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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2010895, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492165

RESUMO

Importance: The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, but information on immune features associated with disease severity is scarce. Objective: To delineate and compare the immunologic features of mild and moderate COVID-19 in pediatric patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center case series included 157 pediatric patients admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data were collected from January 25 to April 18, 2020. Exposures: Documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical and immunologic characteristics were collected and analyzed. Outcomes were observed until April 18, 2020. Results: Of the 157 pediatric patients with COVID-19, 60 (38.2%) had mild clinical type with pneumonia, 88 (56.1%) had moderate cases, 6 (3.8%) had severe cases, and 3 (1.9%) were critically ill. The 148 children with mild or moderate disease had a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 84 (18-123) months, and 88 (59.5%) were girls. The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median [IQR], 16.0 [12.0-26.0] U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (median [IQR], 30.0 [23.0-41.8] U/L), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity (median [IQR], 24.0 [18.0-34.0] U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (median [IQR], 243.0 [203.0-297.0] U/L), which are associated with liver and myocardial injury. Compared with mild cases, levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ were unchanged, whereas the level of immune suppressive interleukin 10 was markedly increased in moderate cases compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 3.96 [3.34-5.29] pg/mL vs 3.58 [3.10-4.36] pg/mL; P = .048). There was no statistically significant difference in absolute number of lymphocytes (including T cells and B cells) between mild and moderate cases, but moderate cases were associated with a decrease in neutrophil levels compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 2310/µL [1680/µL-3510/µL] vs 3120/µL [2040/µL-4170/µL]; P = .01). Immunoglobin G and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were negatively associated with biochemical indices related to liver and myocardial injury (immunoglobulin G, ALT: r, -0.3579; AST: r, -0.5280; CK-MB activity: r, -0.4786; LDH: r, -0.4984; and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ALT: r, -0.1893; AST: r, -0.3912; CK-MB activity: r, -0.3428; LDH: r, -0.3234), while counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and interleukin 10 showed positive associations (lymphocytes, ALT: r, 0.2055; AST: r, 0.3615; CK-MB activity: r, 0.338; LDH: r, 0.3309; CD4+ T cells, AST: r, 0.4701; CK-MB activity: r, 0.4151; LDH: r, 0.4418; interleukin 10, ALT: r, 0.2595; AST: r, 0.3386; CK-MB activity: r, 0.3948; LDH: r, 0.3794). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series, systemic inflammation rarely occurred in pediatric patients with COVID-19, in contrast with the lymphopenia and aggravated inflammatory responses frequently observed in adults with COVID-19. Gaining a deeper understanding of the role of neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and B cells in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for the clinical management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Distribuição por Idade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
N Engl J Med ; 382(24): 2337-2343, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521134

RESUMO

We describe a case of life-threatening disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a previously healthy child. Like most patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis, this child had no genomic evidence of any known, rare immune disease. However, comprehensive immunologic testing showed exaggerated production of interleukin-4 and reduced production of interferon-γ. Supplementation of antifungal agents with interferon-γ treatment slowed disease progression, and the addition of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 blockade with dupilumab resulted in rapid resolution of the patient's clinical symptoms. This report shows that blocking of type 2 immune responses can treat infection. This immunomodulatory approach could be used to enhance immune clearance of refractory fungal, mycobacterial, and viral infections. (Supported by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Coccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon gama/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Coccidioidomicose/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores de Interleucina-12/química , Receptores de Interleucina-12/genética , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Células Th1/imunologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20630, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590737

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that the anticancer agent, arsenic trioxide (ATO), could attenuate T cell mediated immunity by not only inhibiting the proliferative response of T cells but by also increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, ATO represents a reasonable salvage treatment in some patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The current study aimed to evaluate the function of ATO on the Tregs percentage and cytokines changes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SAA patients.PBMCs were collected from 20 newly diagnosed SAA patients in Henan Cancer Hospital and treated with different concentrations of ATO (0, 1, 2.5, and 5 µmol/L). Then we investigated the efficacy of ATO on Tregs ratio and the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 in the peripheral blood of SAA patients in vitro.The results showed that ATO significantly increased the proportion of Tregs (P < .001) at 2.5 and 5 µmol/L concentrations, and the proportion of Tregs was increased with increasing ATO concentration (r = 0.524). At 1 (P = .03), 2.5 (P < .001) and 5 µmol/L (P < .001), ATO significantly up-regulated the expression levels of Foxp3 mRNA, which was positively and linearly correlated with the increase of Tregs cell-frequency (r = 0.52, 95%CI, 0.37-0.67). In addition, ATO significantly reduced the levels of IFN-γ (at 1, 2.5 and 5 µmol/L, P < .001), IL-4 (at 2.5 µmol/L, P = .009; at 5 µmol/L, P < .001), and IL-17 (at 2.5, P = .016; at 5 µmol/L, P < .001). ATO significantly reduced the levels of TGF-ß1 at 5 µmol/L (P = .03), but showed no significant effects at 1 and 2.5 µmol/L (P > .05).ATO could mediate the immune regulation, which might contribute to improve hematopoietic recovery in SAA patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/sangue , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Trióxido de Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue , Anemia Aplástica/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
4.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 59(1): 78-88, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468411

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and abnormal, overactivated innate immunity and "cytokine storms" have been proposed as potential pathological mechanisms for rapid COVID-19 progression. Theoretically, asthmatic patients should have increased susceptibility and severity for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to a deficient antiviral immune response and the tendency for exacerbation elicited by common respiratory viruses. However, existing studies have not shown an expected prevalence of asthmatic individuals among COVID-19 patients. Certain aspects of type 2 immune response, including type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, etc.) and accumulation of eosinophils, might provide potential protective effects against COVID-19. Furthermore, conventional therapeutics for asthma, including inhaled corticosteroids, allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, might also reduce the risks of asthmatics suffering infection of the virus through alleviating inflammation or enhancing antiviral defense. The interactions between COVID-19 and asthma deserve further attention and clarification.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/terapia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Progressão da Doença , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Células Th2/imunologia
5.
J Med Life ; 13(1): 21-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341696

RESUMO

Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the tissues of the oral cavity is characterized by cellular and humoral factors of specific and nonspecific resistance, the functioning of which is determined by the overall somatic state. This study aimed to study the features of protective mechanisms of the oral cavity due to orthodontic pathology, pathology of periodontal tissues, and odontogenic inflammatory process in children with diffuse nontoxic goiter. Eighty children with diffuse nontoxic goiter aged 12-15 years with different dental status were examined. Evaluation of local immunity of the oral cavity was carried out by determining the content of sIgA, IgA, IgG, lysozyme activity, and levels of IL-1ß, IL-4 by enzyme immunoassay. Immunological studies have shown that in children with diffuse nontoxic goiter, the activity of lysozyme in the oral fluid is decreased. The level of sIgА is also reduced by about 20%. Besides, there is an increase in the content of IgG and a growing trend in the level of IgА. The content of IL-1ß and IL-4 in such children fluctuates more compared to somatically healthy children. In conclusion, a violation of the local protective mechanisms of the oral cavity is observed in children with diffuse nontoxic goiter. Also, the increase in the severity of dental pathology leads to increased tension of local protective and compensatory reactions.


Assuntos
Bócio/patologia , Boca/patologia , Adolescente , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino
6.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(4): 344-354, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use a biopolymer delivery system to investigate the ability of interleukin (IL)-4 to recruit neutrophils into subcutaneous tissues of equids. ANIMALS: 16 horses and 2 ponies. PROCEDURES: Animals were assigned to 3 experiments (6/experiment). Effects of recombinant equine (Req) IL-4 (100, 250, or 500 ng/site) versus a positive control (ReqIL-8; 100 ng, 250 ng, or 1 µg/site) and a negative control (Dulbecco PBSS or culture medium) on neutrophil chemotaxis were assessed after SC injection into the neck with an injectable biopolymer used as the vehicle. Tissue samples including the biopolymer plug were collected by biopsy at various time points from 3 hours to 7 days after injection. Neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by histologic scoring (experiments 1, 2, and 3) or flow cytometry (experiment 3). RESULTS: Histologic neutrophil infiltration scores did not differ significantly among treatments at most evaluated time points. On flow cytometric analysis, log-transformed neutrophil counts in biopsy specimens were significantly greater for the ReqIL-8 treatment (1 µg/site) than the negative control treatment at 3 but not 6 hours after injection; results did not differ between ReqIL-4 and control treatments at either time point. Negative control treatments induced an inflammatory response in most equids in all experiments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Flow cytometry was a more reliable method to estimate neutrophil migration than histologic score analysis. The ReqIL-4 treatment did not induce a detectable neutrophil response, compared with the negative control treatment in this study. Evidence of inflammation in negative control samples suggested the biopolymer is not a suitable vehicle for use in equids.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4 , Neutrófilos , Animais , Biopolímeros , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Cavalos , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-8
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1769, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286295

RESUMO

Our current understanding of how sugar metabolism affects inflammatory pathways in macrophages is incomplete. Here, we show that glycogen metabolism is an important event that controls macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. IFN-γ/LPS treatment stimulates macrophages to synthesize glycogen, which is then channeled through glycogenolysis to generate G6P and further through the pentose phosphate pathway to yield abundant NADPH, ensuring high levels of reduced glutathione for inflammatory macrophage survival. Meanwhile, glycogen metabolism also increases UDPG levels and the receptor P2Y14 in macrophages. The UDPG/P2Y14 signaling pathway not only upregulates the expression of STAT1 via activating RARß but also promotes STAT1 phosphorylation by downregulating phosphatase TC45. Blockade of this glycogen metabolic pathway disrupts acute inflammatory responses in multiple mouse models. Glycogen metabolism also regulates inflammatory responses in patients with sepsis. These findings show that glycogen metabolism in macrophages is an important regulator and indicate strategies that might be used to treat acute inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Glicogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1
8.
Nature ; 580(7802): 257-262, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269339

RESUMO

Checkpoint blockade therapies have improved cancer treatment, but such immunotherapy regimens fail in a large subset of patients. Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (DC1s) control the response to checkpoint blockade in preclinical models and are associated with better overall survival in patients with cancer, reflecting the specialized ability of these cells to prime the responses of CD8+ T cells1-3. Paradoxically, however, DC1s can be found in tumours that resist checkpoint blockade, suggesting that the functions of these cells may be altered in some lesions. Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing in human and mouse non-small-cell lung cancers, we identify a cluster of dendritic cells (DCs) that we name 'mature DCs enriched in immunoregulatory molecules' (mregDCs), owing to their coexpression of immunoregulatory genes (Cd274, Pdcd1lg2 and Cd200) and maturation genes (Cd40, Ccr7 and Il12b). We find that the mregDC program is expressed by canonical DC1s and DC2s upon uptake of tumour antigens. We further find that upregulation of the programmed death ligand 1 protein-a key checkpoint molecule-in mregDCs is induced by the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, while upregulation of interleukin (IL)-12 depends strictly on interferon-γ and is controlled negatively by IL-4 signalling. Blocking IL-4 enhances IL-12 production by tumour-antigen-bearing mregDC1s, expands the pool of tumour-infiltrating effector T cells and reduces tumour burden. We have therefore uncovered a regulatory module associated with tumour-antigen uptake that reduces DC1 functionality in human and mouse cancers.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324792

RESUMO

Forcipomyia taiwana is a tiny hematophagous midge that attacks en masse. It is responsible for the most prevalent biting insect allergy in Taiwan. For t 2 is its major allergen. The intense itchy reactions can prevent allergic individuals from performing their regular daily outdoor activities. This study aimed to investigate whether the For t 2 DNA vaccine was effective in treating mice with established biting midge allergy. Mice were sensitized with recombinant For t 2 proteins or whole midge extracts. Two to four consecutive shots of various concentrations of For t 2 DNA vaccine, with or without CpG adjuvants, were then administered to midge-sensitized mice. Mice that received two shots of 50-100 µg For t 2 DNA vaccine showed a significant reduction in allergen-induced bouts of scratching, For t 2-specific IgE, specific IgG1/IgG2a ratio in sera, skin eosinophil infiltration, and IL-31 production, as well as IL-4 and IL-13 production by splenocytes. Two doses of For t 2 DNA vaccine one week apart was sufficient to treat mice with established biting midge allergy. The treatment resulted in clinical, immunological, and histopathological improvements. We recommend that this low-cost, convenient treatment strategy be developed for use in humans who are allergic to biting midges.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Adjuvante de Freund/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Prurido/imunologia , Taiwan , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0225874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240169

RESUMO

We previously have reported that neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination improves neurogenesis and behavior in early life through affecting the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, but it is uncertain whether activation phenotypes and functional changes in T lymphocytes shape brain development. Here, we studied the effects of BCG vaccination via the adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes from the BALB/c wild-type mice into naive mice. Our results show that mice adoptive BCG-induced lymphocytes (BCG->naive mice) showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like performance when completing an elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Meanwhile, BCG->naive mice possess more cell proliferation and newborn neurons than PBS->naive and nude mice in the hippocampus. IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in the serum of BCG->naive mice also increased, while TNF-α and IL-1ß levels were reduced relative to those of PBS->naive and nude mice. We further found that BCG->naive mice showed different repartition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell to naive (CD62L+CD44low), effector memory (CD62L-CD44hi), central memory (CD62L+CD44hi) and acute/activated effector (CD62L-CD44low) cells in the spleen. Importantly, the adoptive transfer of BCG-induced T lymphocytes infiltrated into the dura mater and brain parenchyma of the nude mice. Activation phenotypes and functional changes in T lymphocytes are very likely to affect the neuroimmune milieu in the brain, and alterations in ratios of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells may affect the expression of correlative cytokines in the serum, accounting for our behavioral results. We conclude thus that the adoptive transfer of BCG-induced T lymphocytes contributes to hippocampal cell proliferation and tempers anxiety-like behavior in immune deficient mice. Our work shows that BCG vaccination improves hippocampal cell proliferation outcomes and behaviors, likely as a result of splenic effector/memory T lymphocytes regulating the neuroimmune niche in the brain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Selectina L/genética , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302339

RESUMO

Mast cells and basophils are central players in allergic reactions triggered by immunoglobulin E (IgE). They have intracellular granules containing allergic mediators (e.g., histamine, serotonin, inflammatory cytokines, proteases and ß-hexosaminidase), and stimulation by IgE-allergen complex leads to the release of such allergic mediators from the granules, that is, degranulation. Mast cells are residents of mucosal surfaces, including those of nasal and oral cavities, and play an important role in the innate defense system. Members of the mitis group streptococci such as Streptococcus oralis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. They produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product of sugar metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of streptococcal infection on RBL-2H3 mast cell/basophil cell line. Infection by oral streptococci did not induce degranulation of the cells. Stimulation of the RBL-2H3 cells with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE and DNP-conjugated human serum albumin triggers degranulation with the release of ß-hexosaminidase. We found that S. oralis and other mitis group streptococci inhibited the IgE-triggered degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. Since mitis group streptococci produce H2O2, we examined the effect of S. oralis mutant strain deficient in producing H2O2, and found that they lost the ability to suppress the degranulation. Moreover, H2O2 alone inhibited the IgE-induced degranulation. Subsequent analysis suggested that the inhibition of degranulation was related to the cytotoxicity of streptococcal H2O2. Activated RBL-2H3 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4); however, IL-4 production was not induced by streptococcal H2O2. Furthermore, an in vivo study using the murine pollen-induced allergic rhinitis model suggested that the streptococcal H2O2 reduces nasal allergic reaction. These findings reveal that H2O2 produced by oral mitis group streptococci inhibits IgE-stimulated degranulation by inducing cell death. Consequently, streptococcal H2O2 can be considered to modulate the allergic reaction in mucosal surfaces.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Basófilos/imunologia , Basófilos/microbiologia , Basófilos/patologia , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Dinitrofenóis/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/microbiologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/imunologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus oralis/imunologia , Streptococcus oralis/patogenicidade , Açúcares/metabolismo
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 943-950, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124729

RESUMO

Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne flaviviral infection in the world today. Several factors contribute and act synergistically to cause severe infection. One of these is dysregulated host immunological mediators that cause transient pathophysiology during infection. These mediators act on the endothelium to increase vascular permeability, which leads to plasma leakage compromising hemodynamics and coagulopathy. We conducted a prospective study to explore the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and how they relate to clinical dengue manifestations, by assessing their dynamics through acute dengue infection in adults admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand. We performed cytokine analysis at three phases of infection for 96 hospitalized adults together with serotyping of confirmed dengue infection during the outbreaks of 2015 and 2016. The serum concentrations of seven cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma) were measured in duplicate using a commercial kit (Bio-Plex Human Cytokine Assay). In this study, the cytokine profile was suggestive of a T-helper 2 response. Most patients had secondary infection, and the levels of viremia were higher in patients with plasma leakage than those without plasma leakage. In addition, we observed that bleeding and hepatitis were associated with significantly higher levels of IL-8 during the early phases of infection. Furthermore, IL-6 levels in the early phase of infection were also elevated in bleeding patients with plasma leakage. These results suggest that IL-6 and IL-8 may act in synergy to cause bleeding in patients with plasma leakage.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Dengue/metabolismo , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/etiologia , Dengue Grave/metabolismo , Adulto , Citocinas/sangue , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/patologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Hemorragia/virologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/metabolismo , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Dengue Grave/complicações , Dengue Grave/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Carga Viral
13.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L1036-L1055, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130030

RESUMO

Mechanical tension and humoral stimuli can induce transitions in airway smooth muscle phenotype between a synthetic inflammatory state that promotes cytokine secretion and a differentiated state that promotes the expression of smooth muscle phenotype-specific proteins. When tissues are maintained under high tension, Akt activation and eotaxin secretion are suppressed, but expression of the differentiation marker protein, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SmMHC), is promoted. When tissues are maintained under low tension, Akt activation and eotaxin secretion are stimulated, and the differentiated phenotype is suppressed. We hypothesized that mechanical stimuli are differentially transduced to Akt-mediated signaling pathways that regulate phenotype expression by α-parvin and ß-parvin integrin-linked kinase/PINCH/parvin (IPP) signaling complexes within integrin adhesomes. High tension or ACh triggered paxillin phosphorylation and the binding of phospho-paxillin to ß-parvin IPP complexes. This inhibited Akt activation and promoted SmMHC expression. Low tension or IL-4 did not elicit paxillin phosphorylation and triggered the binding of unphosphorylated paxillin to α-parvin IPP complexes, which promoted Akt activation and eotaxin secretion and suppressed SmMHC expression. Expression of a nonphosphorylatable paxillin mutant or ß-parvin depletion by siRNA promoted the inflammatory phenotype, whereas the depletion of α-parvin promoted the differentiated phenotype. Results demonstrate that phenotype expression is regulated by the differential interaction of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated paxillin with α-parvin and ß-parvin IPP complexes and that these complexes have opposite effects on the activation of Akt. Our results describe a novel molecular mechanism for transduction of mechanical and humoral stimuli within integrin signaling complexes to regulate phenotype expression in airway smooth muscle.


Assuntos
Actinina/genética , Mecanotransdução Celular , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Paxilina/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Traqueia/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocina CCL11/genética , Quimiocina CCL11/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/genética , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Paxilina/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Miosinas de Músculo Liso/genética , Miosinas de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L888-L899, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130032

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that upregulation of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) expression in allergic airway epithelia essentially contributes to the goblet cell metaplasia and mucous hypersecretion. However, the mechanism underlying the upregulation of SHH expression remains completely unknown. In cultured human airway epithelial cells, IL-4/IL-13 but not IL-5 robustly induces the mRNA and protein expression of SHH and in turn activates SHH signaling by promoting the JAK/STAT6-controlling transcription of SHH gene. Moreover, intratracheal instillation of IL-4 and/or IL-13 robustly activates STAT6 and concomitantly upregulates SHH expression in mouse airway epithelia, whereas, in Club cell 10-kDa protein (CC10)-positive airway epithelial cells of children with asthma, activated STAT6 closely correlates with the increased expression of SHH and high activity of SHH signaling. Finally, intratracheal inhibition of STAT6 by AS-1517499 significantly diminished the allergen-induced upregulation of SHH expression, goblet cell phenotypes, and airway hyperresponsiveness, in an ovalbumin- or house dust mite-induced mouse model with allergic airway inflammation,. Together, upregulation of SHH expression by IL-4/IL-13-induced JAK/STAT6 signaling contributes to allergic airway epithelial remodeling, and this study thus provides insight into how morphogen signaling is coordinated with Th2 cytokine pathways to regulate tissue remodeling in chronic airway diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Animais , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Caliciformes/imunologia , Células Caliciformes/patologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-13/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Interleucina-5/genética , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Janus Quinases/genética , Janus Quinases/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Cultura Primária de Células , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Uteroglobina/genética , Uteroglobina/imunologia
15.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(7): 765-776, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to modulate microglial phenotypes in vivo, M1 microglia were depleted by administration of gadolinium chloride and the expression of M2 microglia was induced by IL-4 administration in an animal model of sepsis to better characterize the role of microglial phenotypes in sepsis-induced brain dysfunction. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to sham or cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) and treated with IL-4 or GdCl3. Animals were submitted to behavioral tests 10 days after surgery. In a separated cohort of animals at 24 h, 3 and 10 days after surgery, hippocampus was removed and cytokine levels, M1/M2 markers and CKIP-1 levels were determined. RESULTS: Modulation of microglia by IL-4 and GdCl3 was associated with an improvement in long-term cognitive impairment. When treated with IL-4 and GdCl3, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines was apparent in almost all analyzed time points. Additionally, CD11b and iNOS were increased after CLP at all time points, and both IL-4 and GdCl3 treatments were able to reverse this. There was a significant decrease in CD11b gene expression in the CLP+GdCl3 group. IL-4 treatment was able to decrease iNOS expression after sepsis. Furthermore, there was an increase of CKIP-1 in the hippocampus of GdCl3 and IL-4 treated animals 10 days after CLP induction. CONCLUSIONS: GdCl3 and IL-4 are able to manipulate microglial phenotype in an animal models of sepsis, by increasing the polarization toward an M2 phenotype IL-4 and GdCl3 treatment was associated with decreased brain inflammation and functional recovery.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Encefalite/prevenção & controle , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite/metabolismo , Encefalite/patologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ratos Wistar , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/patologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(3): e410-e415, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a premalignant mucocutaneous disease that affects 1-2% of the adult population. Immunological factor may act as etiological factor. The cellular immune cells such as T cells are important in pathogenesis of OLP. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is secreted by T-helper 2 (Th2). Several studies have been carried out on the role of IL-4 in OLP. The aim of this study was to review the level of IL-4 in OLP, effective factors in the production of IL-4 and its role in the development of OLP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search in PubMed was performed on the literature published from 2000 until august 2019 using the following keywords: "oral lichen planus" or "OLP" and "interleukin-4" or "IL-4". RESULTS: Originally, 37 articles were considered, of which 28 case-control articles were selected according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: This review study shows that IL-4 plays a key role in the development of OLP. According to the past studies, there are several factors contributing to the production of this cytokine. Identification of the routes of production of IL-4 and its role in OLP might be useful for development of new preventive and therapeutic methods in management of patients with OLP.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas , Humanos , Interleucina-4
17.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 371-383, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007172

RESUMO

Asthma is a disease of reversible airflow obstruction characterised clinically by wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. Increases in airway type 2 cytokine activity, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, are now established biological mechanisms in asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids have been the foundation for asthma treatment, in a large part because they decrease airway type 2 inflammation. However, inhaled or systemic corticosteroids are ineffective treatments in many patients with asthma and few treatment options exist for patients with steroid resistant asthma. Although mechanisms for corticosteroid refractory asthma are likely to be numerous, the development of a new class of biologic agents that target airway type 2 inflammation has provided a new model for treating some patients with corticosteroid refractory asthma. The objective of this Therapeutic paper is to summarise the new type 2 therapeutics, with an emphasis on the biological rationale and clinical efficacy of this new class of asthma therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/fisiologia , Eosinófilos/fisiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-5/antagonistas & inibidores , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Células Th2/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 593-607, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016547

RESUMO

The eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health priority. Despite the efficiency of treatment with direct-acting antivirals, the high cost of the therapy and the lack of accurate data about the HCV-infected population worldwide constitute important factors hampering this task. Hence, an affordable preventive vaccine is still necessary for reducing transmission and the future disease burden globally. In this work, chimeric proteins (EnvCNS3 and NS3EnvCo) encompassing conserved and immunogenic epitopes from the HCV core, E1, E2 and NS3 proteins were produced in Escherichia coli, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in BALB/c mice. The impact of recombinant HCV E2.680 protein and oligodeoxynucleotide 39M (ODN39M) on the immune response to chimeric proteins was also assessed. Immunization with chimeric proteins mixed with E2.680 enhanced the antibody and cellular response against HCV antigens and chimeric proteins. Interestingly, the combination of NS3EnvCo with E2.680 and ODN39M as adjuvant elicited a potent antibody response characterized by an increase in antibodies of the IgG2a subclass against E2.680, NS3 and chimeric proteins, suggesting the induction of a Th1-type response. Moreover, a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and a broad response of IFN-γ-secreting cells against HCV antigens were induced with this formulation as well. This T cell response was able to protect vaccinated mice against challenge with a surrogate model based on HCV recombinant vaccinia virus. Overall, the vaccine candidate NS3EnvCo/E2.680/ODN39M might constitute an effective immunogen against HCV with potential for reducing the likelihood of viral persistence.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Clonagem Molecular , Epitopos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Antígenos da Hepatite C/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Plasmídeos
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 761-777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099364

RESUMO

Purpose: Salmonellosis in poultry is a serious economic burden. A major concern is the public health hazard caused by consumption of Salmonella-contaminated poultry products. Currently used Salmonella vaccines are ineffective in combating poultry Salmonellosis warranting the need of a potent vaccine, especially an oral vaccine that can elicit robust local intestinal immunity. Materials and Methods: A Salmonella subunit chitosan nanoparticles (NPs)-based vaccine was prepared that contained immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and -flagellin (F) protein (OMPs-F-CS NPs). OMPs-F-CS NPs were administered as an oral vaccine in layer chickens and the resultant humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and localization of NPs were examined using standard detection methods. Results: We demonstrated targeting of surface F-protein coated chitosan NPs to immune cells when delivered orally to layer chickens, the particles were localized in ileal Peyer's patches. The OMPs-F-CS NPs vaccinated layer chickens had significantly higher OMPs-specific mucosal IgA production and lymphocyte proliferation response. The candidate vaccine increased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, IFN-γ, TGF-ß and IL-4 mRNA expression in chicken cecal tonsils. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the chitosan-based oral Salmonella nanovaccine targets immune cells of chickens and induced antigen-specific B and T cell responses. This candidate oral Salmonella nanovaccine has the potential to mitigate Salmonellosis in poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Quitosana/química , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Interleucina-4/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Porinas/química , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella enteritidis/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem
20.
Immunology ; 159(4): 441-449, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957000

RESUMO

Signaling by Kit has been extensively studied in hematopoietic cells and is essential for the survival, proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In addition to the activation of intrinsic signaling pathways, Kit has been shown to interact with lineage-restricted type I cytokine receptors and produce cross signals, e.g. erythropoietin receptor, interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R), IL-3R. Based on the earlier studies, we hypothesize that Kit activate other type I cytokine receptors in a cell-specific manner and execute cell-specific function. To investigate other Kit-activated receptors, we tested Kit and IL-4R cross-receptor activation in murine bone-marrow-derived mast cells, which express both Kit and IL-4R at the surface level. Kit upon activation by Kit ligand (KL), activated IL-4Rα, γC , and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 independent of its cognate ligand IL-4. Though KL and IL-4 are individually mitogenic, combinations of KL and IL-4 synergistically promoted mast cell proliferation. Furthermore, inhibition of lipid raft formation by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin resulted in loss of synergistic proliferation. Together the data suggest IL-4R as a novel Kit-activated receptor. Such cross-receptor activations are likely to be a universal mechanism of Kit signaling in hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-4/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/genética , Fator de Células-Tronco/farmacologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematopoese/genética , Hematopoese/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Mastócitos/citologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microdomínios da Membrana/imunologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/imunologia , Receptores da Eritropoetina/genética , Receptores da Eritropoetina/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-3/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-3/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-4/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-7/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-7/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Fator de Células-Tronco/imunologia , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia
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