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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21632, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) gene, localized on the X chromosome, is a Rho-GTPase activating protein that is related to syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). XLID, characterized by brain anomalies, namely cerebellar hypoplasia, specific facial features, and intellectual disability, is produced by different mutations in the OPHN1 gene. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we present the clinical and molecular findings of a family affected by a mild XLID due to a deletion in the OPHN1 gene, exon 21, Xq12 region using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis. The clinical features present in the family are a mild developmental delay, behavioral disturbances, facial dysmorphism, pes planus, nystagmus, strabismus, epilepsy, and occipital arachnoid cyst. INTERVENTIONS: The MLPA analysis was performed for investigation of the copy number variations within the X chromosome for the family. DIAGNOSIS AND OUTCOME: The MLPA analysis detected a deletion in the OPHN1 gene, exon 21 for the proband, and a heterozygous deletion for the probands mother. The deletion of the Xq12 region of maternal origin, including the exon 21 of the OPHN1 gene, confirmed for the probands nephew. LESSONS: Our findings emphasize the utility of the MLPA analysis to identify deletions in the OPHN1 gene responsible for syndromic XLID. Therefore, we suggest that MLPA analysis should be performed as an alternative diagnostic test for all patients with a mild intellectual disability associated or not with behavioral disturbances, facial dysmorphism, and brain anomalies.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Éxons , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Masculino
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760121

RESUMO

Members of the family of pyrin and HIN domain containing (PYHIN) proteins play an emerging role in innate immunity. While absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) acts a cytosolic sensor of non-self DNA and plays a key role in inflammasome assembly, the γ-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) restricts retroviral gene expression by sequestering the transcription factor Sp1. Here, we show that the remaining two human PYHIN proteins, i.e. myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and pyrin and HIN domain family member 1 (PYHIN1 or IFIX) share this antiretroviral function of IFI16. On average, knock-down of each of these three nuclear PYHIN proteins increased infectious HIV-1 yield from human macrophages by more than an order of magnitude. Similarly, knock-down of IFI16 strongly increased virus transcription and production in primary CD4+ T cells. The N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) plus linker region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) were generally required and sufficient for Sp1 sequestration and anti-HIV-1 activity of IFI16, MNDA and PYHIN1. Replacement of the linker region of AIM2 by the NLS-containing linker of IFI16 resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization and conferred direct antiviral activity to AIM2 while attenuating its ability to form inflammasomes. The reverse change caused nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of IFI16 and impaired its antiretroviral activity but did not result in inflammasome assembly. We further show that the Zn-finger domain of Sp1 is critical for the interaction with IFI16 supporting that pyrin domains compete with DNA for Sp1 binding. Finally, we found that human PYHIN proteins also inhibit Hepatitis B virus and simian vacuolating virus 40 as well as the LINE-1 retrotransposon. Altogether, our data show that IFI16, PYHIN1 and MNDA restrict HIV-1 and other viral pathogens by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression and support an important role of nuclear PYHIN proteins in innate antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Replicação Viral
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3904, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764536

RESUMO

A major challenge in chemotherapy is chemotherapy resistance in cells lacking p53. Here we demonstrate that NIP30, an inhibitor of the oncogenic REGγ-proteasome, attenuates cancer cell growth and sensitizes p53-compromised cells to chemotherapeutic agents. NIP30 acts by binding to REGγ via an evolutionarily-conserved serine-rich domain with 4-serine phosphorylation. We find the cyclin-dependent phosphatase CDC25A is a key regulator for NIP30 phosphorylation and modulation of REGγ activity during the cell cycle or after DNA damage. We validate CDC25A-NIP30-REGγ mediated regulation of the REGγ target protein p21 in vivo using p53-/- and p53/REGγ double-deficient mice. Moreover, Phosphor-NIP30 mimetics significantly increase the growth inhibitory effect of chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Given that NIP30 is frequently mutated in the TCGA cancer database, our results provide insight into the regulatory pathway controlling the REGγ-proteasome in carcinogenesis and offer a novel approach to drug-resistant cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência , Animais , Autoantígenos/genética , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosforilação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/deficiência , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Fosfatases cdc25/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3951, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769987

RESUMO

Duplication of mammalian genomes requires replisomes to overcome numerous impediments during passage through open (eu) and condensed (hetero) chromatin. Typically, studies of replication stress characterize mixed populations of challenged and unchallenged replication forks, averaged across S phase, and model a single species of "stressed" replisome. Here, in cells containing potent obstacles to replication, we find two different lesion proximal replisomes. One is bound by the DONSON protein and is more frequent in early S phase, in regions marked by euchromatin. The other interacts with the FANCM DNA translocase, is more prominent in late S phase, and favors heterochromatin. The two forms can also be detected in unstressed cells. ChIP-seq of DNA associated with DONSON or FANCM confirms the bias of the former towards regions that replicate early and the skew of the latter towards regions that replicate late.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Período de Replicação do DNA , Eucromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fase S
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4206, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826896

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae TBP associated factor 14 (Taf14) is a well-studied transcriptional regulator that controls diverse physiological processes and that physically interacts with at least seven nuclear complexes in yeast. Despite multiple previous Taf14 structural studies, the nature of its disparate transcriptional regulatory functions remains opaque. Here, we demonstrate that the extra-terminal (ET) domain of Taf14 (Taf14ET) recognizes a common motif in multiple transcriptional coactivator proteins from several nuclear complexes, including RSC, SWI/SNF, INO80, NuA3, TFIID, and TFIIF. Moreover, we show that such partner binding promotes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of Taf14ET, in a mechanism common to YEATS-associated ET domains (e.g., AF9ET) but not Bromo-associated ET domains from BET-family proteins. Thus, beyond identifying the molecular mechanism by which Taf14ET associates with many transcriptional regulators, our study suggests that Taf14 may function as a versatile nuclear hub that orchestrates transcriptional machineries to spatiotemporally regulate diverse cellular pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição TFIID/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Epigenômica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fator de Transcrição TFIID/química , Fator de Transcrição TFIID/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4083, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796829

RESUMO

Proper chromatin function and maintenance of genomic stability depends on spatiotemporal coordination between the transcription and replication machinery. Loss of this coordination can lead to DNA damage from increased transcription-replication collision events. We report that deregulated transcription following BRD4 loss in cancer cells leads to the accumulation of RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) and collisions with the replication machinery causing replication stress and DNA damage. Whole genome BRD4 and γH2AX ChIP-Seq with R-loop IP qPCR reveals that BRD4 inhibition leads to accumulation of R-loops and DNA damage at a subset of known BDR4, JMJD6, and CHD4 co-regulated genes. Interference with BRD4 function causes transcriptional downregulation of the DNA damage response protein TopBP1, resulting in failure to activate the ATR-Chk1 pathway despite increased replication stress, leading to apoptotic cell death in S-phase and mitotic catastrophe. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of BRD4 induces transcription-replication conflicts, DNA damage, and cell death in oncogenic cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas R-Loop/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Cromatina , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Complexo Mi-2 de Remodelação de Nucleossomo e Desacetilase/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fase S , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3807, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733036

RESUMO

The human genome contains an estimated 600 ubiquitin E3 ligases, many of which are single-subunit E3s (ssE3s) that can bind to both substrate and ubiquitin-loaded E2 (E2~Ub). Within ssE3s structural disorder tends to be located in substrate binding and domain linking regions. RNF4 is a ssE3 ligase with a C-terminal RING domain and disordered N-terminal region containing SUMO Interactions Motifs (SIMs) required to bind SUMO modified substrates. Here we show that, although the N-terminal region of RNF4 bears no secondary structure, it maintains a compact global architecture primed for SUMO interaction. Segregated charged regions within the RNF4 N-terminus promote compaction, juxtaposing RING domain and SIMs to facilitate substrate ubiquitination. Mutations that induce a more extended shape reduce ubiquitination activity. Our result offer insight into a key step in substrate ubiquitination by a member of the largest ubiquitin ligase subtype and reveal how a defined architecture within a disordered region contributes to E3 ligase function.


Assuntos
Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4063, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792525

RESUMO

The neuroendocrine hypothalamus is the central regulator of vital physiological homeostasis and behavior. However, the cellular and molecular properties of hypothalamic neural progenitors remain unexplored. Here, hypothalamic radial glial (hRG) and hypothalamic mantle zone radial glial (hmRG) cells are found to be neural progenitors in the developing mammalian hypothalamus. The hmRG cells originate from hRG cells and produce neurons. During the early development of hypothalamus, neurogenesis occurs in radial columns and is initiated from hRG cells. The radial glial fibers are oriented toward the locations of hypothalamic subregions which act as a scaffold for neuronal migration. Furthermore, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal progenitor subtypes in human developing hypothalamus and characterize specific progenitor genes, such as TTYH1, HMGA2, and FAM107A. We also demonstrate that HMGA2 is involved in E2F1 pathway, regulating the proliferation of progenitor cells by targeting on the downstream MYBL2. Different neuronal subtypes start to differentiate and express specific genes of hypothalamic nucleus at gestational week 10. Finally, we reveal the developmental conservation of nuclear structures and marker genes in mouse and human hypothalamus. Our identification of cellular and molecular properties of neural progenitors provides a basic understanding of neurogenesis and regional formation of the non-laminated hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Proteína HMGA2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Mamíferos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Gravidez
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4338, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859893

RESUMO

Reversible phosphorylation of Pol II and accessory factors helps order the transcription cycle. Here, we define two kinase-phosphatase switches that operate at different points in human transcription. Cdk9/cyclin T1 (P-TEFb) catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of PP1 and PP4 complexes that localize to 3' and 5' ends of genes, respectively, and have overlapping but distinct specificities for Cdk9-dependent phosphorylations of Spt5, a factor instrumental in promoter-proximal pausing and elongation-rate control. PP1 dephosphorylates an Spt5 carboxy-terminal repeat (CTR), but not Spt5-Ser666, a site between Kyrpides-Ouzounis-Woese (KOW) motifs 4 and 5, whereas PP4 can target both sites. In vivo, Spt5-CTR phosphorylation decreases as transcription complexes pass the cleavage and polyadenylation signal (CPS) and increases upon PP1 depletion, consistent with a PP1 function in termination first uncovered in yeast. Depletion of PP4-complex subunits increases phosphorylation of both Ser666 and the CTR, and promotes redistribution of promoter-proximally paused Pol II into gene bodies. These results suggest that switches comprising Cdk9 and either PP4 or PP1 govern pause release and the elongation-termination transition, respectively.


Assuntos
Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000782, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692742

RESUMO

Tight regulation of gene transcription and mRNA splicing is essential for plant growth and development. Here we demonstrate that a plant-specific protein, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 1579 (EMB1579), controls multiple growth and developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that EMB1579 forms liquid-like condensates both in vitro and in vivo, and the formation of normal-sized EMB1579 condensates is crucial for its cellular functions. We found that some chromosomal and RNA-related proteins interact with EMB1579 compartments, and loss of function of EMB1579 affects global gene transcription and mRNA splicing. Using floral transition as a physiological process, we demonstrate that EMB1579 is involved in FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)-mediated repression of flowering. Interestingly, we found that EMB1579 physically interacts with a homologue of Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor 55-kDa (p55) called MULTIPLE SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 4 (MSI4), which has been implicated in repressing the expression of FLC by forming a complex with DNA Damage Binding Protein 1 (DDB1) and Cullin 4 (CUL4). This complex, named CUL4-DDB1MSI4, physically associates with a CURLY LEAF (CLF)-containing Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (CLF-PRC2). We further demonstrate that EMB1579 interacts with CUL4 and DDB1, and EMB1579 condensates can recruit and condense MSI4 and DDB1. Furthermore, emb1579 phenocopies msi4 in terms of the level of H3K27 trimethylation on FLC. This allows us to propose that EMB1579 condensates recruit and condense CUL4-DDB1MSI4 complex, which facilitates the interaction of CUL4-DDB1MSI4 with CLF-PRC2 and promotes the role of CLF-PRC2 in establishing and/or maintaining the level of H3K27 trimethylation on FLC. Thus, we report a new mechanism for regulating plant gene transcription, mRNA splicing, and growth and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18840-18848, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690706

RESUMO

Light and gravity are two key environmental factors that control plant growth and architecture. However, the molecular basis of the coordination of light and gravity signaling in plants remains obscure. Here, we report that two classes of transcription factors, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), can directly bind and activate the expression of LAZY4, a positive regulator of gravitropism in both shoots and roots in Arabidopsis In hypocotyls, light promotes degradation of PIFs to reduce LAZY4 expression, which inhibits the negative gravitropism of hypocotyls. LAZY4 overexpression can partially rescue the negative gravitropic phenotype of pifq in the dark without affecting amyloplast development. Our identification of the PIFs-LAZY4 regulatory module suggests the presence of another role for PIF proteins in gravitropism, in addition to a previous report demonstrating that PIFs positively regulate amyloplast development to promote negative gravitropism in hypocotyls. In roots, light promotes accumulation of HY5 proteins to activate expression of LAZY4, which promotes positive gravitropism in roots. Together, our data indicate that light exerts opposite regulation of LAZY4 expression in shoots and roots by mediating the protein levels of PIFs and HY5, respectively, to inhibit the negative gravitropism of shoots and promote positive gravitropism of roots in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Gravitropismo/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Nucleares , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Luz , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo
12.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(18)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661120

RESUMO

The DNA and protein complex known as chromatin is subject to posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that regulate cellular functions such that PTM dysregulation can lead to disease, including cancer. One critical PTM is acetylation/deacetylation, which is being investigated as a means to develop targeted cancer therapies. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) family of proteins performs histone acetylation. In humans, MOF (hMOF), a member of the MYST family of HATs, acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). MOF-mediated acetylation plays a critical role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and embryonic stem cell development. Functionally, MOF is found in two distinct complexes: NSL (nonspecific lethal) in humans and MSL (male-specific lethal) in flies. The NSL complex is also able to acetylate additional histone H4 sites. Dysregulation of MOF activity occurs in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancer, medulloblastoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Bioinformatics analysis of KAT8, the gene encoding hMOF, indicated that it is highly overexpressed in kidney tumors as part of a concerted gene coexpression program that can support high levels of chromosome segregation and cell proliferation. The linkage between MOF and tumor proliferation suggests that there are additional functions of MOF that remain to be discovered.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667929

RESUMO

The alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram has antitumor effects against diverse cancer types via inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein nuclear protein localization protein 4 (NPL4). However, the antitumor effects of NPL4 and disulfiram in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are unclear. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway using disulfiram and RNA interference and investigated the mechanisms underlying disulfiram in ccRCC. According to data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, NPL4 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in clinical ccRCC samples compared with that in normal kidney samples, and patients with high NPL4 expression had poor overall survival compared with patients with low NPL4 expression. Disulfiram and NPL4 siRNA inhibited ccRCC cell proliferation in vitro, and disulfiram inhibited ccRCC tumor growth in a xenograft model. Synergistic antiproliferative effects were observed for combination treatment with disulfiram and sunitinib in vitro and in vivo. In RCC cells from mice treated with disulfiram and/or sunitinib, several genes associated with serine biosynthesis and aldose reductase were downregulated in cells treated with disulfiram or sunitinib alone and further downregulated in cells treated with both disulfiram and sunitinib. These findings provided insights into the mechanisms of disulfiram and suggested novel therapeutic strategies for RCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Dissulfiram/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Acetaldeído Desidrogenases/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3656, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694517

RESUMO

Avian influenza polymerase undergoes host adaptation in order to efficiently replicate in human cells. Adaptive mutants are localised on the C-terminal (627-NLS) domains of the PB2 subunit. In particular, mutation of PB2 residue 627 from E to K rescues polymerase activity in mammalian cells. A host transcription regulator ANP32A, comprising a long C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain (IDD), is responsible for this adaptation. Human ANP32A IDD lacks a 33 residue insertion compared to avian ANP32A, and this deletion restricts avian influenza polymerase activity. We used NMR to determine conformational ensembles of E627 and K627 forms of 627-NLS of PB2 in complex with avian and human ANP32A. Human ANP32A IDD transiently binds to the 627 domain, exploiting multivalency to maximise affinity. E627 interrupts the polyvalency of the interaction, an effect compensated by an avian-unique motif in the IDD. The observed binding mode is maintained in the context of heterotrimeric influenza polymerase, placing ANP32A in the immediate vicinity of known host-adaptive PB2 mutants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/ultraestrutura , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Proteínas Nucleares/ultraestrutura , Domínios Proteicos/genética , RNA Replicase/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Virais/ultraestrutura , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Aves/virologia , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/metabolismo , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Mutação , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649682

RESUMO

Mutations of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex occur in 20% of all human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Approximately half of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) carry mutations in the SWI/SNF subunit ARID1A, while small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) presents with inactivating mutations of the SWI/SNF ATPase SMARCA4 alongside epigenetic silencing of the ATPase SMARCA2. Loss of these ATPases disrupts SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling activity and may also interfere with the function of other histone-modifying enzymes that associate with or are dependent on SWI/SNF activity. One such enzyme is lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), which regulates the chromatin landscape and gene expression by demethylating proteins such as histone H3. Cross-cancer analysis of the TCGA database shows that LSD1 is highly expressed in SWI/SNF-mutated tumors. SCCOHT and OCCC cell lines have shown sensitivity to the reversible LSD1 inhibitor SP-2577 (Seclidemstat), suggesting that SWI/SNF-deficient ovarian cancers are dependent on LSD1 activity. Moreover, it has been shown that inhibition of LSD1 stimulates interferon (IFN)-dependent anti-tumor immunity through induction of endogenous retroviral elements and may thereby overcome resistance to checkpoint blockade. In this study, we investigated the ability of SP-2577 to promote anti-tumor immunity and T-cell infiltration in SCCOHT and OCCC cell lines. We found that SP-2577 stimulated IFN-dependent anti-tumor immunity in SCCOHT and promoted the expression of PD-L1 in both SCCOHT and OCCC. Together, these findings suggest that the combination therapy of SP-2577 with checkpoint inhibitors may induce or augment immunogenic responses of SWI/SNF-mutated ovarian cancers and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/farmacologia , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008933, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692737

RESUMO

Structure-specific endonucleases (SSEs) play key roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. SSEs must be tightly regulated to ensure genome stability but their regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the activities of two SSEs, Dna2 and Rad16 (ortholog of human XPF), are temporally controlled during the cell cycle by the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase. CRL4Cdt2 targets Pxd1, an inhibitor of Dna2 and an activator of Rad16, for degradation in S phase. The ubiquitination and degradation of Pxd1 is dependent on CRL4Cdt2, PCNA, and a PCNA-binding degron motif on Pxd1. CRL4Cdt2-mediated Pxd1 degradation prevents Pxd1 from interfering with the normal S-phase functions of Dna2. Moreover, Pxd1 degradation leads to a reduction of Rad16 nuclease activity in S phase, and restrains Rad16-mediated single-strand annealing, a hazardous pathway of repairing double-strand breaks. These results demonstrate a new role of the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase in genome stability maintenance and shed new light on how SSE activities are regulated during the cell cycle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases Flap/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Fase S/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008904, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730253

RESUMO

The conserved ATPase, PCH-2/TRIP13, is required during both the spindle checkpoint and meiotic prophase. However, its specific role in regulating meiotic homolog pairing, synapsis and recombination has been enigmatic. Here, we report that this enzyme is required to proofread meiotic homolog interactions. We generated a mutant version of PCH-2 in C. elegans that binds ATP but cannot hydrolyze it: pch-2E253Q. In vitro, this mutant can bind a known substrate but is unable to remodel it. This mutation results in some non-homologous synapsis and impaired crossover assurance. Surprisingly, worms with a null mutation in PCH-2's adapter protein, CMT-1, the ortholog of p31comet, localize PCH-2 to meiotic chromosomes, exhibit non-homologous synapsis and lose crossover assurance. The similarity in phenotypes between cmt-1 and pch-2E253Q mutants suggest that PCH-2 can bind its meiotic substrates in the absence of CMT-1, in contrast to its role during the spindle checkpoint, but requires its adapter to hydrolyze ATP and remodel them.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Meiose/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fuso Acromático/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3398, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636384

RESUMO

SWI/SNF remodelers play a key role in regulating chromatin architecture and gene expression. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi/Snf complex in a nucleosome-free state. The structure consists of a stable triangular base module and a flexible Arp module. The conserved subunits Swi1 and Swi3 form the backbone of the complex and closely interact with other components. Snf6, which is specific for yeast Swi/Snf complex, stabilizes the binding of the ATPase-containing subunit Snf2 to the base module. Comparison of the yeast Swi/Snf and RSC complexes reveals conserved structural features that govern the assembly and function of these two subfamilies of chromatin remodelers. Our findings complement those from recent structures of the yeast and human chromatin remodelers and provide further insights into the assembly and function of the SWI/SNF remodelers.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Cromatina/química , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Humanos , Nucleossomos , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3383, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636391

RESUMO

The endogenous repair process can result in recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI) with adaptive proliferation of tubular epithelial cells, but repair can also lead to fibrosis and progressive kidney disease. There is currently limited knowledge about transcriptional regulators regulating these repair programs. Herein we establish the enhancer and super-enhancer landscape after AKI by ChIP-seq in uninjured and repairing kidneys on day two after ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). We identify key transcription factors including HNF4A, GR, STAT3 and STAT5, which show specific binding at enhancer and super-enhancer sites, revealing enhancer dynamics and transcriptional changes during kidney repair. Loss of bromodomain-containing protein 4 function before IRI leads to impaired recovery after AKI and increased mortality. Our comprehensive analysis of epigenetic changes after kidney injury in vivo has the potential to identify targets for therapeutic intervention. Importantly, our data also call attention to potential caveats involved in use of BET inhibitors in patients at risk for AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células , Epigênese Genética , Fibrose , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Nucleares , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição , Transcrição Genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3284, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601292

RESUMO

The inner nuclear membrane (INM) selectively accumulates proteins that are essential for nuclear functions; however, overaccumulation of INM proteins results in a range of rare genetic disorders. So far, little is known about how defective, mislocalized, or abnormally accumulated membrane proteins are actively removed from the INM, especially in plants and animals. Here, via analysis of a proximity-labeling proteomic profile of INM-associated proteins in Arabidopsis, we identify critical components for an INM protein degradation pathway. We show that this pathway relies on the CDC48 complex for INM protein extraction and 26S proteasome for subsequent protein degradation. Moreover, we show that CDC48 at the INM may be regulated by a subgroup of PUX proteins, which determine the substrate specificity or affect the ATPase activity of CDC48. These PUX proteins specifically associate with the nucleoskeleton underneath the INM and physically interact with CDC48 proteins to negatively regulate INM protein degradation in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Proteoma/genética , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Proteína com Valosina/genética , Proteína com Valosina/metabolismo
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