Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.951
Filtrar
1.
Soins ; 66(854): 16-18, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962725

RESUMO

The infection protection and control team and occupational health service come together every year to promote the flu vaccine among health professionals. In 2020, the risk of the co-circulation of the flu virus and SARS-CoV-2 strengthened their case. During the last trimester, we surveyed health professionals to find out their intention with regard to the flu and covid-19 vaccines: 42% said they wanted to be vaccinated against the flu, but only 23% were willing to have the covid-19 vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Humanos , Intenção , Vacinação
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 570098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842415

RESUMO

The first cases of unexplained pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China, in December of 2019. Later, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causal agent of pneumonia. This virus has since spread to more than 180 countries and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Herein, we aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of symptomatic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the relationship between the influenza vaccine with a lower risk of severe COVID-19 infection in the state of Sinaloa. We collected demographic and clinical data of 4,040 patients with acute respiratory infections across Sinaloa state hospitals from February 28 to May 15, 2020. The prevalence of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms in Sinaloa showed 45.2% of men were more affected than women (p < 0.001), and people aged 40-49 years were the most affected. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were cough and fever (p < 0.001), while hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes were the chronic diseases associated with COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 (p < 0.003). Healthcare workers were most likely to be infected compared to other occupations (p < 0.001). The general lethality rate was 14.1%, and males >62 years were the ones who had a higher lethality rate (p < 0.001); the aforementioned chronic diseases were related to higher lethality of COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Likewise, higher lethality was seen in housewives and patient retirees/pensioners compared with other occupations (p < 0.001). Finally, we found there was a relationship between influenza vaccination and a lower risk of severe COVID-19 infection and mortality (p < 0.001). These findings showed that healthcare workers, men >62 years with chronic diseases, and retired people were most affected. Furthermore, the influenza vaccine could decrease the severeness of COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Comorbidade , Tosse/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808446

RESUMO

Vaccination is one of the most useful preventive interventions in healthcare. The purpose of our study was to gain overview of the opinions, knowledge, and engagement in vaccination practices among medical students (MS) and junior doctors (JD) in Europe. The survey was distributed from March 2016 until August 2016 via the e-mail and social media of the European Medical Students' Association. In total, 1821 responses from MS and JD from 34 countries in the European region were analysed. The majority of respondents agreed that vaccines are useful (98.7%) and effective (97.2%). Although the necessity of revaccination was supported by 99.2%, only 68.0% of the respondents went through with it. Even though the potential benefit of the flu vaccination seems to be acknowledged by our participants, only 22.1% of MS and JD declared getting the flu shot every or every other season. MS and JD were in favour of specific mandatory vaccination for medical staff (86.0%) and medical students (82.7%). Furthermore, we analysed the self-reported vaccination coverage of our participants regarding 19 vaccines. Of the respondents, 89.5% claimed to provide advice about vaccination to their friends and family. In conclusion, European MS and JD have a very positive attitude towards vaccination. However, their behaviour and knowledge demonstrate certain gaps which should be further addressed in medical education.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
4.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 14-17, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the effect of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination on the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 203 healthcare workers of a pandemic centre of Istanbul, Turkey, were included in this retrospective study. According to the presence or absence of flu vaccination, participants were divided into group 1 and group 2. A comparison of the rate of COVID-19 was done between these two groups. Also, the mean age and the sex ratio of females/males were evaluated and compared between these two groups. RESULTS: Group 1 participants (n = 65) were older than participants in group 2 (n = 138) (p < 0.05). Despite of this, interestingly, the COVID-19 infection rate was lower in the 1st group (in comparison to the 2nd group) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study results showed that, even if low, the flu vaccination may have a protective effect on the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. Using this beneficial adjuvant effect of the vaccine may help us in this unpredictable battle with the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies are needed to confirm this assumption.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3132-3135, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vulnerable populations are being more severely impacted by the ongoing pandemic, and the recent release of vaccines for Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) may offer them protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of homeless persons to be vaccinated against COVID-19; secondary aims were to analyze the immunization coverage for other conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine and immunization coverage for other conditions were investigated through a form in 112 persons experiencing homelessness referring to the primary care medical services of the Eleemosynaria Apostolica, Holy See. RESULTS: Most subjects, with a male preponderance, were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 (64.3%), 3.6% were unsure and 32.1% preferred not to be vaccinated. When answering questions on the immunization coverage for tuberculosis and hepatitis A and B, most subjects reported not to be vaccinated (48.2%, 56.2% and 55.3%, respectively) or did not know (33%, 28.6% and 27.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant portion of our sample declared to be willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. It would be auspicious that the recent statements from several countries on the importance to extend COVID-19 vaccination to fragile populations be followed by the distribution of the vaccine to these populations.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , /prevenção & controle , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Roma , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(1): 68-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853340

RESUMO

In times of COVID-19 pandemics, the upcoming period of the year when influenza activity usually increases in the Northern Hemisphere brings new medical and public health challenges. These challenges include the risk of mixed infections and/or a possible collision of the two epidemics (“twindemia”) with a potentially serious impact on individual health and public health. In this report, we discuss the results of the published stu-dies and conclude that the catastrophic collision of the seasonal influenza and COVID-19 epidemics is unlikely when efficient non-pharmaceutical public health measures are applied to control or mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. This conclusion is supported by several lines of evidence, including the extremely low seasonal influenza activity registered in the Southern Hemisphere in 2020. On the other hand, the existence of mixed SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus infections has been demonstrated in humans. The continuing uncertainty about the occurrence and potential severity of these mixed infections emphasizes the importance of seasonal influenza vaccination in the current epidemiological situation and raises the need to: (i) ensure vaccine availability, (ii) facilitate access to safe seasonal influenza vaccination under the conditions of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, and (iii) promote the vaccine to the public.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Estações do Ano
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 2,828 participants, 15.9% would not be willing to vaccinate in the future if the Brazilian Ministry of Health promoted a new vaccination campaign against pandemic influenza. Not willing to vaccinate in the future was strongly associated with not taking the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2010 (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 6.9 - 11.6). Among the unvaccinated, females, those aged > 60 years, and non-health care workers were less willing to vaccinate in the future. Again, in the vaccinated group, females were less willing to vaccinate. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary efforts should be encouraged in order to identify reasons for refusing vaccination, focusing on the individual and group perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to vaccination. Such information is needed to identify target groups for the delivery of customized interventions towards preventing emerging pandemics, such as avian influenza and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901357

RESUMO

The article considers the problem of attitude of the youth to vaccine prevention of influenza. The study was organized on the basis of qualitative research methods (focus groups) of students of two universities in the Central and Volga Federal Okrugs. The data about attitudes towards vaccination and refusal motivation was obtained. The need in increasing awareness of the youth about vaccine prevention as an actual health-preserving technology was substantiated.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2283, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863907

RESUMO

Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a chronic neurological disorder having a strong association with HLA-DQB1*0602, thereby suggesting an immunological origin. Increased risk of NT1 has been reported among children or adolescents vaccinated with AS03 adjuvant-supplemented pandemic H1N1 influenza A vaccine, Pandemrix. Here we show that pediatric Pandemrix-associated NT1 patients have enhanced T-cell immunity against the viral epitopes, neuraminidase 175-189 (NA175-189) and nucleoprotein 214-228 (NP214-228), but also respond to a NA175-189-mimic, brain self-epitope, protein-O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1675-689). A pathogenic role of influenza virus-specific T-cells and T-cell cross-reactivity in NT1 are supported by the up-regulation of IFN-γ, perforin 1 and granzyme B, and by the converging selection of T-cell receptor TRAV10/TRAJ17 and TRAV10/TRAJ24 clonotypes, in response to stimulation either with peptide NA175-189 or POMT1675-689. Moreover, anti-POMT1 serum autoantibodies are increased in Pandemrix-vaccinated children or adolescents. These results thus identify POMT1 as a potential autoantigen recognized by T- and B-cells in NT1.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Manosiltransferases/imunologia , Narcolepsia/imunologia , Adolescente , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Narcolepsia/sangue , Narcolepsia/induzido quimicamente , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Vaccine ; 39(17): 2366-2374, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel (HCP) have an increased risk of exposure to influenza and other respiratory pathogens. Increased presenteeism, decreased absenteeism, and low uptake of the influenza vaccine can contribute to the spread of influenza among HCP in healthcare settings. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate attitudes and behaviors of HCP in Israel towards influenza vaccination, presenteeism, and absenteeism. METHODS: The study took place over three influenza seasons (2016-2017, 2017-2018, 2018-2019) at the largest hospital in southern Israel. We administered a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews with HCP who had been recently ill with respiratory symptoms. The KAP questionnaire included closed-ended questions about attitudes and behaviors regarding influenza, working while sick, and influenza vaccination. The interviews investigated HCP's perceptions of influenza infection and attitudes about absenteeism, presenteeism, and the influenza vaccine. RESULTS: We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews over three influenza seasons. Four HCP were interviewed twice, in separate seasons for different illness episodes. The 70 individuals interviewed included 16 physicians, 45 nurses or technicians, and 9 administrative staff. The median age was 42.5 years (range: 25-60), and most (79%) were female. Half (50%) got vaccinated against influenza before their illness episode. In interviews, most HCP said they come to work while sick (presenteeism) due to a strong personal work ethic and an institutional culture that discourages taking sick leave (absenteeism). HCP expressed skepticism about the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine as well as concern that the influenza vaccine causes severe illness. DISCUSSION: Over three influenza seasons in Israel, HCP cited a number of reasons for working while sick, and doubted the usefulness of influenza vaccine. Addressing reasons for presenteeism and vaccine hesitancy among HCP is crucial to protect HCP and patients from influenza virus infection and other viral respiratory illnesses, such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Atitude , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Israel , Masculino , Presenteísmo , Vacinação
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(3): 289-323, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706469

RESUMO

The Vaccine Administration Law of the People's Republic of China and other relevant laws require that vaccine recipients or their guardians be educated about vaccines and how they work, and described in general the methods and contents of such vaccination education. With the new law and "Standard Operational Procedures for Immunization" as foundation documents, and in consultation with experts at home and abroad, the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association developed a consensus statement about informed consent for vaccination. This consensus statement is written for disease control and prevention health care personnel in vaccination services and describes the educational content of informed consent, a theoretical framework for immunization and immunization knowledge, the informed consent processes, principles of planning for vaccination, and an informed consent form. Part Two of the consensus includes influenza vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, haemophilus influenzae type b containing vaccine, enterovirus type 71 inactivated vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, varicella attenuated live vaccine, herpes-zoster vaccine, human papillomavirus vaccine, rabies vaccine, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome vaccine, leptospira vaccine, anthrax vaccine, hepatitis E vaccine, cholera vaccine, typhoid vaccine, and tick-borne encephalitis vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Vacinação , China , Consenso , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
12.
Blood Adv ; 5(5): 1535-1539, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683337

RESUMO

Patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) experience an increased burden of influenza, and current practice of single-dose annual influenza vaccination yields suboptimal protective immunity in these patients. Strategies to improve immunity to influenza in these patients are clearly needed. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing tandem Fluzone High-Dose influenza vaccination with standard-of-care influenza vaccination. Standard-of-care vaccination was single-dose age-based vaccination (standard dose, <65 years; high dose, ≥65 years), and patients in this arm received a saline placebo injection at 30 days. A total of 122 PCD patients were enrolled; 47 received single-dose standard-of-care vaccination, and 75 received 2 doses of Fluzone High-Dose vaccine. Rates of hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titer seroprotection against all 3 strains (H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B) were significantly higher for patients after tandem high-dose vaccination vs control (87.3% vs 63.2%; P = .003) and led to higher seroprotection at the end of flu season (60.0% vs 31.6%; P = .04). These data demonstrate that tandem high-dose influenza vaccination separated by 30 days leads to higher serologic HAI titer responses and more durable influenza-specific immunity in PCD patients. Similar vaccine strategies may also be essential to achieve protective immunity against other emerging pathogens such as novel coronavirus in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02566265.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Paraproteinemias/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Influenza is a huge public health problem and vaccination is the best prevention tool. Vaccination coverage of target population is still far from the established objectives. The aim was to delve into the most important factors and actors influencing behaviors of influenza vaccine hesitancy in Spain from a qualitative perspective. METHODS: Qualitative research through one discussion group, three experiential groups and thirteen in-depth interviews was conducted with health professionals and general population in Madrid and Valencia in 2019. RESULTS: Influenza is considered a common, low-danger disease. Confusion due to misinformation and lack of knowledge and a high fear of vaccine adverse effects has been identified. The different conviction with which professionals recommend the vaccine has emerged, and the low awareness of the transmitting role of the disease was found in general population and professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest the importance and urgency of developing well-structured and coordinated communication strategies, with common key messages and channels adapted to different populations from the deficiencies and needs identified. Strategic work with healthcare professionals is an essential factor in the final decision to get vaccinated against influenza.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671482

RESUMO

The flu vaccine is the best treatment for avoiding the flu and its complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the flu vaccine and attitude towards the influenza vaccine among medical students in four majors of study (Nursing, Midwifery, Pharmacy, and Public health) in all years of study. A total number of 1137 subjects took part in the study. Most of the vaccinated students assessed the flu vaccine positively (78.5%, 73.7%, 60.7%, and 65.1%, according to their respective majors) and reported that they did not get the flu during the period of vaccination (90.4%, 92.1%, 87.4%, and 97.7%, respectively). Therefore, 65% of the students of Pharmacy, 78% of Midwifery, and 83% of Nursing who were vaccinated once in the last three years recommended the influenza vaccination, and 100% of all students received a regular vaccination every year. The univariate and multivariate logistic regressions showed that a maximum of four factors had a significant impact on the students' knowledge of the influenza vaccine. Knowledge about the flu vaccine was the highest among Pharmacy students and lowest among Public health students. Final-year students answered the questions better than the younger ones (p < 0.05). Their place of residence and flu vaccination status also appeared to influence their answers. Although all students demonstrated good knowledge of the flu vaccine and demonstrated positive attitudes towards the vaccine, their rate of immunization was low. Therefore, health promotion programs are needed to improve immunization coverage among medical students who are future healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
15.
Can Vet J ; 62(3): 266-272, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692582

RESUMO

The use of a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to assess humoral immune response to equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccines from various manufacturers administered to previously immunized adult horses was investigated. Subjects were allocated into one of 3 groups and vaccinated with various commercially available vaccines. Groups were subdivided into subjects that received 1 dose of a particular vaccine and those that received a second dose, 30 d later. Serum was collected at various times to assess antibody responses to contemporary EIV Florida sub-lineage strains. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 and all groups had a significant increase in antibody titers pre- and post-administration of the first dose. In contrast, there was no significant difference between day 30 titers and titers at subsequent time points, regardless of protocol. We concluded that administration of various commercial influenza vaccines containing a different sub-lineage clade stimulated equivalent HI antibody titers after 1 booster vaccination.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Hemaglutininas , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 99: 103397, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781435

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the effect of three different primary vaccination intervals on EI vaccine response, 21 unvaccinated thoroughbred foals were randomly divided into three groups of 7 and vaccinated with three different intervals of primary immunization (i.e., with 1, 2 or 3 months intervals between V1 and V2, respectively). The antibody response was measured for up to 1 year after the third immunization V3 (administered 6 months after V2) by single radial hemolysis (SRH) assay. All weanlings had seroconverted and exceeded the clinical protection threshold 2 weeks after V2 and 1 month after V3 until the end of the study. Significant differences were measured at the peak of immunity after V2 and for the duration of the immunity gap between V2 and V3. The group with one month primary vaccination interval had a lower immunity peak after V2 (158.05 ± 6.63 mm2) and a wider immunity gap between V2 and V3 (18 weeks) when compared with other groups (i.e., 174.72 ± 6.86 mm2 and 16 weeks for a two months interval, 221.45 ± 14.48 mm2 and 12 weeks for a 3-month interval). The advantage observed in the group with 1 month primary vaccination interval, which induces an earlier protective immunity, is counterbalance with a lower peak of immunity and a wider immunity gap after V2, when compared with foals vaccinated with 2- and 3-month intervals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária
17.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(7): 407-416, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788514

RESUMO

The HIV epidemic is an important public health priority. Transmissions continue to occur despite effective therapies that make HIV preventable and treatable. Approximately one-half of people with HIV are not receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Starting ART early, followed by continuous lifetime treatment, most effectively achieves durable virologic suppression and restoration of immune function that can improve clinical outcomes and prevent transmission to partners who are seronegative. National treatment guidelines include ART options that can be offered immediately after diagnosis, even before the results of baseline HIV drug-resistance testing are available. Initial ART selection should be guided by co-occurring conditions, including viral hepatitis, medications, and other factors such as pregnancy. Identifying and addressing psychosocial barriers to care is a key element of ensuring long-term adherence to treatment. The initial physical examination typically reveals no clinical manifestations of HIV in the absence of advanced disease. A comprehensive laboratory evaluation, including HIV viral load and CD4 lymphocyte monitoring, is necessary to guide decision-making for treatment, opportunistic infection prophylaxis, and vaccinations. The initial management of people with HIV presents a unique opportunity for family physicians to improve patients' long-term health care and reduce HIV transmissions.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Gerenciamento Clínico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Vacinas contra Hepatite A/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/prevenção & controle , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Adesão à Medicação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Carga Viral
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e26734, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK National Health Service (NHS) extended eligibility for influenza vaccination this season to approximately 32.4 million people (48.8% of the population). Knowing the intended uptake of the vaccine will inform supply and public health messaging to maximize vaccination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the acceptance of influenza vaccination in the 2020-2021 season, specifically focusing on people who were previously eligible but routinely declined vaccination and newly eligible people. METHODS: Intention to receive the influenza vaccine in 2020-2021 was asked of all registrants of the largest electronic personal health record in the NHS by a web-based questionnaire on July 31, 2020. Of those who were either newly or previously eligible but had not previously received an influenza vaccination, multivariable logistic regression and network diagrams were used to examine their reasons to undergo or decline vaccination. RESULTS: Among 6641 respondents, 945 (14.2%) were previously eligible but were not vaccinated; of these, 536 (56.7%) intended to receive an influenza vaccination in 2020-2021, as did 466 (68.6%) of the newly eligible respondents. Intention to receive the influenza vaccine was associated with increased age, index of multiple deprivation quintile, and considering oneself to be at high risk from COVID-19. Among those who were eligible but not intending to be vaccinated in 2020-2021, 164/543 (30.2%) gave reasons based on misinformation. Of the previously unvaccinated health care workers, 47/96 (49%) stated they would decline vaccination in 2020-2021. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, COVID-19 has increased acceptance of influenza vaccination in previously eligible but unvaccinated people and has motivated substantial uptake in newly eligible people. This study is essential for informing resource planning and the need for effective messaging campaigns to address negative misconceptions, which is also necessary for COVID-19 vaccination programs.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(5): 895-902, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661331

RESUMO

To assess non-compliance and potential changes in seasonal flu vaccination coverage before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). Consecutive patients with ARDs followed-up in 2 tertiary hospitals were telephone-interviewed (December 12-30, 2020) regarding seasonal flu vaccination during the 2019/20 and 2020/21 time periods. Self-reported disease flares that occurred after flu vaccination, as well as reasons for non-vaccination were recorded. One thousand fifteen patients were included. The rate of flu vaccination increased from 76% before to 83% during the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.0001). The rate of self-reported disease flares was < 1% among vaccinated patients. Reasons for not vaccination in both periods, respectively, included: 'was not recommended by their rheumatologists' (35.0vs.12.2%, p < 0.0001), 'did not feel that they would have any benefit' (36.9 vs. 32.6%), felt unsafe to do so (27.5 vs. 30.2%), or other reasons (18.9 vs. 23.8%). By multivariate analysis, age [OR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.04)] vs. [1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.05)] and treatment with biologics [OR = 1.66 (95% CI 1.22-2.24) vs. [1.68 (95% CI 1.19-2.38)] were independent factors associated with vaccination in both periods. These findings, although are temporally encouraging, emphasize the need for continuous campaigns aiming at increasing patients' and physicians' awareness about the benefits of vaccination.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/psicologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Doenças Reumáticas/psicologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vaccine ; 39(15): 2060-2067, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination may be critical to curtailing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, but herd immunity can only be realized with high vaccination coverage. There is a need to identify empirically supported strategies to increase uptake, especially among young adults as this subpopulation has shown relatively poor adherence to physical distancing guidelines. Social norms - estimates of peers' behavior and attitudes - are robust predictors of health behaviors and norms-based intervention strategies may increase COVID vaccine uptake, once available. This study examined the extent that vaccination intentions and attitudes were associated with estimated social norms as an initial proof-of-concept test. METHOD: In November of 2020, 647 undergraduate students (46.21% response rate) completed online surveys in which they reported intentions to get COVID and influenza vaccines, perceived importance of these vaccines for young adults, and estimated social norms regarding peers' vaccination behaviors and attitudes. RESULTS: Students reported significantly greater intentions to get a COVID vaccine (91.64%) than an influenza vaccine (76.04%), and perceived COVID vaccination as significantly more important than influenza vaccination. The sample generally held strong intentions to receive a COVID vaccine and thought that doing so was of high importance, but participants, on average, perceived that other young adults would be less likely to be vaccinated and would not think vaccination was as important. Multiple regression models indicated that estimated social norms were positively associated with participants' own intentions and perceived importance of getting a COVID vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: These significant associations highlight the potential value in developing and testing norms-based intervention strategies, such as personalized normative feedback, to improve uptake of forthcoming COVID vaccines among young adults.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Normas Sociais , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...