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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e154, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660668

RESUMO

There is limited information concerning the viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in aerosols deposited on environmental surfaces and the effectiveness of infection prevention and control procedures on eliminating SARS-CoV-2 contamination in hospital settings. We examined the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol samples and on environmental surfaces in a hospital designated for treating severe COVID-19 patients. Aerosol samples were collected by a microbial air sampler, and environmental surfaces were sampled using sterile premoistened swabs at multiple sites. Ninety surface swabs and 135 aerosol samples were collected. Only two swabs, sampled from the inside of a patient's mask, were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. All other swabs and aerosol samples were negative for the virus. Our study indicated that strict implementation of infection prevention and control procedures was highly effective in eliminating aerosol and environmental borne SARS-CoV-2 RNA thereby reducing the risk of cross-infection in hospitals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia Ambiental , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 517, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666386

RESUMO

Particulate n-alkanes are major constituents of organic aerosols (OA). Being primary in origin, chemically stable and thus long-lived, n-alkanes retains source signatures and along with diagnostic parameters have extensively been used to identify source(s) of OA. Systematic, yearlong study was carried out in the Dhauladhar region of North-Western Himalaya (NWH) to investigate dynamics in the composition and concentration of aerosol-associated n-alkanes. PM10 samples were collected for 24 h, once every week, at an urban mid-altitude location (Dharamshala) and a rural low-altitude site (Pohara). Particulate bound n-alkanes were identified and quantified using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS). Annual mean concentrations of total n-alkanes (TNA) were 211 ± 99 ng m-3 and 223 ± 83 ng m-3, while mass fractions of TNA in PM10 were 4410 ± 1759 ppm and 3622 ± 1243 ppm at Dharamshala and Pohara, respectively. At both sites, a slight dominance of odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes was noticed. The TNA concentration and associated diagnostic parameters indicated unique source profiles at rural and urban locations. Significant seasonal variations were attributed to the contrasting land-use settings and meteorological variations. Influence of petrogenic contributions at urban location and predominance of biogenic contributions at rural location were observed in spring and autumn seasons. Preliminary insights on sources of organic aerosols are presented here. The diagnostic parameters allowed apportionment of biogenic and petrogenic sources. Biogenic emissions from agricultural practices viz. harvesting and threshing were predominant in the rural settings, while tourism-led anthropogenic contributions significantly add to petrogenic contributions in urban environment of the NWH region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Alcanos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675132

RESUMO

WHO declared worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Healthcare authorities have temporarily stopped all elective surgical and endoscopy procedures. Nevertheless, there is a subset of patients who require emergency treatment such as aerosol-generating procedures. Herein, we would like to discuss the management of a patient diagnosed with impending biliary sepsis during COVID-19 outbreak. The highlight of the discussion is mainly concerning the advantages of concurrent use of aerosol protective barrier in addition to personal protective equipment practice, necessary precautions to be taken during endoscopy retrograde cholangiopancreatography and handling of the patient preprocedure and postprocedure.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Colangite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aerossóis , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 656-664, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608724

RESUMO

Confined animal feeding operations generate high concentrations of airborne antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including pathogenic strains that may pose a health risk to both animals and farm workers and pollute the local air environment. In this study, tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant bacteria were used as examples to study the biodiversity and community structure of airborne antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal farms. The Anderson sampler was used to collect bioaerosols samples from the inside environment and outside atmospheric environments. A comparative analysis of biological differences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted on fine and coarse particles, bioaerosol samples inside the house, fecal samples, and inside and outside bioaerosol samples based on the result of the Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The key genus that drives the above differences was also studied. Results showed that the biodiversity of airborne erythromycin-resistant bacteria was higher than that of airborne tetracycline-resistant bacteria, and the biodiversity of bioaerosol samples in the house was higher than that in fecal samples. There were no significant differences in the biodiversity and community structure of airborne antibiotic-resistant bacteria between fine and coarse particles. Actinobacteria is one of the key bacteria responsible for the differences between erythromycin-resistant bacteria and other bacterial populations. Staphylococcus is one of the key genera of tetracycline-resistant flora that is distinguished from erythromycin resistance and all bacterial flora. The results of the community structure showed that there was no significant difference in the dominant flora and the community structure of tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant bacteria. The community structure of feces and bioaerosol samples is different at the genus level, and the dominant bacteria are likewise different. The results of this study provide basic data for the accurate assessment of the current status of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal farms and their ecological risks.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas , Aerossóis , Animais , Antibacterianos , Eritromicina , Tetraciclina
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 172-182, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653177

RESUMO

The pollution levels, composition characteristics and sources of atmospheric PM2.5 were investigated based on field measurement at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP) from pre-heating period to heating period in winter of 2017. The hourly average concentrations of PM2.5 frequently exceeded 150 µg/m3 and even achieved 400 µg/m3, indicating that the PM2.5 pollution was still very serious despite the implementation of stricter control measures in the rural area. Compared with the pre-heating period, the mean concentrations of organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC) and chlorine ion (Cl-) during the heating period increased by 20.8%, 36.6% and 38.8%, accompanying with increments of their proportions in PM2.5 from 37.5%, 9.8% and 5.5% to 42.9%, 12.7% and 7.2%, respectively. The significant increase of both their concentrations and proportions during the heating period was mainly ascribed to the residential coal combustion. The proportions of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium respectively increased from 9.9%, 10.9% and 9.0% in nighttime to 13.8%, 16.2% and 11.1% in daytime, implying that the daytime photochemical reactions made remarkable contributions to the secondary inorganic aerosols. The simulation results from WRF-Chem revealed that the emission of residential coal combustion in the rural area was underestimated by the current emission inventory. Six sources identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) based on the measurement were residential coal combustion, secondary formation of inorganic aerosols, biomass burning, vehicle emission and raising dust, contributing to atmospheric PM2.5 of 40.5%, 21.2%, 16.4%, 10.8%, 8.6% and 2.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 2-13, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653180

RESUMO

In December 2015, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region experienced several episodes of heavy air pollution. The government immediately issued emergency control measures to reduce the pollution, which provided a good opportunity to explore the impact of emission reduction on aerosol-radiation interaction. In this study, four tests were conducted, including the base1 simulation with emission reduction and aerosol-radiation interaction on, the base2 simulation with emission reduction and aerosol-radiation interaction off, the scenario1 simulation without emission reduction and aerosol-radiation interaction on and the scenario2 simulation without emission reduction and aerosol-radiation interaction off. We find that the aerosol-radiation interaction decreased the downward shortwave radiation and the temperature at 2 m, reduced the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) in the region, and increased the relative humidity at 2 m, which is favorable for pollution accumulation. Our results revealed that the interaction effect due to emission reductions increased downward shortwave radiation by an average of 0-5 W/m2, leading to increase in surface temperature of 0-0.05°C, increase in the daytime mean PBL high of 0-8 m, and decrease in daytime mean relative humidity at 2 m of 0.5%. We found that if there were aerosol-radiation interaction, it would enhance the effectiveness of emission control measures on air pollution control. The enhance of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 µm), PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 µm), and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) emission reduction effects reached 7.62%, 6.90%, 11.62%, respectively, over this region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 201-209, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653181

RESUMO

To investigate the cause of fine particulate matter (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, PM2.5) pollution in the heating season in the North China Plain (specifically Beijing, Tianjin, and Langfang), water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components in PM2.5 were simultaneously measured by online instruments with 1-hr resolution, from November 15, 2016 to March 15, 2017. The results showed extreme severity of PM2.5 pollution on a regional scale. Secondary inorganic ions (SNA, i.e., NO3-+SO42+ NH4+) dominated the water-soluble ions, accounting for 30%-40% of PM2.5, while the total carbon (TC, i.e., OC + EC) contributed to 26.5%-30.1% of PM2.5 in the three cities. SNA were mainly responsible for the increasing PM2.5 pollution compared with organic matter (OM). NO3- was the most abundant species among water-soluble ions, but SO42- played a much more important role in driving the elevated PM2.5 concentrations. The relative humidity (RH) and its precursor SO2 were the key factors affecting the formation of sulfate. Homogeneous reactions dominated the formation of nitrate which was mainly limited by HNO3 in ammonia-rich conditions. Secondary formation and regional transport from the heavily polluted region promoted the growth of PM2.5 concentrations in the formation stage of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing and Langfang. Regional transport or local emissions, along with secondary formation, made great contributions to the PM2.5 pollution in the evolution stage of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing and Langfang. The favourable meteorological conditions and regional transport from a relatively clean region both favored the diffusion of pollutants in all three cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Calefação , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 210-216, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653182

RESUMO

The reaction of alkenes with ozone has great effect on atmospheric oxidation, its transient species can produce OH radicals and contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). In the present study, the reaction of tetramethylethene (TME) with ozone was investigated using self-assembled low temperature matrix isolation system. The TME and ozone were co-deposited on a salt plate at 15 K, and then slowly warmed up the plate. The first transient species primary ozonide (POZ) was detected, indicating that the reaction followed Criegee mechanism. Then POZ began to decompose at 180 K. However, secondary ozonide (SOZ) was not observed according to Criegee mechanism. Probably, Criegee Intermediate (CI) did not react with inert carbonyl of acetone, but with remaining TME formed tetra-methyl epoxide (EPO).


Assuntos
Ozônio , Acetona , Aerossóis , Alcenos , Oxirredução
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 65-72, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653194

RESUMO

Mineral dust, soil, and sea salt aerosols are among the most abundant primary inorganic aerosols in the atmosphere, and their hygroscopicity affects the hydrological cycle and global climate. We investigated the hygroscopic behaviors of six Na- and K-containing salts commonly found in those primary organic aerosols. Their hygroscopic growths as a function of relative humidity (RH) agree well with thermodynamic model prediction. Temperature dependence of deliquescence RH (DRH) values for five of those salts was also investigated, which are comparable to those in literature within 1%-2% RH, most showing negative dependence on temperature. Hygroscopic growth curves of real-world soil and sea salt samples were also measured. The hygroscopic growths of two more-hydroscopic saline soil samples and of sea salt can be predicted by the thermodynamic model based on the measured water-soluble ionic composition. The substantial amounts of water-soluble ions, including Na+ and K+, in saline soil samples imply that even nascent saline soil samples are quite hygroscopic at high-RH (>80%) conditions. For three less-hygroscopic dust samples, however, measurements showed higher water uptake ability than that predicted by the thermodynamic model. The small amount of water taken up by less-hygroscopic dust samples suggests that dust particles might contain thin layers of water even to very low RH. The results of this study provide a comprehensive characterization of the hygroscopicity of Na- and K-containing salts as related to their roles in the hygroscopic behaviors of saline mineral dusts and sea salt aerosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira , Aerossóis/análise , Minerais , Potássio , Sais , Sódio , Molhabilidade
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 82-90, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653196

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential for six kinds of short aliphatic ethers has been studied. The size distribution, mass concentration, and yield of SOA formed by ethers photooxidation were determined under different conditions. The results showed that all six ethers can generate SOA via reaction with OH radicals even under no seed and NOx-free condition. The mass concentration for six seedless experiments was less than 10 µg/m3 and the SOA yields were all below 1%. The strong increase in the SOA formation was observed when the system contained ammonium sulfate seed particles, while SOA yield decreased under the high-NOx condition. SOA composition was analyzed using offline methods. Infrared spectra indicated that there are complex components in the particle-phase including carbonyls acid and aldehydes species. Moreover, the aqueous filter extracts were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectrometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer. For the fresh methyl n-butyl ether SOA, the largest absorption peak occurs at 280 nm and there exists slightly absorption in the 300-400 nm. Excitation-emission matrices display the distinct peak at excitation/emission = 470 nm/480 nm according to the fluorescence spectrum. These findings are important considerations of formation for ether SOA that can eventually be included in atmospheric models.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Éteres , Aerossóis , Sulfato de Amônio , Água
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 91-98, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653197

RESUMO

To investigate the secondary formation and pollution sources of atmospheric particles in urban Beijing, PM2.5 and its chemical components were collected and determined by URG-9000D ambient ion monitor (AIM) from March 2016 to January 2017. Among water-soluble ions (WSIs), NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ (SNA) had the largest proportion (77.8%) with the total concentration of 23.8 µg/m3. Moreover, as fine particle pollution worsened, the NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ concentrations increased basically, which revealed that secondary aerosols were the main cause of particle pollution in Beijing. Furthermore, the particle neutralization ratio (1.1), the ammonia to sulfate molar ratio (3.4) and the nitrate to sulfate molar ratio (2.2) showed that secondary aerosols are under ammonium-rich conditions with the main chemical forms of NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4, and vehicle emission could be the main anthropogenic source of secondary aerosols in Beijing. Source analysis further indicated that secondary aerosols, solid fuel combustion, dust and marine aerosol were the principal pollution sources of PM2.5, accounting for about 46.1%, 22.4% and 13.0%, respectively, and Inner Mongolia and Hebei Provinces could be considered as the main potential sources of PM2.5 in urban Beijing. In addition, secondary formation process was closely related with gaseous precursor emission amounts (SO2, NO2, NH3 and HONO), atmospheric ozone concentration (O3), meteorological conditions (temperature and relative humidity) and particle components. Sensitive analysis of the thermodynamic equilibrium model (ISORROPIA II) revealed that controlling total nitrate (TN) is the effective measure to mitigate fine particle pollution in Beijing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano
13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 99-110, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653198

RESUMO

PM2.5 filter sampling and components measurement were conducted in autumn and winter from 2014 to 2015 at a suburban site (referred herein as "LLH site") located in the southwest of Beijing. The offline aerosol mass spectrometry (offline-AMS) analysis and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were applied for measurement and source apportionment of water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA). Organic aerosol (OA) always dominated PM2.5 during the sampling period, especially in winter. WSOA pollution was serious during the polluted period both in autumn (31.1 µg/m3) and winter (31.9 µg/m3), while WSOA accounted for 54.4% of OA during the polluted period in autumn, much more than that (21.3%) in winter. The oxidation degree of WSOA at LLH site was at a high level (oxygen-to-carbon ratio, O/C=0.91) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributed more mass ratio of WSOA than primary organic aerosol (POA) during the whole observation period. In winter, coal combustion OA (CCOA) was a stable source of OA and on average accounted for 25.1% of WSOA. In autumn, biomass burning OA (BBOA) from household combustion contributed 38.3% of WSOA during polluted period. In addition to oxygenated OA (OOA), aqueous-oxygenated OA (aq-OOA) was identified as an important factor of SOA. During heavy pollution period, the mass proportion of aq-OOA to WSOA increased significantly, implying the significant SOA formation through aqueous-phase process. The result of this study highlights the concentration on controlling the residential coal and biomass burning, as well as the research needs on aqueous chemistry in OA formation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Água/análise
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 100, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by aerosols, to provide evidence on the rational use of masks, and to discuss additional measures important for the protection of healthcare workers from COVID-19. METHODS: Literature review and expert opinion. SHORT CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen causing COVID-19, is considered to be transmitted via droplets rather than aerosols, but droplets with strong directional airflow support may spread further than 2 m. High rates of COVID-19 infections in healthcare-workers (HCWs) have been reported from several countries. Respirators such as filtering face piece (FFP) 2 masks were designed to protect HCWs, while surgical masks were originally intended to protect patients (e.g., during surgery). Nevertheless, high quality standard surgical masks (type II/IIR according to European Norm EN 14683) appear to be as effective as FFP2 masks in preventing droplet-associated viral infections of HCWs as reported from influenza or SARS. So far, no head-to-head trials with these masks have been published for COVID-19. Neither mask type completely prevents transmission, which may be due to inappropriate handling and alternative transmission pathways. Therefore, compliance with a bundle of infection control measures including thorough hand hygiene is key. During high-risk procedures, both droplets and aerosols may be produced, reason why respirators are indicated for these interventions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Equipamentos de Proteção
15.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(2): 127-132, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626873

RESUMO

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern since its outbreak, and whether COVID-19 can transmit by aerosol remains controversial. The problem of bio-aerosol transmission in the relatively confined dental clinics has aroused wide attention in the field of dentistry. This review provided a most updated summary on the relation between bio-aerosols and dental clinics, which included the microorganisms in bio-aerosols, the bio-aerosol transmission and the sources testing methods, temporal and spatial distribution of dental bio-aerosols and summarized how to reduce the exposure to bio-aerosols in dental clinics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Clínicas Odontológicas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
16.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597101

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic influenced the normal course of clinical practice leading to significant delays in the delivery of healthcare services for patients non affected by COVID-19. In the near future, it will be crucial to identify facilities capable of providing health care in compliance with the safety of healthcare professionals, administrative staff and patients. All the staff involved in the project of a Covid-free hospital should be subjected to a diagnostic swab for COVID-19 before the beginning of healthcare activity and then periodically in order to avoid the risk of contamination of patients during the process of care. The modifications of various activities involved in the process of care are described: outpatient care, reception of inpatients, inpatient ward and operating room. For outpatient care, modality of appointment procedure, characteristics of waiting room and personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare professionals and administrative staff are presented. Reception of inpatients shall be conditional on a negative swab for COVID-19 obtained with a drive-in procedure. The management of the operating room represents the most crucial step of the patient's care process. The surgical team should be restricted and monitored with periodic swabs; surgical procedures should be performed by experienced surgeons according to standard procedures; surgical training experimental treatments and research protocols should be suspended. Adequate personal protective equipment and measures to reduce aerosolization in the operating room (closed circuits, continuous cycle insufflators, fume extraction) should be adopted. Prevention of possible transmission of the virus during procedures in open, laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery is to use a multi-tactic approach, which includes correct filtration and ventilation of the operating room, the use of appropriate PPE (FFP3 plus surgical mask and protective visor for all the staff working in the operating room) and smoke evacuation devices with a suction and filter system.   on behalf of the UrOP Executive Committee Giuseppe Ludovico, Angelo Cafarelli, Ottavio De Cobelli, Ferdinando De Marco, Giovanni Ferrari, Stefano Pecoraro, Angelo Porreca, Domenico Tuzzolo.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Assistência Ambulatorial , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Filtração , Guias como Assunto , Arquitetura Hospitalar , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Itália , Salas Cirúrgicas , Admissão do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Equipamentos de Proteção , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ventilação/métodos
17.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578696

RESUMO

The COVID-19 Pandemic has resulted in a high number of hospital admissions and some of those patients need ventilatory support in intensive care units. The viral pneumonia secondary to Sars-cov-2 infection may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and longer mechanical ventilation needs, resulting in a higher demand for tracheostomies. Due to the high aerosolization potential of such procedure, and the associated risks of staff and envoirenment contamination, it is necesseray to develop a specific standardization of the of the whole process involving tracheostomies. This manuscript aims to demonstrate the main steps of the standardization created by a tracheostomy team in a tertiary hospital dedicated to providing care for patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Pneumonia Viral/cirurgia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Traqueostomia/normas , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Duração da Cirurgia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
18.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202558, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578821

RESUMO

The coronavirus infection, also known as SARS-COV2, has proven to be potentially fatal, representing a major global health problem. Its spread after its origin in the city of Wuhan, China has resulted in a pandemic with the collapse of the health system in several countries, some with enormous social impact and expressive number of deaths as seen in Italy and Spain. Extreme intra and extra-hospital measures have been implemented to decrease the transmission and dissemination of the COVID-19. Regarding the surgical practice, a huge number of procedures considered non-essential or elective were cancelled and postponed until the pandemic is resolved. However, urgent and oncological procedures have been carried out. In this publication, we highlight and teach adaptations to be made with commonly used materials in laparoscopy to help prevent the spread and contamination of the healthcare team assisting surgical patients.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Laparoscopia/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Betacoronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Salas Cirúrgicas/métodos , Pneumoperitônio Artificial/normas , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Punções/métodos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/normas
19.
Harefuah ; 159(6): 391-393, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583639

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 is dispersed from patients by talking, coughing and sneezing. The generated micro-droplets aerosols can travel up to 8 meters, stay suspended for long periods and preserve viral infectivity for a median of 2.7 hours. An unprotected person exposed to this cloud, might inhale a considerable amount of infectious viral doses, which will attach to the ACE 2 receptors on alveoli epithelium, resulting in infection. N95 respirators and surgical masks block 95% and 50-60% respectively of inhalable particles and protect the wearer from infection. Surgical masks and N95 without exhalation valve, protect both the wearer and the environment from carriers and sick people.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
20.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(2): 44-45, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591652

RESUMO

Data sources Experimental investigation.Study design A retrospective review to evaluate the use of a negative-pressure otolaryngology viral isolation drape (NOVID) system to reduce cross-infection through aerosol. The apparatus consists of a plastic drape suspended over the surgical field in the head and neck region with a smoke evacuator suction placed inside the chamber with an ultra-low penetrating air (ULPA) efficiency rating and a fluid suction high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter compartment. Spread of patient secretions and droplet formation was evaluated using 1% fluorescein dye in 10 ml of normal saline and ultraviolet light. The dye was applied topically in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx preoperatively and intraoperatively prior to the use of instruments such as micro-debrider, electrocautery and high-speed drilling. Following completion of the surgical procedure, an ultraviolet Wood's lamp was used to evaluate the presence of droplets on the surgical drapes and surgical gowns of the operating team.Results The study sample consisted of four patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic surgical procedures; two of these patients required concurrent endoscopic sinus surgery. A micro-debrider was used in three cases; electrocautery in three cases, while a high-speed drilling was employed in two cases. Presence of fluorescein was identified around the patients' nares; on the chest wipe and instrument tray in all four patients. Dye contamination was noted on the gauze placed over the smoke evacuator (two cases of skull base surgery); no fluid droplets were identified beyond the nares or the smoke evacuator (two cases of sinus surgery). However, fluid contamination was identified underneath barrier several centimetres away from the nares (one case of trans-sphenoidal surgery). Droplets were also identified on the surgeon's gown in the abdominal region in all cases and on the arm region in one case. In one case, droplets were also identified on the abdominal region of the nurse, but this was attributed to cross contamination from surgical gauze and instruments. Conclusions This retrospective study provides preliminary data on aerosol and droplet contamination during endonasal and transoral surgery performed under a negative pressure isolation drape system. Although the authors did not screen patients for SARS-CoV-2, they propose smoke evacuator ULPA filter attachment is appropriate to capture particles down to 0.1 microns including SARS-CoV-2 which is 0.125 microns. It would be helpful to see direct evidence to support this claim in future studies. The authors have not provided details regarding set-up time and training requirements for effective application of the isolation drape apparatus or the associated costs etc. It would have also been helpful if the authors could comment on any potential difficulties in undertaking the surgical procedure with the isolation system in place. The sample size is limited to four patients and variations in the magnitude and extent of aerosol contamination needs to be investigated further before drawing any conclusions. Although unlikely, this study design did not capture the presence of aerosol/droplets in the air within the operating room which may follow removal of the isolation drape system or from exposed surgical instruments. Notwithstanding the limitations of the design, negative-pressure aspiration of air under a chamber barrier is likely to minimise the contamination from aerosol and droplet during endonasal and transoral surgery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Odontologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Estudos Retrospectivos
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