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2.
AIDS Rev ; 22(2): 124-127, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628223

RESUMO

Following the advent of penicillin as first widely used antibiotic during World War II, viruses have steadily replaced bacteria as major agents of infections, particularly for microorganisms that can spread globally. Good examples are pandemics caused by HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and nowadays severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Vacinas
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613939

RESUMO

Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discuss opportunities and challenges in applying their model to other contexts. Both networks were established to enhance capacity to measure vaccine preventable disease burden, vaccine programme impact, and safety, with their scope occasionally being increased with emerging infectious diseases' surveillance. Their active surveillance has increased data accuracy and utility for syndromic conditions (e.g. encephalitis), pathogen-specific diseases (e.g. pertussis, rotavirus, influenza), and adverse events following immunisation (e.g. febrile seizure), enabled correlation of biological specimens with clinical context and supported responses to emerging infections (e.g. pandemic influenza, parechovirus, COVID-19). The demonstrated long-term value of continuous, rather than incident-related, operation of these networks in strengthening routine surveillance, bridging research gaps, and providing scalable public health response, supports their applicability to other countries.


Assuntos
Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Política de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3303-3318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494131

RESUMO

Background: Poultry vaccine has limited choices of adjuvants and is facing severe threat of infectious diseases due to ineffective of widely used commercial vaccines. Thus, development of novel adjuvant that offers safe and effective immunity is of urgent need. Materials and Methods: The present research engineers a novel chicken adjuvant with potent immune-potentiating capability by incorporating avian toll-like receptor 21 (TLR21) agonist CpG ODN 2007 with a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based hollow nanoparticle platform (CpG-NP), which subsequently assessed ex vivo and in vivo. Results: CpG-NPs with an average diameter of 164 nm capable of sustained release of CpG for up to 96 hours were successfully prepared. With the ex vivo model of chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (chBMDCs), CpG-NP was engulfed effectively and found to induce DC maturation, promoting dendrite formation and upregulation of CD40, CD80 and CCR7. In addition to enhanced expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IFN-γ, 53/84 immune-related genes were found to be stimulated in CpG-NP-treated chBMDCs, whereas only 39 of such genes were stimulated in free CpG-treated cells. These upregulated genes suggest immune skewing toward T helper cell 1 bias and evidence of improved mucosal immunity upon vaccination with the CpG-NP. The CpG-NP-treated chBMDCs showed protective effects to DF-1 cells against avian influenza virus H6N1 infection. Upon subsequent coupling with infectious bronchitis virus subunit antigen administration, chickens were immunostimulated to acquire higher humoral immune response and protective response against viral challenge. Conclustion: This work presents a novel hollow CpG-NP formulation, demonstrating effective and long-lasting immunostimulatory ability ex vivo and in vivo for chickens, as systemically compared to free CpG. This enhanced immune stimulation benefits from high stability and controlled release of internal component of nanoparticles that improve cellular delivery, lymphoid organ targeting and sustainable DC activation. CpG-NP has broad application potential in antiviral and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunização , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química
10.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510329
12.
Science ; 368(6491): 612-615, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381718

RESUMO

Neonates are particularly susceptible to infection. This vulnerability occurs despite their responsiveness to most vaccines. However, current vaccines do not target the pathogens responsible for most of the severe neonatal infections, and the time it takes to induce protective pathogen-specific immunity after vaccination limits protection in the first days to weeks of life. Alternative strategies include using vaccines to broadly stimulate neonatal immunity in a pathogen-agnostic fashion or vaccinating women during pregnancy to induce protective antibodies that are vertically transferred to offspring within their window of vulnerability. Protection may be further improved by integrating these approaches, namely vaccinating the neonate under the cover of vertically transferred maternal immunity. The rationale for and knowledge gaps related to each of these alternatives are discussed.


Assuntos
Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Imunidade , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
Nature ; 581(7806): 94-99, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376956

RESUMO

Vaccines may reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance, in part by preventing infections for which treatment often includes the use of antibiotics1-4. However, the effects of vaccination on antibiotic consumption remain poorly understood-especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the burden of antimicrobial resistance is greatest5. Here we show that vaccines that have recently been implemented in the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization reduce antibiotic consumption substantially among children under five years of age in LMICs. By analysing data from large-scale studies of households, we estimate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and live attenuated rotavirus vaccines confer 19.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.4-43.4%) and 11.4% (4.0-18.6%) protection against antibiotic-treated episodes of acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea, respectively, in age groups that experience the greatest disease burden attributable to the vaccine-targeted pathogens6,7. Under current coverage levels, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines prevent 23.8 million and 13.6 million episodes of antibiotic-treated illness, respectively, among children under five years of age in LMICs each year. Direct protection resulting from the achievement of universal coverage targets for these vaccines could prevent an additional 40.0 million episodes of antibiotic-treated illness. This evidence supports the prioritization of vaccines within the global strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance8.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/economia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/economia , Vacinas/imunologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(19): 591-593, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407298

RESUMO

On March 13, 2020, the president of the United States declared a national emergency in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (1). With reports of laboratory-confirmed cases in all 50 states by that time (2), disruptions were anticipated in the U.S. health care system's ability to continue providing routine preventive and other nonemergency care. In addition, many states and localities issued shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders to reduce the spread of COVID-19, limiting movement outside the home to essential activities (3). On March 24, CDC posted guidance emphasizing the importance of routine well child care and immunization, particularly for children aged ≤24 months, when many childhood vaccines are recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pediatria/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Vaccine ; 38(29): 4512-4515, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418794

RESUMO

The UK Government recognised the importance of vaccines in the control of new emerging disease threats and in 2015 established the UK Vaccine Network to focus on specific areas of need. One of these was the understanding of what is involved in the development of a new vaccine and what are the potential bottlenecks to a rapid response in the face of an epidemic such as Ebola, MERS and more recently COVID-19. A Working Group was established to initially produce a Vaccine Development Process Map for a Human Vaccine. However, in view of the importance of animal wellbeing and the significant impact of diseases with Zoonotic potential, a similar Map has been created outlining the Veterinary Vaccine Development Process. This paper describes the production of that Map and covers the process from the generation of a Target Product Profile (TPP) through Discovery and Feasibility, and on to Product Development and Registration.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2957-2969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425527

RESUMO

Experimental and epidemiological evidence shows that parasites, particularly helminths, play a central role in balancing the host immunity. It was demonstrated that parasites can modulate immune responses via their excretory/secretory (ES) and some specific proteins. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-scale particles that are released from eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. EVs in parasitological studies have been mostly employed for immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases, vaccination, and diagnosis. EVs can carry virulence factors and play a central role in the development of parasites in host cells. These molecules can manipulate the immune responses through transcriptional changes. Moreover, EVs derived from helminths modulate the immune system via provoking anti-inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, EVs from parasite protozoa can induce efficient immunity, that makes them useful for probable next-generation vaccines. In addition, it seems that EVs from parasites may provide new diagnostic approaches for parasitic infections. In the current study, we reviewed isolation methods, functions, and applications of parasite's EVs in immunotherapy, vaccination, and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Parasitos/citologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/classificação , Humanos , Imunidade , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Vacinação , Vacinas/imunologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
20.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 46-49, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468631

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic needs to be considered from two perspectives simultaneously. First, there are questions about which policies are most effective and fair in the here and now, as the pandemic unfolds. These polices concern, for example, who should receive priority in being tested, how to implement contact tracing, or how to decide who should get ventilators or vaccines when not all can. Second, it is imperative to anticipate the medium- and longer-term consequences that these policies have. The case of vaccine rationing is particularly instructive. Ethical, epidemiological, and economic reasons demand that rationing approaches give priority to groups who have been structurally and historically disadvantaged, even if this means that overall life years gained may be lower.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/provisão & distribução , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Comorbidade , Busca de Comunicante/ética , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Justiça Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução
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