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1.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(8): 762-766, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829623

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a protein degradation pathway that relies on ATP and non-lysosomal pathway in eukaryotic cells. It participates in the regulation of multiple biological processes, including cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA repair, antigen presentation, receptor endocytosis, intracellular signal transduction. Recent studies have found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway can participate in the formation and development of hypertrophic scar by regulating transforming growth factor beta/Smad signal transduction and proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of fibroblasts. This article summarizes the effects of ubiquitin ligase enzyme, proteasome, and deubiquitinating enzyme in ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in hypertrophic scar, in order to provide new idea for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scar.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Ubiquitina
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21324, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate whether the expression level of long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-ß (lncRNA-ATB) is correlated with the prognosis of digestive system cancer (DSC) patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Springerlink, Nature, and Karger databases were searched up to April 20, 2019 by 2 experienced researchers independently. The quality of studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The Review Manager 5.2 and STATA 12.0 software were used for this meta-analysis. RESULT: Eleven studies with 1227 DSC patients were included in the meta-analysis. Except for pancreatic cancer, high expression of lncRNA-ATB was associated with lymph node metastasis (risk ratio (RR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.42, P < .001), advanced clinical staging (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.23-1.69, P < .001), reduced overall survival rate (OS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.33, 95%CI: 1.22-4.50, P = .01), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.46-4.65, P = .001) compared with low lncRNA-ATB expression in DSCs. CONCLUSIONS: High expression of lncRNA-ATB was significantly correlated with poor prognosis for most DSCs. The expression level of lncRNA-ATB could be a promising prognostic biomarker for DSC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/genética , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Science ; 369(6501)2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675345

RESUMO

Targeting the cross-talk between tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and the niche microenvironment is an attractive avenue for cancer therapy. We show here, using a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma, that TICs play a crucial role in creating a niche microenvironment that is required for tumor progression and drug resistance. Antioxidant activity in TICs, mediated by the transcription factor NRF2, facilitates the release of a nuclear cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33). This cytokine promotes differentiation of macrophages that express the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor FcεRIα and are in close proximity to TICs. In turn, these IL-33-responding FcεRIα+ macrophages send paracrine transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) signals to TICs, inducing invasive and drug-resistant properties and further upregulating IL-33 expression. This TIC-driven, IL-33-TGF-ß feedforward loop could potentially be exploited for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17166-17176, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632016

RESUMO

Signaling of 17ß-estradiol (estrogen) through its two nuclear receptors, α and ß (ERα, ERß), is an important mechanism of transcriptional regulation. Although ERs are broadly expressed by cells of the immune system, the mechanisms by which they modulate immune responses remain poorly understood. ERß-specific signaling is reduced in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory bowel disease, and our previous work suggests that dysregulation of ERß-specific signaling contributes to enhanced intestinal inflammation in female SAMP/YitFC mice, a spontaneous model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. The present study builds on these prior observations to identify a nonredundant, immunoprotective role for ERß-specific signaling in TGF-ß-dependent regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation. Using a strain of congenic SAMP mice engineered to lack global expression of ERß, we observed dramatic, female-specific exacerbation of intestinal inflammation accompanied by significant reductions in intestinal Treg frequency and function. Impaired Treg suppression in the absence of ERß was associated with aberrant overexpression of Tsc22d3 (GILZ), a glucocorticoid-responsive transcription factor not normally expressed in mature Tregs, and ex vivo data reveal that forced overexpression of GILZ in mature Tregs inhibits their suppressive function. Collectively, our findings identify a pathway of estrogen-mediated immune regulation in the intestine, whereby homeostatic expression of ERß normally functions to limit Treg-specific expression of GILZ, thereby maintaining effective immune suppression. Our data suggest that transcriptional cross-talk between glucocorticoid and steroid sex hormone signaling represents an important and understudied regulatory node in chronic inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Ileíte/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3713-3722, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to investigate miRNAs and their relation to cancer-related signaling pathways in site-specific CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a total of 24 left- and right-sided Finnish CRC samples (discovery cohort) and The Cancer Genome Atlas public mature miRSeq dataset of 201 CRC samples (validation cohort). MiRNA differential expression and biological pathway analyses were performed using DESeq2 and the DIANA/mirPath tool, respectively. RESULTS: We found 17 significantly differentially up-regulated [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05] miRNAs in left-sided CRC ("left miRNAs"), and 15 in right-sided CRC ("right miRNAs"). The left miRNAs participate in the mTor, Wnt, PI3K-Akt signaling pathways (FDR<0.05). The right miRNAs participate in the TGF-ß signaling pathway. We also observed that both cohorts share six miRNAs. One of these (hsa-miR-196b-5p) was significantly (FDR<0.05) up-regulated in left-sided CRC. The rest of them (hsa-miR-625-3p, hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-625-5p, hsa-miR-31-5p and hsa-miR-330-5p) showed significant (FDR<0.05) up-regulation in right-sided CRC. CONCLUSION: Left and right miRNAs are associated with predominant biological pathways of left- and right-sided CRC, respectively. Our results may be beneficial for classifying CRC and for future biomarker studies of site-specific CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
6.
Braz Dent J ; 31(3): 290-297, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667519

RESUMO

Chloride intracellular channel-4 (CLIC4) is regulated by p53 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), it is linked to the increase of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), and myofibroblastic differentiation in skin carcinogenesis. This study analyzed the immunoexpression of CLIC4, p53, TGF-ß, TNF-α, and α-SMA in 50 actinic cheilitis (AC) and 50 lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC). AC and LLSCC immunoexpression were categorized as score 1 (<5% positive cells), 2 (5-50%) or 3 (>50%). For CLIC4, nuclear and cytoplasmic immunostaining of epithelial cells was considered individually. For morphologic analysis, the World Health Organization criteria were used to epithelial dysplasia grade of ACs, and Bryne grading of malignancy system was applied for LLSCC. Higher nuclear CLIC4 (CLIC4n) and TGF-ß were observed in ACs with low-risk of transformation, while cytoplasmic CLIC4 (CLIC4c), p53 and TNF-α were higher in the high-risk cases (p<0.05). In LLSCCs, CLIC4c was higher in cases with lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stages, and histological high-grade malignancy. p53 expression was higher in high-grade LLSCCs, whereas TGF-ß decreased as the clinical stage and morphological grade progressed (p<0.05). ACs showed an increased expression of CLIC4n and TGF-ß, while CLIC4c and α-SMA were higher in LLSCCs (p<0.0001). Both lesions showed negative correlation between CLIC4n and CLIC4c, while in LLSCCs, negative correlation was also verified between CLIC4c and p53, as well as CLIC4c and TGF-ß (p<0.05). Change of CLIC4 from the nucleus to cytoplasm and alterations in p53, TGF-ß, TNF-α, and α-SMA expression are involved in lip carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Labiais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Carcinogênese , Canais de Cloreto , Humanos , Lábio , Miofibroblastos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669404

RESUMO

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) can be clinically diagnosed, but children often lack characteristic features. We report a family with homozygous growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2)-related HHT diagnosed by genetic testing. A boy aged 5 years and 2 months presented with isolated hypoxemia. He was the product of a consanguineous marriage; his parents were second cousins. Physical examination revealed cyanosis of nail beds and clubbed fingers. Pulse oxygen saturation was 84% to 89%. Lung function, contrast-enhanced lung computed tomography, and noncontrast echocardiography were normal. A pulmonary perfusion scan revealed radioactivity in the brain and bilateral kidney, suggesting the existence of a intrapulmonary shunt. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous variant [c.1060_1062delinsAG (p.Tyr354ArgfsTer15)] in GDF2, which was found to be inherited from his heterozygous parents. At the age of 8 years, he developed epistaxis, and an angiogram revealed diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. At the age of 9 years, he was treated with sirolimus, and his condition improved significantly. However, his now 7-year-old sister with the same homozygous variant currently has no symptoms. Physical examinations revealed 1 pinpoint-sized telangiectasia on the chest of his mother and a vascular lesion on the forehead of his sister. Additionally, the patient's father and great-uncle had a history of mild to moderate epistaxis. Mutation in GDF2 is a rare cause of HHT. Ours is the first report of homozygous GDF2-related HHT; in addition, this variant has not been reported previously. In our report, we also confirm variable expressivity, even with the same pathogenic variant in GDF2-related HHT.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Hipóxia/etiologia , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Endoglina/metabolismo , Epistaxe/etiologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Linhagem , Transdução de Sinais , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/sangue , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/complicações , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3334, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620760

RESUMO

TH17 cells exemplify environmental immune adaptation: they can acquire both a pathogenic and an anti-inflammatory fate. However, it is not known whether the anti-inflammatory fate is merely a vestigial trait, or whether it serves to preserve the integrity of the host tissues. Here we show that the capacity of TH17 cells to acquire an anti-inflammatory fate is necessary to sustain immunological tolerance, yet it impairs immune protection against S. aureus. Additionally, we find that TGF-ß signalling via Smad3/Smad4 is sufficient for the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in TH17 cells. Our data thus indicate a key function of TH17 cell plasticity in maintaining immune homeostasis, and dissect the molecular mechanisms explaining the functional flexibility of TH17 cells with regard to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Homeostase/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008774, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555736

RESUMO

Cranial neural crest (NC) contributes to the developing vertebrate eye. By multidimensional, quantitative imaging, we traced the origin of the ocular NC cells to two distinct NC populations that differ in the maintenance of sox10 expression, Wnt signalling, origin, route, mode and destination of migration. The first NC population migrates to the proximal and the second NC cell group populates the distal (anterior) part of the eye. By analysing zebrafish pax6a/b compound mutants presenting anterior segment dysgenesis, we demonstrate that Pax6a/b guide the two NC populations to distinct proximodistal locations. We further provide evidence that the lens whose formation is pax6a/b-dependent and lens-derived TGFß signals contribute to the building of the anterior segment. Taken together, our results reveal multiple roles of Pax6a/b in the control of NC cells during development of the anterior segment.


Assuntos
Segmento Anterior do Olho/metabolismo , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Segmento Anterior do Olho/citologia , Segmento Anterior do Olho/embriologia , Movimento Celular , Mutação , Crista Neural/citologia , Crista Neural/embriologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531779

RESUMO

Functional and anatomical connection between the liver and the spleen is most clearly manifested in various pathological conditions of the liver (cirrhosis, hepatitis). The mechanisms of the interaction between the two organs are still poorly understood, as there have been practically no studies on the influence exerted by the spleen on the normal liver. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats of 250-260 g body weight, 3 months old, were splenectomized. The highest numbers of Ki67+ hepatocytes in the liver of splenectomized rats were observed at 24 h after the surgery, simultaneously with the highest index of Ki67-positive hepatocytes. After surgical removal of the spleen, expression of certain genes in the liver tissues increased. A number of genes were upregulated in the liver at a single time point of 24 h, including Ccne1, Egf, Tnfa, Il6, Hgf, Met, Tgfb1r2 and Nos2. The expression of Ccnd1, Tgfb1, Tgfb1r1 and Il10 in the liver was upregulated over the course of 3 days after splenectomy. Monitoring of the liver macrophage populations in splenectomized animals revealed a statistically significant increase in the proportion of CD68-positive cells in the liver (as compared with sham-operated controls) detectable at 24 h and 48 h after the surgery. The difference in the liver content of CD68-positive cells between splenectomized and sham-operated animals evened out by day 3 after the surgery. No alterations in the liver content of CD163-positive cells were observed in the experiments. A decrease in the proportion of CD206-positive liver macrophages was observed at 48 h after splenectomy. The splenectomy-induced hepatocyte proliferation is described by us for the first time. Mechanistically, the effect is apparently induced by the removal of spleen as a major source of Tgfb1 (hepatocyte growth inhibitor) and subsequently supported by activation of proliferation factor-encoding genes in the liver.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e023419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520090

RESUMO

In experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) of Th1 profile, an extract of adult Ascaris suum worms (ASC) was previously found to deviate the immune response to a Th2/IL-10 pattern. Here, the effects of treatment with ASC on production of TGF-ß and the anti-Ascaris isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a in EAH were evaluated. EAH was induced in BALB/c mice, intravenously with concanavalin A. Two hours later, these animals received ASC (EAH+ASC group) or PBS vehicle (EAH group). IgG1 and IgG2a were evaluated 8 h, 24 h and 7 d after induction. TGF-ß was measured in a splenocyte culture at this last time. The isotype levels in the EAH group were low throughout the kinetics. In the EAH+ASC group, there was significant production of IgG1 at 24 h and 7 d, but of IgG2a only at 7 d. There was statistically greater production of TGF-ß in the EAH+ASC group. The higher levels of IgG1 and TGF-ß in this group suggest that an additional Th1 response control route exists in EAH, which needs to be investigated.


Assuntos
Ascaris suum/imunologia , Hepatite Autoimune/parasitologia , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/biossíntese , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatite Autoimune/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110316, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pudilan (PDL), a four-herb prescription with the traditional function of heat-clearing and detoxifying, has been clinically used as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 infectory agent in China. PDL might also have therapeutic potentials for COVID-19 while the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. METHODS: We used network pharmacology analysis and selected 68 co-targeted genes/proteins as targets of both PDL and COVID-19. These co-targeted genes/proteins were predicted by SwissDock Server for their high-precision docking simulation, and analyzed by STRING for proteins to protein interaction (PPI), pathway and GO (gene ontology) enrichment. The therapeutic effect for PDL treatment on COVID-19 was validated by the TCMATCOV (TCM Anti COVID-19) platform. RESULTS: PDL might prevent the entrance of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells by blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It might inhibit the cytokine storm by affecting C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), interleukin- 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGFß1), and other proteins. PDL might moderate the immune system to shorten the course of the disease, delay disease progression, and reduce the mortality rate. CONCLUSION: PDL might have a therapeutic effect on COVID-19 through three aspects, including the moderate immune system, anti-inflammation, and anti-virus entry into cells.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia
14.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(2): 101417, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473802

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Secondary alveolar bone grafting using autologous versus alloplastic material in the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Scalzone A, Flores-Mir C, Carozza D, d'Apuzzo F, Grassia V, Perillo L. Prog Orthod 2019;20(6):1-10. SOURCE OF FUNDING: The authors received no financial support for this study. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Enxerto de Osso Alveolar , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2 , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
16.
Life Sci ; 255: 117859, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474020

RESUMO

Excessive fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition resulting from upregulation of target genes expression mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß)/SMAD and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling pathways are the main mechanisms that drive keloid formation. Sumoylation is a protein posttranslational modification that regulates the function of proteins in many biological processes. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of sumoylation on the TGF-ß/SMAD and HIF-1 signaling pathways in keloids. We used 2-D08 to block sumoylation and silenced the expression of sentrin sumo-specific protease 1 (SENP1) to enhance sumoylation in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and human keloid fibroblasts (HKFs). We also reduced and increased intracellular SUMO1 levels by silencing SUMO1 and transfecting cells with a SUMO1 overexpression lentivirus, respectively. Sumoylation has the ability to amplify TGF-ß/SMAD and HIF-1 signals in keloids, while SUMO1, especially the SUMO1-RanGAP1 complex, is the key molecule affecting the TGF-ß/SMAD and HIF-1 signaling pathways. In addition, we also found that hypoxia promotes sumoylation in keloids and that HIF-1α is covalently modified by SUMO1 at Lys 391 and Lys 477 in HKFs. In summary, we elucidated the role and molecular mechanism of sumoylation in the formation of keloids, providing a new perspective for a potential therapeutic target of keloids.


Assuntos
Queloide/patologia , Proteína SUMO-1/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Sumoilação/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima
17.
Life Sci ; 256: 117893, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502539

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of melittin and tripartite motif (TRIM) family in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lentiviral RNA interference vector and lentiviral overexpression vector were constructed and packaged by transfecting 293T cells; the proliferation of HELF was examined using Cell Counting Kit 8; Western blot and qRT-PCR were performed to examine protein and mRNA expression; the interaction with protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A) was examined by Co-immunoprecipitation. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of the TRIM6, TRIM8 and TRIM47 in the IPF group significantly increased. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression and protein expression levels of TRIM47, the HELF proliferation, the hydroxyproline levels, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3; the interference of TRIM47 inhibited the protein expression of Vimentin, α-SMA, CTGF, the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the synthesis of hydroxyproline; TRIM47 overexpression elevated the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, induced ubiquitination of PPM1A and decreased the expression level of PPM1A, while TRIM47 RNA interference reversed this result. SIGNIFICANCE: Melittin has anti-fibrotic effect in HELF by directly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 or indirectly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 by decreasing the expression levels of TRIM47 whose overexpression induces ubiquitination of PPM1A.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Meliteno/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/sangue , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vimentina/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colostrum, the milk produced during first few days after birth, is rich in immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides & growth factors. Multiple clinical trials using bovine colostrum are ongoing but with no assessment of test product bioactivity. OBJECTIVES: To examine variability of bioactivity between 20 commercial colostrum products, contribution of TGFß and EGFR in mediating effects, heat sensitivity of bioactivity and changes in bioactivity of colostrum milkings in the days following calving. DESIGN: In vitro bioactivity used AGS, RIE-1 and Caco-2 cell proliferation (Alamar blue) and migration (wounded monolayers) assays. Changes in colostrum bioactivity determined following addition of TGFß-neutralising antibody, EGFR blocker (Typhostin) and after heating (40-60°C, 60 min). In vivo bioassay assessed ability of colostrum gavage (2ml, 7mg/ml) to reduce gastric damage (NSAID + restraint) in rats. Milkings from 6 cows, days 0-3 post calving were assessed for bioactivity and growth factor concentrations. RESULT: Six-fold differences in pro-proliferative and migratory activity were seen comparing commercial products. Comparison of most- and least-active samples from in vitro studies showed two- to three-fold differences in ability to reduce gastric injury (86% reduction using most-active vs 48% using least-active, p<0.01). Tyrphostin reduced pro-migratory and proliferative activity by 23% and 55%. TGFß neutralisation reduced migratory activity by 83% but did not affect proliferation Heating colostrum powder to 50°C did not affect immunoactivity of haptoglobin, EGF, TGFß, IgG, IGF-1 or betacellulin but decreased bioactivity by >40%. Milking studies showed high bioactivity during first and second milkings on day 0 but 77% reduction by day 3. Changes in total protein, haptoglobin, EGF, TGFß, IgG and IGF-1 paralleled falls in bioactivity. CONCLUSION: Commercial colostrum products possess widely different bioactivity. Variation in heat exposure and/or proportion of day 0 colostrum content may contribute to this. Assessment of colostrum bioactivity has advantages to growth factor quantitation for quality control.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Colostro/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3020, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541686

RESUMO

The subversion of endocytic routes leads to malignant transformation and has been implicated in human cancers. However, there is scarce evidence for genetic alterations of endocytic proteins as causative in high incidence human cancers. Here, we report that Epsin 3 (EPN3) is an oncogene with prognostic and therapeutic relevance in breast cancer. Mechanistically, EPN3 drives breast tumorigenesis by increasing E-cadherin endocytosis, followed by the activation of a ß-catenin/TCF4-dependent partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), followed by the establishment of a TGFß-dependent autocrine loop that sustains EMT. EPN3-induced partial EMT is instrumental for the transition from in situ to invasive breast carcinoma, and, accordingly, high EPN3 levels are detected at the invasive front of human breast cancers and independently predict metastatic rather than loco-regional recurrence. Thus, we uncover an endocytic-based mechanism able to generate TGFß-dependent regulatory loops conferring cellular plasticity and invasive behavior.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Endocitose , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição 4/genética , Fator de Transcrição 4/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
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