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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104463, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359554

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (Cyp) is a kind of pyrethroids compound that is broadly used against different species of insects and pests. Cyp can also elicit a range of neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and reproductive toxic effects on various experimental organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa against the toxicity damage induced by Cyp exposure. The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes extract was given to mice (200-500 mg/kg bw). The mice, which were treated with Cyp and Hibiscus sabdariffa, were divided into six groups of six mice each. Groups I, IV and VI were used as control and groups II CYP control (20 mg/kg body weight)., groups III and V were treated with Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (200 and 500 mg/kg body weight) plus (20 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify the compound fraction. This result showed Cyp -induced biochemical changes in all organs of mice. Cyp caused decreased CAT activity, inhibition of AChE activity and increased the levels of H2O2 and MDA in brain, heart, liver and kidney. Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibited antioxidant effect and significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity of Cyp. Hibiscus sabdariffa exhibits neuroprotective effects and can be an effective and novel alternative approach to reduce the risk caused by pyrethroid compound.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Piretrinas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais
2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 88-94, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Is to evaluate the advantage of Contractubex gel with regards to influence on vascularisation, pigmentation, thickness, surface size, configuration, and elisticity of postsurgical scars of children (after cheilorinoplasty) in comparison to absence of systematized topical treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Into the prospective, non-interventional, observational, multi-centered, in parallel groups, open, controlled study were included 60 patients aged 2,5 months and older with postsurgical scars after first cheilorinoplasty after 7-14 day after operation. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of 30 patients in each. I group - patients get applications of Contractubex gel 3 times a day (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening) in accordance with patient information leaflet. II group - control group with no regular therapy of of postsurgical scars (without treatment or without application of oils and gels with anticsarring action). The period of medicine usage - 9 months and more for each patient, the each patient observation duration is 18 months. RESULTS: After analysis of the primary as well as secondary efficacy criteria (total grade based on POSAS scale, reported by investigator/parent) after 3, 6, 12, 18 months of observation in both groups a positive statistically significant dynamics was registered. At the same time in the Contractubex group results were statistically significantly better than in the control group. Positive dynamics was achieved quickier in the main group than in the contol group and was to observe already after 3 months of therapy, during the whole treatment and observation phase, and after 18 months of therapy. Additionally conducted photodocumentation of postsurgical scar development dynamics in terms of the study confirms positive effect of surgery and absence of visual data regarding keloids or hyperthrophic scars formation in patients in both groups. Adverse events, i. a. pain, itch, burning, long-run hyperemia were not registered during the whole period os study. CONCLUSION: The conducted study has shown high efficacy and safety of Contractubex usage for the treatment of postsurgical scars of children with with congenital cleft lip and palate (from 2,5 months old). The statistically significant advantage of the therapy with Contractubex was demonstrated in comparison with the control group (with no regular topical treatment). The obtained results allow to recommend Contractubex gel as an effective and safe medicine for the treatment of scarring after surgeries for kids directly after sutures removal.


Assuntos
Alantoína/administração & dosagem , Cicatriz/tratamento farmacológico , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Cicatriz/etiologia , Fenda Labial/complicações , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Combinação de Medicamentos , Géis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Tumour Biol ; 42(5): 1010428320918685, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367771

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the antitumor activity of Orobanche crenata methanolic extract and evaluate its cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines to develop an effective natural anticancer drug. Components of O. crenata methanolic extract were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extract's antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power procedures and cytotoxicity of the extract was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Caspase-3 activity was also estimated. O. crenata methanolic extract shows powerful antioxidant activity. The extract inhibited the propagation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human prostate cancer (PC3), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) in a dose-dependent manner. O. crenata-treated cells displayed obvious morphological structures distinctive of apoptosis. MTT assay exposed that the extract presented prevention of cell persistence in a dose-dependent means and revealed extremely cytotoxic activity against HepG2, PC3, MCF-7, and HCT-116 with 50% inhibitory concentration values 30.3, 111, 89.6, and 28.6 µg/mL, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. In addition, treatment of HCT-116 with various concentrations of the extract caused the release of lactate dehydrogenase and induction of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent way. In conclusion, our findings suggested that the O. crenata extract possesses potent antioxidant, cytotoxic activity, and anticancer properties which are possibly due to the principal bioactive phytochemical composites existing in this plant. These results can be used to develop new drugs for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Orobanche/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(2): 202-206, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381828

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the in vitro antibacterial activity of different types of hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of the Mangifera indica L. (mango) plant on the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538™. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was experimental in vitro and determined the antibacterial activity of four dilutions: Mangifera indica L. ethanol extract (MEE) and Mangifera indica L. hydroalcoholic extract (MHE) at 50% and 100% on cultures of S. aureus ATCC 6538™ comparing with the positive control (chlorhexidine 0.12%) and negative (alcohol 96°) in Mueller Hinton agar cultures using the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method for each study group and incubating the cultures at 37°C for 24 hours. RESULTS: It was found that the 50% and 100% MEE had a smaller size of the inhibitory halo of 21.3 ± 0.5 and 24.1 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. In addition, with respect to the 50% and 100% MHE, it was found that they had a higher antibacterial activity of 24.6 ± 0.5 and 33.5 ± 1.2 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: Mango leaf extracts are potent antibacterial, proving 100% MHE to be more effective, thus confirming the presence of active constituents in medicinal plants. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This research has a great clinical applicability due to the opening of research lines that prove the usefulness of these extracts in the therapeutic control of certain oral diseases.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Antibacterianos , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus
5.
Mutat Res ; 850-851: 503145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247555

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used antineoplastic drug. In this work, a comprehensive study was performed to detect the extent of chromosomal damage and morphological sperm defects induced by 5-FU in male mice and the possible protective role of the iridoids-rich fraction of Pentas lanceolata leaves (IFPL). Six main groups were examined in micronucleus and chromosomal assays: I- control negative, II- control positive (i.p. treated with single dose of 75 mg/kg 5-FU), III- control plant (orally administrated IFPL, 300 mg/kg, 5 consecutive days), and IV-VI- treated with IFPL (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, 5 consecutive days) plus 5-FU (i.p. treated at the last day). Samples were taken 24 h post treatment. The study of morphological sperm anomalies, single and repeated treatments were examined and samples were taken after 35 days from the 1st treatment. In bone marrow, 5-FU induced a significant increase in the micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, chromosome anomalies (CAs) and also cytotoxic effects. A significant percentage of CAs was recorded in spermatocytes after 5-FU treatment reached 22.80 ± 1.32 vs 4.20 ± 0.37 for control (mainly X-Y univalent, 90%). IFPL was recorded to be non-mutagenic in all tests examined. In addition, it alleviated the previous defects in a dose-dependent manner. A significant and dramatic increase in the percentage of morphological sperm defects was recorded after single and repeated treatments with 5-FU reached 13.24 ± 0.24, 30.42 ± 0.32 respectively vs 2.56 ± 0.14 for control. Amorphous head-sperm and sperm with coiled tail were the most pronounced types of abnormalities. Significant protection was detected with the highest tested dose of IFPL. In conclusion: 5-FU demonstrated to be a genotoxic agent. Its genotoxicity in germ cells is serious and may lead to reproductive toxicity, infertility or heritable defects. The results also demonstrated the biosafety of IFPL and its possible protective role in combined treatment with 5-FU.


Assuntos
Iridoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubiaceae/química , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Iridoides/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espermatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatócitos/patologia , Espermatozoides/patologia
6.
Mutat Res ; 850-851: 503147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247562

RESUMO

Bulbus Fritillariacirrhosa D. Don (BFC) has been widely used as an herbal medicament for respiratory diseases in China for over 2000 years. The ethnomedicinal effects of BFC have been scientifically verified, nevertheless its toxicity has not been completely studied. Previously, we have reported that the aqueous extract of BFC induces mitotic aberrations and chromosomal instability (CIN) in human colon epithelial NCM460 cells via dysfunctioning the mitotic checkpoint. Here, we extend this study and specifically focus on the influence of BFC on cytokinesis, the final step of cell division. One remarkable change in NCM460 cells following BFC treatment is the high incidence of binucleated cells (BNCs). More detailed investigation of the ana-telophases reveals that furrow ingression, the first stage of cytokinesis, is inhibited by BFC. Asynchronous cultures treatment demonstrates that furrow ingression defects induced by BFCs are highly associated with the formation of BNCs in ensuing interphase, indicating the BNCs phenotype after BFC treatment was resulted from cytokinesis failure. In line with this, the expression of genes involved in the regulation of furrow ingression is significantly de-regulated by BFC (e.g., LATS-1/2 and Aurora-B are upregulated, and YB-1 is downregulated). Furthermore, long-term treatment of BFC elucidates that the BNCs phenotype is transient and the loss of BNCs is associated with increased frequency of micronuclei and nuclear buds, two biomarkers of CIN. In supporting of these findings, the Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa and Chuanbei Pipa Gao, two commercially available Chinese traditional medicines containing BFC, are able to induce multinucleation and CIN in NCM460 cells. Altogether, these data provide the first in vitro experimental evidence linking BFC to cytokinesis failure and suggest the resultant BNCs may be intermediates to produce CIN progenies.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fritillaria/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aurora Quinase B/genética , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica/genética , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Citocinese/genética , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19723, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy and safety of combination of curcuminoid complex and diclofenac vs diclofenac alone in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: In this randomized trial, 140 patients of knee OA received either curcuminoid complex 500 mg (BCM-95) with diclofenac 50 mg 2 times daily or diclofenac 50 mg alone 2 times daily for 28 days. Patients were assessed at baseline, day 14 and day 28. Primary efficacy measures were Knee injury and OA outcome score (KOOS) subscale at day 14 and day 28. Anti-ulcer effect and patient-physician's global assessment of therapy at day 28 were included as secondary endpoints. Safety after treatment was evaluated by recording adverse events and laboratory investigations. RESULTS: Both treatment groups showed improvement in primary endpoints at each evaluation visit. Patients receiving curcuminoid complex plus diclofenac showed significantly superior improvement in KOOS subscales, viz. pain and quality of life at each study visit (P < .001) when compared to diclofenac. Less number of patients required rescue analgesics in curcuminoid complex plus diclofenac group (3%) compared to diclofenac group (17%). The number of patients who required histamine 2 (H2) blockers was significantly less in curcuminoid complex plus diclofenac group compared to diclofenac group (6% vs 28%, respectively; P < .001). Adverse effects were significantly less in curcuminoid complex plus diclofenac group (13% vs 38% in diclofenac group; P < .001). Patient's and physician's global assessment of therapy favored curcuminoid complex plus diclofenac than diclofenac. CONCLUSION: Combination of curcuminoid complex and diclofenac showed a greater improvement in pain and functional capacity with better tolerability and could be a better alternative treatment option in symptomatic management of knee OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN10074826.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Diarileptanoides/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Curcuma , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
8.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340120

RESUMO

The whole world is currently facing an unseen enemy, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing a global pandemic. This disease is caused by a novel single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although huge efforts are being made to produce effective therapies to combat this disease, it continues to be one of the greatest challenges in medicine. There is no doubt that herpesviruses are one of the most important viruses that infect humans and animals, and infections induced by these pathogens have developed into a great threat to public health. According to the currently available evidence, the correlation between herpesviruses and coronaviruses is limited to the induced complications following the infections. For instance, the inflammation that is induced at the sites of infection could tie these viruses to each other in a relationship. Another example, bovine herpesvirus 1, which is an important pathogen of cattle, can cause a severe respiratory infection; the same way in which SARS-CoV-2 affects humans. Considering the current circumstances related to the COVID-19 crisis, this editorial paper, which belongs to the Special Issue "Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?" aims to draw attention to some natural anti-herpesvirus alkaloid compounds, which have recently been proven to have excellent inhibitory efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, this special focus is an attempt to hunt down various treatment options to combat COVID-19 based on repurposing drugs that are known to have multiple antiviral properties, including against herpesvirus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(2): 265-273, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333659

RESUMO

Chemical products traditionally used in the disinfection of water bodies often pose human health risks. For this reason, studies on natural coagulants such as Moringa oleifera Lam. represent an alternative for the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, among which is Escherichia coli. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of coagulants obtained from Moringa seed extracts and their protein fractions in the inactivation of E. coli during the coagulation/flocculation process. The coagulants studied were the aqueous extract, saline extract and protein fractions albumin and globulin, highlighting that the protein fractions were more effective on inactivating E. coli. The protein fraction globulin at a concentration of 10.0 mg L-1 showed bactericidal effects against E. coli within 18 min, whereas the albumin showed a bacteriostatic effect within 48 min because it isolated colonies in the sediment sample.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Purificação da Água , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes , Água
10.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112364, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247075

RESUMO

Ten undescribed dihydrochalcone C-glycosides, carambolasides R1‒R3, S1, S2, T1‒T3, 3-hydroxycarambolaside T1, and 3-hydroxycarambolaside P were isolated along with carambolasides I and P from the leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among them, carambolasides P, T1, T2, and I with contents of 22.78, 14.39, 4.93, and 1.87 mg g-1 dry wt., respectively, were shown to be abundant in the leaves by HPLC analysis. All the compounds showed more potent ABTS radical cation scavenging activity than l-ascorbic acid. 3-Hydroxycarambolaside T1 and 3-hydroxycarambolaside P also demonstrated moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. Further, carambolaside R3, 3-hydroxycarambolaside T1, and 3-hydroxycarambolaside P exhibited weak in vitro porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Averrhoa , Animais , Antioxidantes , Chalconas , Frutas , Glicosídeos , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Suínos
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267305

RESUMO

Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC.) extract has been demonstrated hypolipidemic and antioxidant capacity. Herein, we investigated the effect of red cabbage aqueous extract (RC) or fenofibrate (FF) in oxidative stress induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated through the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and, thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in erythrocytes, liver, kidneys, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of male rats. The alterations promoted by Triton WR-1339 in enzymatic antioxidant defense in the liver, kidneys and hippocampus were reversed by RC or FF treatments. The TBARS and PC levels increased in the liver, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of hyperlipidemic rats were decreased by the treatments with RC or FF. These findings demonstrated that RC is a potential therapy to treat diseases not only involving dyslipidemic condition but also oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
12.
Mutat Res ; 852: 503168, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265044

RESUMO

A large number of species belonging to the genus Teucrium are used in pharmacy and traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic composition as well as genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of methanolic extracts from T. arduini and T. flavum, two native species found in Montenegro. We determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these plants using spectrophotometric methods; the qualitative content of polyphenolic compounds was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Genotoxicity in cultured human lymphocytes was measured in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and comet assay in the range between 125 and 1000 µg/mL. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT viability assay in normal human MRC-5 fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids in T. arduini extract was higher than in T. flavum (200.35 mg GA/g vs. 171.08 mg GA/g; 96.32 mg RU/g vs. 78.14 mg RU/g). The polyphenolic composition of both extracts was qualitatively similar and eight phenol compounds were identified. The most commonly present phenol was caffeic acid and among four flavonoids, the most common was quercetin. Both plant extracts were genotoxic in both the CBMN and comet assays at concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 µg/mL. After 72 h of exposure, the extracts of T. arduini and T. flavum were found to induce cytotoxicity in MRC-5 fibroblasts but not in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The results suggest that the constituents of both plant species are genotoxic and cytotoxic, therefore these extracts warrant additional evaluation to be safely applied in humans.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Teucrium/química , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Testes para Micronúcleos , Montenegro , Mutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química
13.
Life Sci ; 250: 117599, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234491

RESUMO

Chemotherapeutic antibiotic doxorubicin belongs to the anthracycline class, slaughters not only the cancer cells but also non-cancerous cells even in the non-targeted organs thereby resulting in the toxicity. The liver is primarily involved in the process of detoxification and this mini-review we focused mainly to investigate the molecular mechanisms heading hepatotoxicity caused due to doxorubicin administration. The alterations in the doxorubicin treated liver tissue include vacuolation of hepatocytes, degeneration of hepatocyte cords, bile duct hyperplasia and focal necrosis. About the literature conducted, hepatotoxicity caused by doxorubicin has been explained by estimating the levels of liver serum biomarkers, ROS production, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The liver serum biomarkers such as ALT and AST, elated levels of free radicals inducing oxidative stress characterized by a surge in Nrf-2, FOXO-1 and HO-1 genes and diminution of anti-oxidant activity characterized by a decline in SOD, GPx, and CAT genes. The augmented levels of SGOT, SGPT, LDH, creatine kinase, direct and total bilirubin levels also reveal the toxicity in the hepatic tissue due to doxorubicin treatment. The molecular insight of hepatotoxicity is mainly due to the production of ROS, ameliorated oxidative stress and inflammation, deteriorated mitochondrial production and functioning, and enhanced apoptosis. Certain substances such as extracts from medicinal plants, natural products, and chemical substances have been shown to produce an alleviating effect against the doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity are also discussed.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Fragmentação do DNA , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Water Res ; 177: 115691, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304908

RESUMO

The generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) during the chlorination of air saturated solutions of different hydroxyphenols (hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, gallic and tannic acids) at pH 7 has been determined by the formation of phenol (in presence of benzene in excess) or 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (in presence of terephthalic acid). Formation of •OH was only detected during the chlorination of o- or p-hydroxyphenols, compounds that react with chlorine by electron transfer forming the corresponding semiquinones/quinones. In aerated solutions, oxygen is reduced by the semiquinone to the superoxide radical, O2•-, which reacts with HOCl to •OH. Compared to the studied o-hydroxyphenols, the lower reactivity of hydroquinone towards chlorine favours the reaction between chlorine and O2•-, and its •OH formation potential is ∼50 times higher. The extent of •OH generated increased with the concentration of the hydroxyphenol and chlorine, but the •OH yield (moles formed per mole of hydroxyphenol eliminated), decreased due to the formation of the quinone, that acts as O2•- scavenger. The yield was almost not affected by the pH (6 ≤ pH ≤ 7.5), whereas a strong impact of dissolved O2 was observed. The •OH production was null in absence of O2 and 2.5-3 times higher at oxygen saturated conditions compared to air-saturated. Contrary to chlorination, during bromination of hydroquinone •OH was not formed, which can be attributable to a much faster consumption of the oxidant, with no chance for O2•- to react with bromine. Formation of •OH during the chlorination of different NOM extracts (SRHA, SRFA, PLFA and Nordic Lake NOM) and water from Lake Greifensee (Switzerland) was also studied using terephthalic acid as •OH scavenger. For SRHA, SRFA and Nordic Lake NOM (all of allochthonous origin and presenting high electron-donating capacity, EDC), •OH yields expressed as moles formed per mole of DOC0 (%), were between 1.1 and 2.0, similar to that of hydroquinone (∼1.5). For PLFA and Lake Greifensee water (autochthonous, lower EDC) much lower •OH yields were observed (0.1-0.3). Both chlorination rate and EDC, the later favouring the formation/stabilization of O2•-, seem to be key factors involved in •OH generation during the chlorination of NOM. A mechanism for these findings is proposed based on kinetic simulations of hydroquinone chlorination at pH 7.


Assuntos
Halogenação , Radical Hidroxila , Cloro , Extratos Vegetais , Suíça
15.
J Cosmet Sci ; 71(1): 1-10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271704

RESUMO

Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) anthocyanins are important natural food colorants. However, the instability hinders industrial applications. The butterfly pea anthocyanin extract was prepared and mixed with biopolymeric wall systems such as maltodextrin (MD) and gum arabic (GA), MD and gelatin (GE), and MD and guar gum at 1/4 and 1/5 ratios with or without acidified condition, and assessed using the accelerated stability test. The total anthocyanin content (TAC) and color were reassessed. The biopolymeric walls of MD and GA (1/5) under acidified condition exhibited best stability enhancement in comparison with the unprotected one (12.04% ± 4.49% and 85.37% ± 0.22% TAC reduction, respectively). a* and b shifts of the protected system were 4.76% ± 0.00% and 0.28% ± 0.00%, respectively. The particle size of this system was 95.44 ± 1.57 µm. This stabilized anthocyanin extract can, therefore, be used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Ervilhas , Antocianinas , Cor , Goma Arábica , Extratos Vegetais
16.
Planta Med ; 86(7): 505-515, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247285

RESUMO

Spondias mobin leaves have been traditionally used for treating cold sores. The study investigated the mechanism of antiherpes action of S. mombin extract, fractions, and geraniin. Different concentrations of samples were used to evaluate the in vitro antiherpes activity (anti-HSV-1) in virucidal, post-infection, attachment, and penetration assays. The mechanism of action of geraniin was investigated considering the glycoproteins gB and gD of HSV-1 surface as potential molecular targets. Molecular docking simulations were carried out for both in order to determine the possible binding mode position of geraniin at the activity sites. The binding mode position was posteriorly optimized considering the flexibility of the glycoproteins. The chemical analysis of samples was performed by LC-MS and revealed the presence of 22 substances, which are hydrolysable tannins, O-glycosylated flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a carbohydrate. The extract, tannin-rich fraction and geraniin showed important in vitro virucidal activity through blocking viral attachment but showed no relevant inhibition of viral penetration. The in silico approaches demonstrated a high number of potential strong intermolecular interactions as hydrogen bonds between geraniin and the activity site of the glycoproteins, particularly the glycoprotein gB. In silico experiments indicated that geraniin is at least partially responsible for the anti-herpes activity through interaction with the viral surface glycoprotein gB, which is responsible for viral adsorption. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of S. mombin anti-herpes treatment and provides support for its traditional purposes. However, further studies are required to validate the antiviral activities in vivo, as well as efficacy in humans.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Antivirais , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1329-1333, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281344

RESUMO

To reveal the main nutrients and functional ingredients in the flowers of Polygonatum cyrtonema and P. filipes, the content of the polysaccharides, saponins, amino acids, total phenols, mineral elements, and the DPPH free radical scavenging rates were determined. The flowers and rhizomes of P. cyrtonema were collected from Qingyang in Anhui and Qingyuan in Zhejiang, while the flowers and rhizomes of P. filipes were collected from Longyou in Zhejiang, respectively. The results showed that the polysaccharides content in flowers varied from 60.88 to 97.00 mg·g~(-1), about half of that in rhizomes. The saponins content in flowers varied from 32.55 to 40.93 mg·g~(-1), which was close to the content in rhizomes. The content of total phenols ranged from 40.79 to 50.95 mg·g~(-1), approximately 4.5 times of that in rhizomes. The total amino acids content in flowers was 111.85 to 131.03 mg·g~(-1), about 2.3 times of the content in rhizomes. The essential trace element content was abundant in flowers. The contents of heavy metal elements were all within the limits set by the standards. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate IC_(50) varied from 1.77 to 3.25 mg·mL~(-1), less than one-fifth of that in rhizomes, showing a significant superiority of antioxidant activity compared to rhizomes. The results initially revealed the fundamental of "the flowers exceed the rhizomes in effect", the common saying about the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs over the years, indicating a great developing potential of the flowers. Besides, as polysaccharides, saponins, amino acids, total phenols and other nutritive substances in flowers differ widely among species and provenances, it's important to develop variety breeding to improve the quality and yield of flowers.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Valor Nutritivo , Polygonatum/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , China , Nutrientes/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma/química , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1399-1405, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281354

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of water extracts of Orychophragmus violaceus seeds on liver injury induced by thioacetamide(TAA) in mice. ICR male mice were randomly divided into seven groups: normal group, model group, bicyclol positive control group(200 mg·kg~(-1)), Kuihua Hugan Tablets group(350 mg·kg~(-1)), O. violaceus seeds low-dose water extract group(125 mg·kg~(-1)), middle-dose water extract group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose water extract group(500 mg·kg~(-1)). Intragastric administration was given in all groups at 0.02 mL·g~(-1) body weight, 1 time a day for continuous 4 days. One h after the administration on the 4 th day, the liver injury model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA(100 mg·kg~(-1)). The mice were put to death 24 hours later. Blood and tissues were taken and organ indexes were calculated. The activities of ALT, AST and TBiL in serum were detected. The content of MDA, GSH and the activity of SOD, GSH-Px in liver homogenate were examined by colorimetry method. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of liver tissues in mice. The protein expression levels of NF-κB p65, Keap-1, Nrf2, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that as compared with the model group, various O. violaceus seeds groups could significantly improve the pathological conditions of liver and reduce ALT, AST, TBiL activities in serum of mice with liver injury. In the high-dose group, the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and the content of GSH were significantly increased, while MDA content was sharply declined. Meanwhile, O. violaceus seeds extract down-regulated the expressions of Bax, Keap-1, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, NF-κB p65, cleaved caspase-3 and up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and caspase-8. In conclusion, O. violaceus seeds extract exhibited potent protective effect on liver injury induced by TAA in mice, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulating levels of Keap-1, up-regulating the expressions of Nrf2, inhibiting the expressions of p-p38, p-ERK and NF-κB p65 signaling pathway, and inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis by down-regulating the expressions of p-JNK and Bax and up-regulating the expressions of Bcl-2.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Apoptose , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Tioacetamida
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1423-1432, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281357

RESUMO

The network pharmacology was used to investigate the material basis and molecular mechanism of Dachengqi Decoction(DCQD) in the treatment of acute pancreatitis(AP). Potential targets of components from DCQD and relevant pathogenic genes of AP were identified through database retrieval. Then, crucial targets were verified with relevant active chemical components via molecular docking. DAVID database was used to explore the functions and pathways involved in the treatment of AP. A total of 108 components were correlated with 28 targets. Molecular docking showed a strong binding ability of key targets and their corresponding compounds. DAVID enrichment analysis showed 438 biological process, 31 molecular functions, 17 cellular components and 96 KEGG pathways. DCQD may achieve its pharmacological effects through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, negative regulation of apoptosis and regulation of pancreatic secretion, involving multiple signals, such as IL-17, TNF and NF-κB signaling pathway. In this study, it is the first time to use the method of network pharmacology to reveal the molecular mechanism of DCQD in the treatment of AP by multiple components and multi-signaling pathways, which provides a basis for further biological experiments of AP.


Assuntos
Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1433-1439, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281358

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to observe the protective effect of water extract from Sabia parviflora on mice with acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen, and investigate its possible mechanism. Fifty-eight Kunming mice were divided into 6 groups, 8 in the normal group, 10 in the model group, 10 in the biphenyl diester group, and 10 each in the low, medium and high dose groups. After adaptive feeding for one week, the mice in normal group were intragastrically administered with an equal volume of 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose sodium(CMC-Na), and the mice in other groups were intragastrically administered with corresponding drugs at 20 mL·kg~(-1) once a day. Then acetaminophen(200 mg·kg~(-1)) was administered after the above drug administration except the normal group. The behavior and signs of the experimental animals were observed every day and the samples were taken for experiments on the next day of the final administration. The liver mass and mass index were calculated. The blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and centrifuged to obtain the serum for detecting aspartate aminotransferase(AST) activity and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) activity. The liver tissue homogenate was used to detect superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, glutathione(glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine, GSH) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) content. Liver tissue was analyzed for histological analysis. The results showed that S. parviflora could alleviate the lipid peroxidation damage in the liver caused by acetaminophen, reduce the ALT and AST activities in serum, increase the levels of SOD and GSH in liver tissue, decrease the content of MDA in liver tissue, and inhibit the apoptosis. S. parviflora could also improve the live histopathological profile, protect liver cells and restore liver function. Among them, the high dose had the most significant effect and showed dose-effect relationship. This study indicated that S. parviflora had a significant protective effect on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice, and its mechanism may be related to its anti-oxidation effect and inhi-bitory effect on apoptosis.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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