarce. Objective: To delineate and compare the immunologic features of mild and moderate COVID-19 in pediatric patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center case series included 157 pediatric patients admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data were collected from January 25 to April 18, 2020. Exposures: Documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical and immunologic characteristics were collected and analyzed. Outcomes were observed until April 18, 2020. Results: Of the 157 pediatric patients with COVID-19, 60 (38.2%) had mild clinical type with pneumonia, 88 (56.1%) had moderate cases, 6 (3.8%) had severe cases, and 3 (1.9%) were critically ill. The 148 children with mild or moderate disease had a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 84 (18-123) months, and 88 (59.5%) were girls. The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median [IQR], 16.0 [12.0-26.0] U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (median [IQR], 30.0 [23.0-41.8] U/L), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity (median [IQR], 24.0 [18.0-34.0] U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (median [IQR], 243.0 [203.0-297.0] U/L), which are associated with liver and myocardial injury. Compared with mild cases, levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ were unchanged, whereas the level of immune suppressive interleukin 10 was markedly increased in moderate cases compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 3.96 [3.34-5.29] pg/mL vs 3.58 [3.10-4.36] pg/mL; P = .048). There was no statistically significant difference in absolute number of lymphocytes (including T cells and B cells) between mild and moderate cases, but moderate cases were associated with a decrease in neutrophil levels compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 2310/µL [1680/µL-3510/µL] vs 3120/µL [2040/µL-4170/µL]; P = .01). Immunoglobin G and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were negatively associated with biochemical indices related to liver and myocardial injury (immunoglobulin G, ALT: r, -0.3579; AST: r, -0.5280; CK-MB activity: r, -0.4786; LDH: r, -0.4984; and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ALT: r, -0.1893; AST: r, -0.3912; CK-MB activity: r, -0.3428; LDH: r, -0.3234), while counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and interleukin 10 showed positive associations (lymphocytes, ALT: r, 0.2055; AST: r, 0.3615; CK-MB activity: r, 0.338; LDH: r, 0.3309; CD4+ T cells, AST: r, 0.4701; CK-MB activity: r, 0.4151; LDH: r, 0.4418; interleukin 10, ALT: r, 0.2595; AST: r, 0.3386; CK-MB activity: r, 0.3948; LDH: r, 0.3794). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series, systemic inflammation rarely occurred in pediatric patients with COVID-19, in contrast with the lymphopenia and aggravated inflammatory responses frequently observed in adults with COVID-19. Gaining a deeper understanding of the role of neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and B cells in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for the clinical management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Distribuição por Idade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(6): 429, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513989

RESUMO

Although most patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have a good prognosis, some patients develop to severe or critical illness, and the mortality of critical cases is up to 61.5%. However, specific molecular information about immune response in critical patients with COVID-19 is poorly understood. A total of 54 patients were enrolled and divided into three groups, among which 34 were common, 14 were severe, and 6 were critical. The constitution of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients was analyzed by CyTOF. The profile of cytokines was examined in plasma of patients using luminex. The IL-2 signaling pathway was investigated in the PBMC of patients by qRT-PCR. The count and percentage of lymphocytes were significantly decreased in critical patients compared to common and severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The count of T cells, B cells, and NK cells was remarkably decreased in critical patients compared to normal controls. The percentage of CD8+ T cells was significantly lower in critical patients than that in common and severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The expression of IL-2R, JAK1, and STAT5 decreased in PBMC of common, severe, and critical patients, but IL-2 level was elevated in severe patients and decreased in critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The decrease of CD8+ T cells in critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may be related to the IL-2 signaling pathway. The inhibition of IL-2/IL-2R gives rise to CD8+ T cell and lymphocyte decrease through JAK1-STAT5 in critical patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/sangue , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1663-1672, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adoptive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) therapy and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been investigated in melanoma. AIM: To confirm previously observed preventive effects of TIL + IL2 in a subgroup of patients with relapsing metastatic stage III melanoma. METHODOLOGY: Open-label, randomized two-group, multicenter five-year trial in adult stage III melanoma patients with only one invaded lymph node after complete resection. Patients received TIL + IL2 or abstention. TIL + IL2 was administered within 8 weeks after lymph node resection and 4 weeks after. Disease-free survival was assessed every 2 months up to month 18, every 3 months up to month 36 and every 4 months up to 5 years. A once-a-year follow-up was scheduled beyond the five-year follow-up. Safety was assessed throughout the trial. RESULTS: Overall, 49 patients accounted for the modified intent-to-treat and 47 for the PP. Slightly more male than female patients participated; mean age was 57.7 ± 11.4 years in the TIL + IL2 group and 53.5 ± 13.0 years in the abstention group. After 5 years of follow-up, 11/26 patients in the TIL + IL2 group and 13/23 in the abstention group had relapsed. There was no statistical difference between the groups (HR: 0.63 CI 95% [0.28-1.41], p = 0.258), nine patients in the TIL + IL2 and 11 in the abstention group died with no significant difference between the two groups (HR: 0.65 CI95% [0.27 - 1.59], p = 0.34). Safety was good. CONCLUSION: We did not confirm results of a previous trial. However, ulceration of the primary melanoma may be considered predictive of the efficacy of TIL in melanoma in adjuvant setting, in a manner similar to interferon α.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interleucina-2/administração & dosagem , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 41(2): 143-148, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135632

RESUMO

Objective: To study the value of unmethylated cytosine guanine dinucleotide oligodeoxynucleotide (DSP30) and IL-2 in the conventional cytogenetic (CA) detection of the chromosomal aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) . Methods: Bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of CLL patients were cultured with DSP30 plus IL-2 for 72 h, following which R-banding analysis was conducted. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed in 85 patients. CA results were compared with data obtained by FISH. Results: Among 89 CLL patients, the success rate of chromosome analysis was 94.38% (84/89) . Clonal aberrations were detected in 51 patients (51/84, 60.71%) . Of them, 27 (27/51, 52.94%) were complex karyotype. Among 85 CLL patients tested by FISH, chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 74 (74/85, 87.06%) patients, of which 2 (2/74) patients were complex karyotypes, accounting for 2.70%. Of the 85 CLL patients examined by FISH, 50 had abnormal karyotype analysis, 30 had normal karyotype, 5 failed to have chromosome analysis. Among them, 25 cases showed clonal aberrations by FISH assay but normal by CA, and 4 cases were normal by FISH but displayed aberrations in chromosome analysis, and totally 78 (91.76%) cases with abnormality detected by the combination of the two methods. The frequency of 13q- abnormality detected by FISH was significantly higher than that by CA analysis (69.41%vs 16.67%, P<0.001) , while the frequency of 11q-,+12 and 17p- detected by two methods showed no significant difference (P>0.05) . The detection rate of complex abnormalities in conventional karyotype analysis was higher than that in FISH (50.98%vs 2.70%) . In addition, 11 low-risk and 9 intermediate-risk patients according to FISH results showed complex karyotype by cytogenetics, and were classified into high-risk cytogenetic subgroup. Conclusion: DSP30 and IL-2 are effective in improving the detection rate of CA in CLL patients (60.71%) and CA is more effective to detect complex karyotype. However, FISH had a higher overall abnormality detection rate (87.06%) than CA, especially for 13q-. The combination of CA and FISH not only enhanced the detection rate of clonal aberrations to 91.76%, but also provided more precise prognosis stratification for CLL patients, thus to provide more information for clinical implication.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Citogenética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Interleucina-2
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6047-6055, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123114

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 dichotomously shape CD8+ T cell differentiation. IL-2 drives terminal differentiation, generating cells that are poorly effective against tumors, whereas IL-21 promotes stem cell memory T cells (TSCM) and antitumor responses. Here we investigated the role of metabolic programming in the developmental differences induced by these cytokines. IL-2 promoted effector-like metabolism and aerobic glycolysis, robustly inducing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate production, whereas IL-21 maintained a metabolically quiescent state dependent on oxidative phosphorylation. LDH inhibition rewired IL-2-induced effects, promoting pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and inhibiting terminal effector and exhaustion programs, including mRNA expression of members of the NR4A family of nuclear receptors, as well as Prdm1 and Xbp1 While deletion of Ldha prevented development of cells with antitumor effector function, transient LDH inhibition enhanced the generation of memory cells capable of triggering robust antitumor responses after adoptive transfer. LDH inhibition did not significantly affect IL-21-induced metabolism but caused major transcriptomic changes, including the suppression of IL-21-induced exhaustion markers LAG3, PD1, 2B4, and TIM3. LDH inhibition combined with IL-21 increased the formation of TSCM cells, resulting in more profound antitumor responses and prolonged host survival. These findings indicate a pivotal role for LDH in modulating cytokine-mediated T cell differentiation and underscore the therapeutic potential of transiently inhibiting LDH during adoptive T cell-based immunotherapy, with an unanticipated cooperative antitumor effect of LDH inhibition and IL-21.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucinas/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 185, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) arthritis is one of the most detrimental joint diseases known and leads to severe joint destruction within days. We hypothesized that the provision of auxiliary immunoregulation via an expanded compartment of T regulatory cells (Tregs) could dampen detrimental aspects of the host immune response whilst preserving its protective nature. Administration of low-dose interleukin 2 (IL2) preferentially expands Tregs, and is being studied as a treatment choice in several autoimmune conditions. We aimed to evaluate the role of IL2 and Tregs in septic arthritis using a well-established mouse model of haematogenously spred S. aureus arthritis. METHODS: C57BL/6 or NMRI mice we intravenously (iv) injected with a defined dose of S. aureus LS-1 or Newman and the role of IL2 and Tregs were assessed by the following approaches: IL2 was endogenously delivered by intraperitoneal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) before iv S. aureus inoculation; Tregs were depleted before and during S. aureus arthritis using antiCD25 antibodies; Tregs were adoptively transferred before induction of S. aureus arthritis and finally, recombinant IL2 was used as a treatment starting day 3 after S. aureus injection. Studied outcomes included survival, weight change, bacterial clearance, and joint damage. RESULTS: Expansion of Tregs induced by IL2 gene therapy prior to disease onset does not compromise host resistance to S. aureus infection, as the increased proportions of Tregs reduced the arthritis severity as well as the systemic inflammatory response, while simultaneously preserving the host's ability to clear the infection. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment with IL2 gene therapy dampens detrimental immune responses but preserves appropriate host defense, which alleviates S. aureus septic arthritis in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Terapia Genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/etiologia , Dependovirus/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6686-6696, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161126

RESUMO

Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells can effectively kill target cells by producing cytokines, chemokines, and granzymes. Expression of these effector molecules is however highly divergent, and tools that identify and preselect CD8+ T cells with a cytotoxic expression profile are lacking. Human CD8+ T cells can be divided into IFN-γ- and IL-2-producing cells. Unbiased transcriptomics and proteomics analysis on cytokine-producing fixed CD8+ T cells revealed that IL-2+ cells produce helper cytokines, and that IFN-γ+ cells produce cytotoxic molecules. IFN-γ+ T cells expressed the surface marker CD29 already prior to stimulation. CD29 also marked T cells with cytotoxic gene expression from different tissues in single-cell RNA-sequencing data. Notably, CD29+ T cells maintained the cytotoxic phenotype during cell culture, suggesting a stable phenotype. Preselecting CD29-expressing MART1 TCR-engineered T cells potentiated the killing of target cells. We therefore propose that CD29 expression can help evaluate and select for potent therapeutic T cell products.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7183-7192, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184322

RESUMO

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a small α-helical cytokine that regulates immune cell homeostasis through its recruitment to a high-affinity heterotrimeric receptor complex (IL-2Rα/IL-2Rß/γc). IL-2 has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy for immune diseases by preferentially expanding distinct T cell compartments, and several regulatory T cell (Treg)-biasing anti-IL-2 antibodies have been developed for combination therapies. The conformational plasticity of IL-2 plays an important role in its biological actions by modulating the strength of receptor and drug interactions. Through an NMR analysis of milliseconds-timescale dynamics of free mouse IL-2 (mIL-2), we identify a global transition to a sparse conformation which is regulated by an α-helical capping "switch" at the loop between the A and B helices (AB loop). Binding to either an anti-mouse IL-2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or a small molecule inhibitor near the loop induces a measurable response at the core of the structure, while locking the switch to a single conformation through a designed point mutation leads to a global quenching of core dynamics accompanied by a pronounced effect in mAb binding. By elucidating key details of the long-range allosteric communication between the receptor binding surfaces and the core of the IL-2 structure, our results offer a direct blueprint for designing precision therapeutics targeting a continuum of conformational states.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Interleucina-2/genética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Proteica
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218162

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cell therapy is one of the most promising treatments for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). However, this emerging technology is limited by the availability of sufficient numbers of fully functional cells. Here, we investigated the efficacy of NK cells that were expanded and treated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), both in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation and cytotoxicity assays were used to assess the functionality of NK cells in vitro, after which treated and naïve NK cells were administrated intracranially and systemically to compare the potential antitumor activities in our in vivo rat GBM models. In vitro assays provided strong evidence of NK cell efficacy against C6 tumor cells. In vivo tracking of NK cells showed efficient homing around and within the tumor site. Furthermore, significant amelioration of the tumor in rats treated with HSP70/Il-2-treated NK cells as compared to those subjected to nontreated NK cells, as confirmed by MRI, proved the efficacy of adoptive NK cell therapy. Moreover, results obtained with systemic injection confirmed migration of activated NK cells over the blood brain barrier and subsequent targeting of GBM tumor cells. Our data suggest that administration of HSP70/Il-2-treated NK cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to be considered in the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Ratos
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(4): 853-864, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078364

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells and type-2 innate lymphoid cells represent 2 subsets of immune cells, which have been shown in preclinical models to be important in atherosclerosis and myocardial repair. Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in immune homeostasis and tolerance via their interactions with effector T cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages. They also utilize and secrete inhibitory cytokines, including interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor ß, to regulate or suppress pathogenic immune responses. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells have an important role in type-2 immune responses and tissue repair through secreting interleukins 5 and 13, as well as a variety of biological mediators and growth factors. Intriguingly, interleukin-2 has emerged as a common cytokine, which can be harnessed to upregulate both cell types, and also has important translational consequences as clinical trials are ongoing for its use in cardiovascular disease. Here, we briefly review the biology of these regulatory immune cell types, discuss the preclinical and clinical evidence for their functions in cardiovascular disease, examine the prospects for clinical translation and current ongoing trials, and finally, postulate how overlap in the mechanisms of upregulation may be leveraged in future treatments for patients.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 661, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005826

RESUMO

High dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is active against metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, but treatment-associated toxicity and expansion of suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) limit its use in patients with cancer. Bempegaldesleukin (NKTR-214) is an engineered IL-2 cytokine prodrug that provides sustained activation of the IL-2 pathway with a bias to the IL-2 receptor CD122 (IL-2Rß). Here we assess the therapeutic impact and mechanism of action of NKTR-214 in combination with anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade therapy or peptide-based vaccination in mice. NKTR-214 shows superior anti-tumor activity over native IL-2 and systemically expands anti-tumor CD8+ T cells while inducing Treg depletion in tumor tissue but not in the periphery. Similar trends of intratumoral Treg dynamics are observed in a small cohort of patients treated with NKTR-214. Mechanistically, intratumoral Treg depletion is mediated by CD8+ Teff-associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α. These findings demonstrate that NKTR-214 synergizes with T cell-mediated anti-cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-2/análogos & derivados , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-2/agonistas , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Interleucina-2/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 660, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005809

RESUMO

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a component of most protocols of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy for cancer, but is limited by short exposure and high toxicities. NKTR-214 is a kinetically-engineered IL-2 receptor ßγ (IL-2Rßγ)-biased agonist consisting of IL-2 conjugated to multiple releasable polyethylene glycol chains resulting in sustained signaling through IL-2Rßγ. We report that ACT supported by NKTR-214 increases the proliferation, homing and persistence of anti-tumor T cells compared to ACT with IL-2, resulting in superior antitumor activity in a B16-F10 murine melanoma model. The use of NKTR-214 increases the number of polyfunctional T cells in murine spleens and tumors compared to IL-2, and enhances the polyfunctionality of T and NK cells in the peripheral blood of patients receiving NKTR-214 in a phase 1 trial. In conclusion, NKTR-214 may have the potential to improve the antitumor activity of ACT in humans through increased in vivo expansion and polyfunctionality of the adoptively transferred T cells.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Interleucina-2/análogos & derivados , Interleucina-2/agonistas , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-2/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Interleucina-2/genética
15.
Immunity ; 52(2): 313-327.e7, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049052

RESUMO

T cell responses upon infection display a remarkably reproducible pattern of expansion, contraction, and memory formation. If the robustness of this pattern builds entirely on signals derived from other cell types or if activated T cells themselves contribute to the orchestration of these population dynamics-akin to bacterial quorum regulation-is unclear. Here, we examined this question using time-lapse microscopy, genetic perturbation, bioinformatic predictions, and mathematical modeling. We found that ICAM-1-mediated cell clustering enabled CD8+ T cells to collectively regulate the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistically, T cell expressed CD80 and CD86 interacted with the receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 on neighboring T cells; these interactions fed two nested antagonistic feedback circuits that regulated interleukin 2 production in a manner dependent on T cell density as confirmed by in vivo modulation of this network. Thus, CD8+ T cell-population-intrinsic mechanisms regulate cellular behavior, thereby promoting robustness of population dynamics.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Rastreamento de Células , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Teóricos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The regulatory mechanisms affecting the modulation of the immune system accompanying the progressive effort to exhaustion, particularly associated with T cells, are not fully understood. We analysed the impact of two progressive effort protocols on T helper (Th) cell distribution and selected cytokines. METHODS: Sixty-two male soccer players with a median age of 17 (16-29) years performed different protocols for progressive exercise until exhaustion: YO-YO (YYRL1) and Beep. Blood samples for all analyses were taken three times: at baseline, post-effort, and in recovery. RESULTS: The percentage of Th1 cells increased post-effort and in recovery. The post-effort percentage of Th1 cells was higher in the Beep group compared to the YYRL1 group. Significant post-effort increase in Th17 cells was observed in both groups. The post-effort percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) increased in the Beep group. An increased post-effort concentration of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ in both groups was observed. Post-effort TNF-α and IL-10 levels were higher than baseline in the YYRL1 group, while the post-effort IL-17A concentration was lower than baseline only in the Beep group. The recovery IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were higher than baseline in the YYRL1 group. The recovery IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ values were higher than baseline in the Beep group. CONCLUSION: The molecular patterns related to cytokine secretion are not the same between different protocols for progressive effort. It seems that Treg cells are probably the key cells responsible for silencing the inflammation and enhancing anti-inflammatory pathways.


Assuntos
Esforço Físico/imunologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Masculino , Esforço Físico/genética , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th2/citologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 113, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913278

RESUMO

While antigen-primed T cells proliferate at speeds close to the physiologic maximum of mammalian cells, T cell memory is maintained in the absence of antigen by rare cell divisions. The transition between these distinct proliferative programs has been difficult to resolve via population-based analyses. Here, we computationally reconstruct the proliferative history of single CD8+ T cells upon vaccination and measure the division speed of emerging T cell subsets in vivo. We find that slower cycling central memory precursors, characterized by an elongated G1 phase, segregate early from the bulk of rapidly dividing effector subsets, and further slow-down their cell cycle upon premature removal of antigenic stimuli. In contrast, curtailed availability of inflammatory stimuli selectively restrains effector T cell proliferation due to reduced receptivity for interleukin-2. In line with these findings, persistence of antigenic but not inflammatory stimuli throughout clonal expansion critically determines the later size of the memory compartment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Divisão Celular , Memória Imunológica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929537

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and immunity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be a contributing factor. We hypothesized that enhanced T-cell responses against CMV and CMV-IgG antibody-levels are associated with higher arterial blood pressure in PLHIV. We assessed serum CMV-IgG, systolic- (SBP) and diastolic- (DBP) blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), traditional risk factors, activated CD8+ T-cells (CD38+HLA-DR+), senescent CD8+ T-cells (CD28-CD57+) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 60 PLHIV and 31 HIV-uninfected controls matched on age, gender, education and comorbidity. In PLHIV, expression of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ was measured by intracellular-cytokine-staining after stimulation of T-cells with CMV-pp65 and CMV-gB. Associations between CMV-specific immune responses and hypertension, SBP, DBP or PP were assessed by multivariate logistic and linear regression models adjusted for appropriate confounders. The median age of PLHIV was 47 years and 90% were male. Prevalence of hypertension in PLHIV was 37% compared to 55% of HIV-uninfected controls. CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were independently associated with higher PP (CMV-pp65; ß = 2.29, p = 0.001, CMV-gB; ß = 2.42, p = 0.001) in PLHIV. No significant differences were found with regard to individual measures of SBP and DBP. A possible weak association was found between CMV-IgG and hypertension (ß = 1.33, p = 0.049) after adjustment for age, smoking and LDL-cholesterol. HIV-related factors, IL-6, CD8+ T-cell activation or CD8+ T-cell senescence did not mediate the associations, and no associations were found between CMV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses and blood pressure in PLHIV. In conclusion, increased arterial blood pressure in PLHIV may be affected by heightened CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Senescência Celular , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Interleucina-2/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978095

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of periodontitis (PD) involves several molecules of the immune system that interact in a network to eliminate the periodontopathogens, yet, they contribute to periodontal tissue destruction. The different mechanisms that lead to periodontal tissue damage are not clear. Despite this, immune response genes have been related to the development of PD previously, such as those involved in inflammasomes which are multiprotein complexes and cytokines including Interleukin-1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the polymorphisms in NLRP3 inflammasome, cytokine and receptor of cytokines genes in the development of periodontitis. This case-control study was conducted in 186 patients with PD (stage II and III and grade B) and 208 controls (localized gingivitis and periodontally healthy individuals). Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP for the SNP rs4612666 in NLRP3 and using PCR-SSP for IL1A, IL1B, IL1R, IL1RN, IL4RA, INFG, TGFB1, TNF, IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL10. Cytokine serum levels were measured using Luminex technology. SNPStats and OpenEpi software were used to perform statistical analysis. The higher frequencies of NLRP3 T/C and IL1B -511 T/T genotypes and IL2 (+166, -330) GT haplotype were observed in patients with PD compared to controls. The SNPs in NLRP3, IL1R +1970, IL6-174, TNF -308, IL2 +166 and -330, TGFB1 +869 and +915, IL4RA +1902, IL4-1098 and -590 were associated to PD in men. In conclusion, polymorphisms in NLRP3, IL1B and IL2 genes were associated to PD susceptibility. Men carrying the NLRP3, IL1R, IL6, TNF, IL2, TGFB1, IL4RA and IL4 polymorphisms had greater susceptibility than women for developing PD.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-2/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Periodontite/genética , Adulto , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/patologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 91-95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902904

RESUMO

Magnolia Flower is a crude drug used for the treatment of headaches, toothaches, and nasal congestion. Here, we focused on Magnolia kobus, one of the botanical origins of Magnolia Flower, and collected the flower parts at different growth stages to compare chemical compositions and investigate potential inhibitory activities against interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in murine splenic T cells. After determining the structures, we examined the inhibitory effects of the constituents of the bud, the medicinal part of the crude drug, against IL-2 production. We first extracted the flower parts of M. kobus from the bud to fallen bloom stages and analysed the chemical compositions to identify the constituents characteristic to the buds. We found that the inhibitory activity of the buds against IL-2 production was more potent than that of the blooms. We isolated two known compounds, tiliroside (1) and syringin (2), characteristic to the buds from the methanol (MeOH) extract of Magnolia Flower. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory activities of both compounds against IL-2 production and found that tiliroside (1) but not syringin (2), showed strong inhibitory activity against IL-2 production and inhibited its mRNA expression. Thus, our strategy to examine the relationship between chemical compositions and biological activities during plant maturation could not only contribute to the scientific evaluation of medicinal parts of crude drugs but also assist in identifying biologically active constituents that have not yet been reported.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Magnolia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/isolamento & purificação , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
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