Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 167.071
Filtrar
1.
Science ; 369(6499): 59-64, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631887

RESUMO

Eukaryotic histone H3-H4 tetramers contain a putative copper (Cu2+) binding site at the H3-H3' dimerization interface with unknown function. The coincident emergence of eukaryotes with global oxygenation, which challenged cellular copper utilization, raised the possibility that histones may function in cellular copper homeostasis. We report that the recombinant Xenopus laevis H3-H4 tetramer is an oxidoreductase enzyme that binds Cu2+ and catalyzes its reduction to Cu1+ in vitro. Loss- and gain-of-function mutations of the putative active site residues correspondingly altered copper binding and the enzymatic activity, as well as intracellular Cu1+ abundance and copper-dependent mitochondrial respiration and Sod1 function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae The histone H3-H4 tetramer, therefore, has a role other than chromatin compaction or epigenetic regulation and generates biousable Cu1+ ions in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Histonas/química , Oxirredutases/química , Multimerização Proteica , Animais , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
2.
Rev Esp Patol ; 53(3): 188-192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650970

RESUMO

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, first identified in Wuhan, China in December, 2019, can cause Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) with massive alveolar damage and progressive respiratory failure. We present the relevant autopsy findings of the first patient known to have died from COVID19 pneumonia in Spain, carried out on the 14th of February, 2020, in our hospital (Hospital Arnau de Vilanova-Lliria, Valencia). Histological examination revealed typical changes of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in both the exudative and proliferative phase of acute lung injury. Intra-alveolar multinucleated giant cells, smudge cells and vascular thrombosis were present. The diagnosis was confirmed by reverse real-time PCR assay on a throat swab sample taken during the patient's admission. The positive result was reported fifteen days subsequent to autopsy.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Idoso , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/ultraestrutura , Proteína 1 de Troca de Ânion do Eritrócito/análise , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/análise , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/complicações , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Macrófagos/química , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Viagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações
3.
GM Crops Food ; 11(4): 275-289, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706315

RESUMO

EAR motif-containing proteins are able to repress gene expression, therefore play important roles in regulating plants growth and development, plant response to environmental stimuli, as well as plant hormone signal transduction. ABA is a plant hormone that regulates abiotic stress tolerance in plants via signal transduction. ABA signaling via the PYR1/PYLs/RCARs receptors, the PP2Cs phosphatases, and SnRK2s protein kinases activates the ABF/AREB/ABI5-type bZIP transcription factors, resulting in the activation/repression of ABA response genes. However, functions of many ABA response genes remained largely unknown. We report here the identification of the ABA-responsive gene SlEAD1 (Solanum lycopersicum EAR motif-containing ABA down-regulated 1) as a novel EAR motif-containing transcription repressor gene in tomato. We found that the expression of SlEAD1 was down-regulated by ABA treatment, and SlEAD1 repressed reporter gene expression in transfected protoplasts. By using CRISPR gene editing, we generated transgene-free slead1 mutants and found that the mutants produced short roots. By using seed germination and root elongation assays, we examined ABA response of the slead1 mutants and found that ABA sensitivity in the mutants was increased. By using qRT-PCR, we further show that the expression of some of the ABA biosynthesis and signaling component genes were increased in the slead1 mutants. Taken together, our results suggest that SlEAD1 is an ABA response gene, that SlEAD1 is a novel EAR motif-containing transcription repressor, and that SlEAD1 negatively regulates ABA responses in tomato possibly by repressing the expression of some ABA biosynthesis and signaling genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum , Ácido Abscísico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126802, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660694

RESUMO

As the predominant predator of pests in rice fields, spiders have been exposed to cadmium (Cd) pollution for a long time. The livability of spiders during the overwintering period is closely related to population growth in spring, but the effects of Cd on spider's survival of cold hardness and the underlining mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we found that some growth parameters (body length, width, mass and livability) in the wolf spider Pirata subpiraticus were altered distinctively under Cd stress. To investigate the effects of Cd toxicity on the spider at molecular levels, RNA-sequencing was performed on the spiderlings undergoing ambient temperature alterations. Transcriptome data showed that a total of 807 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were yielded in the comparison. The obtained DEGs were mainly linked with metabolism-related process, including oxidoreductase activity and lipid transport, and 25 DEGs were associated with the reported cryoprotectants, including glycerol, arginine, cysteine, heat shock protein, glucose and mannose. Growth factors (insulin growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor) and cytochrome P450 encoding genes were dramatically expressed in the spider. Furthermore, transcriptional factors (TFs) family were characterized according to the transcriptomic profile, and ZBTB TFs were represented the most distinctive alterations in the characterized genes. Collectively, our study illustrated that Cd poses disadvantageous effects on the growth of P. subpiraticus at cold ambient temperature, and the spiders are capable of responding to the adverse Cd stress by expressing the genes involved in the metabolism of energy substances, cryoprotectants and immune-related components.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Aranhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Aranhas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
5.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 90-99, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621417

RESUMO

Neurons are the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Precisely regulated dendrite morphogenesis is the basis of neural circuit assembly. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the regulatory mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis. According to their action regions, we divide them into two categories: the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of neuronal dendritic morphogenesis. Intrinsic factors are cell type-specific transcription factors, actin polymerization or depolymerization regulators and regulators of the secretion or endocytic pathways. These intrinsic factors are produced by neuron itself and play an important role in regulating the development of dendrites. The extrinsic regulators are either secreted proteins or transmembrane domain containing cell adhesion molecules. They often form receptor-ligand pairs to mediate attractive or repulsive dendritic guidance. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the intrinsic and external molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis from multiple model organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mice. These studies will provide a better understanding on how defective dendrite development and maintenance are associated with neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Dendritos , Neurônios , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Camundongos , Morfogênese , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(6): 643-650, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624538

RESUMO

Splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1) is the most commonly mutated RNA splicing factor identified in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and uveal melanoma. The mechanisms by which SF3B1 mutations promote malignancy are poorly understood. Here, we integrated pan-cancer RNA sequencing to identify mutant SF3B1-dependent aberrant splicing events with a positive CRISPR screen to prioritize alterations that functionally promote oncogenesis. Our results indicated that diverse, recurrent SF3B1 mutations converge on the repression of bromodomain containing 9 (BRD9), a core component of the recently described non-canonical barrier-to-autointegration factor complex (ncBAF). Mutant SF3B1 recognizes intronic sequences within BRD9 as exons, thereby permitting inclusion of aberrant sequence (i.e., poison exon) that will result in the degradation of BRD9 mRNA. BRD9 depletion results in significant loss of ncBAF at CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding loci but has no impact on the localization of canonical BAF. These actions resulted in disturbed myeloid/erythroid differentiation and promoted the development of MDS and melanoma. Of note, correcting BRD9 mis-splicing in SF3B1-mutant cells with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), by targeting the poison exon with CRISPR-directed mutagenesis, or via the use of spliceosomal inhibitors are all potential therapeutic options. Our results implicate disruption of ncBAF as a critical factor promoting the development of the diverse array of cancers that carry SF3B1 mutations and suggest a mechanism-based therapeutic approach for treating these malignancies.


Assuntos
Processamento de RNA , Carcinogênese , Humanos , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas , Fatores de Processamento de RNA , RNA Mensageiro , Fatores de Transcrição
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 480, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a serious public health problem not only in South East Asia but also in European and African countries. Scientists are using network biology to dig deep into the essential host factors responsible for regulation of virus infections. Researchers can explore the virus invasion into the host cells by studying the virus-host relationship based on their protein-protein interaction network. METHODS: In this study, we present a comprehensive IAV-host protein-protein interaction network that is obtained based on the literature-curated protein interaction datasets and some important interaction databases. The network is constructed in Cytoscape and analyzed with its plugins including CytoHubba, CytoCluster, MCODE, ClusterViz and ClusterOne. In addition, Gene Ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses are performed on the highly IAV-associated human proteins. We also compare the current results with those from our previous study on Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-host protein-protein interaction network in order to find out valuable information. RESULTS: We found out 1027 interactions among 829 proteins of which 14 are viral proteins and 815 belong to human proteins. The viral protein NS1 has the highest number of associations with human proteins followed by NP, PB2 and so on. Among human proteins, LNX2, MEOX2, TFCP2, PRKRA and DVL2 have the most interactions with viral proteins. Based on KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the highly IAV-associated human proteins, we found out that they are enriched in the KEGG pathway of basal cell carcinoma. Similarly, the result of KEGG analysis of the common host factors involved in IAV and HCV infections shows that these factors are enriched in the infection pathways of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Viral Carcinoma, measles and certain other viruses. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the list of proteins we identified might be used as potential drug targets for the drug design against the infectious diseases caused by Influenza A Virus and other viruses.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas do Core Viral/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
8.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609448

RESUMO

Dermatomyositis is a clinically heterogenous inflammatory myopathy with unique cutaneous features. Myositis-specific antibodies can aid in diagnosis and anticipation of patient prognosis. Herein, we report a 22-year-old man who presented with multifocal erythematous plaques with violaceous papules on his bilateral elbows, neck, and face. He was diagnosed with biopsy-proven dermatomyositis and determined to be seropositive for nuclear matrix protein 2 antibody (NXP-2). He was treated with systemic corticosteroids, then intravenous methylprednisolone and azathioprine, and ultimately achieved greatest treatment response with intravenous immune globulin therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Dermatomiosite/imunologia , Dermatomiosite/terapia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Algoritmos , Biópsia , Dermatomiosite/diagnóstico , Dermatomiosite/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3801-3809, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620619

RESUMO

AIM: Cancer stem-like cell (CSC) markers and the role of CSCs derived from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pathogenesis are unclear. This study aimed to investigate CSC properties using tumor spheres from passaged PTC cells but without sorting CSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify the properties of CSCs derived from PTC, the expression of SRY-box transcription factor 2(SOX2), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), Nanog homeobox (NANOG), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), E-cadherin, YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was investigated in tumor spheres serially passaged without sorting CSCs. RESULTS: The cultured tumor spheres had cancer stemness; high expression of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and YAP1; low expression of E-cadherin; and varied expression of TG, TSHR, and STAT3. PTC tumor spheres transfected with small interfering RNA targeting YAP1 had fewer CSC properties than the non-transfected tumor spheres did. CONCLUSION: Tumor spheres derived from PTC cells by passaging without sorting CSCs have more stem-like cell properties, and less differentiation potential. Thus, this simple and cost-effective method can be used for the enrichment of PTC stemness for employment in cell-based models, reducing the need for use of animal models.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/biossíntese , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Antígenos CD/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Caderinas/biossíntese , Caderinas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/biossíntese , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Esferoides Celulares , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21195, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension occurs profoundly in the world, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling containing functional, structural, and mechanical changes induced by uncontrolled blood pressure is a well-known complication, however the underlying mechanism is still obscure. METHODS: To determine differences in gene expression profiles of hypertension and LV remodeling consequence to hypertension, Gene Expression Omnibus 2R online tool was used to identify differently expressed genes. Publicly available databases including GeneMANIA, database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery, search tool for the retrieva predicting associated transcription factors (TF) from annotated affinities interacting genes, Predicting Associated TF from Annotated Affinities, JASPAR and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) were accessed to perform an integrated bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one genes (SEC14L3, EML7, PSMD7, PSMA1, GLRX, CNOT10, NBR1, DUSP12, STRAP, SMIM14, RBM8A, TMEM59, TMEM87A,PSMC1, CASP4, ITGB8, DNAJA1, PINK1, PRNP, SAP30L, and EIF3M) were found overexpression in both hypertension and hypertensive LV remodeling. Biological process analysis first revealed that enrichment of these target genes correlated with regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process, antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent and proteasome complex, 3 different expression genes (DEGs) participate significantly enriched in NFκB, WNT, and MAPK pathways, meanwhile, 47% DEGs displayed similar co-expression characteristics. Furthermore, the transcription factors associated with key DEGs were identified. Finally, the TF (HAND1, E4BP4, ESR1, VBP, ELK-1, POU3F2) associated with LV remodeling in hypertension were confirmed to act a crucial role in correlated heart diseases. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals the targeted genes probably associated with LV remodeling in hypertension by bioinformatics-based analyses, which provides clues for prognosis judgement and pharmacological therapies.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico
12.
Nature ; 582(7811): 246-252, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499648

RESUMO

A wealth of specialized neuroendocrine command systems intercalated within the hypothalamus control the most fundamental physiological needs in vertebrates1,2. Nevertheless, we lack a developmental blueprint that integrates the molecular determinants of neuronal and glial diversity along temporal and spatial scales of hypothalamus development3. Here we combine single-cell RNA sequencing of 51,199 mouse cells of ectodermal origin, gene regulatory network (GRN) screens in conjunction with genome-wide association study-based disease phenotyping, and genetic lineage reconstruction to show that nine glial and thirty-three neuronal subtypes are generated by mid-gestation under the control of distinct GRNs. Combinatorial molecular codes that arise from neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and transcription factors are minimally required to decode the taxonomical hierarchy of hypothalamic neurons. The differentiation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine neurons, but not glutamate neurons, relies on quasi-stable intermediate states, with a pool of GABA progenitors giving rise to dopamine cells4. We found an unexpected abundance of chemotropic proliferation and guidance cues that are commonly implicated in dorsal (cortical) patterning5 in the hypothalamus. In particular, loss of SLIT-ROBO signalling impaired both the production and positioning of periventricular dopamine neurons. Overall, we identify molecular principles that shape the developmental architecture of the hypothalamus and show how neuronal heterogeneity is transformed into a multimodal neural unit to provide virtually infinite adaptive potential throughout life.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/embriologia , Morfogênese , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Ectoderma/citologia , Ectoderma/metabolismo , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/citologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfogênese/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuroglia/citologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Regulon/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
13.
Nature ; 582(7811): 240-245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499647

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 240 loci that are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D)1,2; however, most of these loci have been identified in analyses of individuals with European ancestry. Here, to examine T2D risk in East Asian individuals, we carried out a meta-analysis of GWAS data from 77,418 individuals with T2D and 356,122 healthy control individuals. In the main analysis, we identified 301 distinct association signals at 183 loci, and across T2D association models with and without consideration of body mass index and sex, we identified 61 loci that are newly implicated in predisposition to T2D. Common variants associated with T2D in both East Asian and European populations exhibited strongly correlated effect sizes. Previously undescribed associations include signals in or near GDAP1, PTF1A, SIX3, ALDH2, a microRNA cluster, and genes that affect the differentiation of muscle and adipose cells3. At another locus, expression quantitative trait loci at two overlapping T2D signals affect two genes-NKX6-3 and ANK1-in different tissues4-6. Association studies in diverse populations identify additional loci and elucidate disease-associated genes, biology, and pathways.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Alelos , Anquirinas/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
14.
Nature ; 583(7814): 90-95, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499645

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is characterized by recurrent and often life-threatening infections, autoimmunity and cancer, and it poses major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although the most severe forms of PID are identified in early childhood, most patients present in adulthood, typically with no apparent family history and a variable clinical phenotype of widespread immune dysregulation: about 25% of patients have autoimmune disease, allergy is prevalent and up to 10% develop lymphoid malignancies1-3. Consequently, in sporadic (or non-familial) PID genetic diagnosis is difficult and the role of genetics is not well defined. Here we address these challenges by performing whole-genome sequencing in a large PID cohort of 1,318 participants. An analysis of the coding regions of the genome in 886 index cases of PID found that disease-causing mutations in known genes that are implicated in monogenic PID occurred in 10.3% of these patients, and a Bayesian approach (BeviMed4) identified multiple new candidate PID-associated genes, including IVNS1ABP. We also examined the noncoding genome, and found deletions in regulatory regions that contribute to disease causation. In addition, we used a genome-wide association study to identify loci that are associated with PID, and found evidence for the colocalization of-and interplay between-novel high-penetrance monogenic variants and common variants (at the PTPN2 and SOCS1 loci). This begins to explain the contribution of common variants to the variable penetrance and phenotypic complexity that are observed in PID. Thus, using a cohort-based whole-genome-sequencing approach in the diagnosis of PID can increase diagnostic yield and further our understanding of the key pathways that influence immune responsiveness in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
Science ; 368(6497): 1386-1392, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554597

RESUMO

The nucleus contains diverse phase-separated condensates that compartmentalize and concentrate biomolecules with distinct physicochemical properties. Here, we investigated whether condensates concentrate small-molecule cancer therapeutics such that their pharmacodynamic properties are altered. We found that antineoplastic drugs become concentrated in specific protein condensates in vitro and that this occurs through physicochemical properties independent of the drug target. This behavior was also observed in tumor cells, where drug partitioning influenced drug activity. Altering the properties of the condensate was found to affect the concentration and activity of drugs. These results suggest that selective partitioning and concentration of small molecules within condensates contributes to drug pharmacodynamics and that further understanding of this phenomenon may facilitate advances in disease therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/genética , Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Nature ; 582(7810): 109-114, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494068

RESUMO

Advances in genetics and sequencing have identified a plethora of disease-associated and disease-causing genetic alterations. To determine causality between genetics and disease, accurate models for molecular dissection are required; however, the rapid expansion of transcriptional populations identified through single-cell analyses presents a major challenge for accurate comparisons between mutant and wild-type cells. Here we generate mouse models of human severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) using patient-derived mutations in the GFI1 transcription factor. To determine the effects of SCN mutations, we generated single-cell references for granulopoietic genomic states with linked epitopes1, aligned mutant cells to their wild-type equivalents and identified differentially expressed genes and epigenetic loci. We find that GFI1-target genes are altered sequentially, as cells go through successive states of differentiation. These insights facilitated the genetic rescue of granulocytic specification but not post-commitment defects in innate immune effector function, and underscore the importance of evaluating the effects of mutations and therapy within each relevant cell state.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Precursoras de Granulócitos/patologia , Mutação , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Animais , Candida albicans/imunologia , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Linhagem da Célula , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neutropenia/congênito , Neutropenia/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Science ; 368(6498): 1449-1454, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587015

RESUMO

Gene regulation is chiefly determined at the level of individual linear chromatin molecules, yet our current understanding of cis-regulatory architectures derives from fragmented sampling of large numbers of disparate molecules. We developed an approach for precisely stenciling the structure of individual chromatin fibers onto their composite DNA templates using nonspecific DNA N6-adenine methyltransferases. Single-molecule long-read sequencing of chromatin stencils enabled nucleotide-resolution readout of the primary architecture of multikilobase chromatin fibers (Fiber-seq). Fiber-seq exposed widespread plasticity in the linear organization of individual chromatin fibers and illuminated principles guiding regulatory DNA actuation, the coordinated actuation of neighboring regulatory elements, single-molecule nucleosome positioning, and single-molecule transcription factor occupancy. Our approach and results open new vistas on the primary architecture of gene regulation.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Animais , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Humanos , Células K562 , Nucleossomos/química , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1269-1279, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561986

RESUMO

Aspergillus nidulans nrtA encodes a nitrate transporter that plays an important role in the [Formula: see text] assimilatory process. Many studies have focused on protein functions rather than gene regulation. The knowledge of nrtA[Formula: see text] uptake process, particularly in the regulation mechanism of transcription factors AreA and NirA on nrtA transcription, is very limited. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of nrtA in response to various N-sources in detail and characterized the promoter activity of nrtA. We confirmed that nrtA was induced by [Formula: see text] and repressed by preferred N-sources. Additionally, for the first time, we found that the transcription of nrtA increased under N-starvation conditions. AreA mediates nrtA transcription under both [Formula: see text] and N-starvation conditions, while NirA is effective only under [Formula: see text] conditions. All of the proposed AreA and NirA binding sites in the promoter region were capable of binding to their corresponding transcription factors in vitro. In vivo, all of the NirA binding sites showed regulation activities, but to AreA, only several of the initiation-codon-proximal binding sites participated in nrtA transcription. Moreover, the active binding sites contributed in different degrees of regulation strength to nrtA transcription, which is unrelated to the distance between the binding sites and initiation codon. These results provided an extensive map of nrtA promoter, defining the functional regulatory elements of A. nidulans nrtA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/química , Aspergillus nidulans/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1295-1304, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566991

RESUMO

Pichia pastoris is able to metabolize methanol via a specific MUT (methanol utilization) pathway. Based on the powerful AOX1 (Alcohol Oxidase 1) promoter, the P. pastoris expression system has become one of the most widely used eukaryotic expression systems. The molecular mechanisms of methanol metabolic regulation remain unclearly understood, so it is important to identify and develop new transcriptional regulators. Our previous studies suggested that the expression of SUT2 could be induced by methanol but is repressed by glycerol, which indicates that SUT2 may be involved in methanol metabolism through an unknown mechanism. SUT2 encodes a putative transcription factor-like protein harboring a Gal4-like Zn2Cys6 DNA-binding domain in Pichia pastoris, and its homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates sterol uptake and synthesis. This study shows that the overexpression of SUT2 promoted the expression of AOX1 and increases ergosterol content in cells. Furthermore, via truncation of the putative SUT2 promoter at diverse loci, the - 973 base pair (bp) to - 547 bp region to the ATG was shown to be the core element of the inducible promoter PSUT2, which strongly responds to the methanol signal. The transcriptional start site of SUT2, "A" at the 22nd bp upstream of ATG, was determined with 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. A forward-loop cassette was constructed with MXR1 (Methanol Expression Regulator 1, a positive transcription factor of PAOX1) promoted by PSUT2, enabling moderate elevation in the expression level of Mxr1 and high activity of PAOX1 without damaging cellular robustness further boosting the production of heterologous proteins. The PAOX1-driven expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in this novel system was improved by 18%, representing a promising method for extrinsic protein production. SUT2 may play roles in methanol metabolism by participating in sterol biosynthesis. PSUT2 was characterized as a novel inducible promoter in P. pastoris and a PSUT2-driven MXR1 forward-loop cassette was constructed to enhance the PAOX1 activity, laying a foundation for further development and application of P. pastoris expression system.


Assuntos
Metanol/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxidase/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
20.
Gene ; 756: 144913, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574757

RESUMO

Schizophreniais a severe brain disease seen all over the world. There are studies showing that activator of transcription and developmental regulator AUTS2 (AUTS2) gene is involved in the predisposition to schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to analyze the correlation between rs6943555 variant of AUTS2 gene and schizophrenia in a Turkish population. This study include 100 schizophrenia patients and 152 unrelated healthy controls. The AUTS2 genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tests. Chi-square and Anova tests were used for statistical analyses. According to results, although the A allele frequency was higher in schizophrenia patients, we didn't detect statistically significant correlation between schizophrenia and the AUTS2 gene rs6943555 variant (p = 0.057). However after adjusting for gender, significant effects of genotype and allele were detected among males (p = 0.039 and p = 0.049, respectively). Also we observed a statistically significant correlation between HDL cholesterol values of patients and genotypes of rs6943555 variant (p = 0.016). As a result, rs6943555 variant of AUTS2 gene might affect the predisposition to schizophrenia especially in male patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Turquia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA