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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104941, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689643

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health threat. Some COVID-19 patients have exhibited widespread neurological manifestations including stroke. Acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have been reported in patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is increasingly recognized as a result of acute infection and is likely caused by inflammation, including inflammatory cytokine storm. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of SARS-CoV-2 to the brain can occur via the cribriform plate adjacent to the olfactory bulb that may lead to symptomatic anosmia. The internalization of SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by the binding of the spike glycoprotein of the virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cellular membranes. ACE2 is expressed in several tissues including lung alveolar cells, gastrointestinal tissue, and brain. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the clinical manifestations and pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke in COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 can down-regulate ACE2 and, in turn, overactivate the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis and decrease the activation of the alternative RAS pathway in the brain. The consequent imbalance in vasodilation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombotic response may contribute to the pathophysiology of stroke during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Encefalite Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/metabolismo , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Transdução de Sinais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Vasodilatação , Virulência
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1594726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626733

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and has also been observed in some patients suffering from the new coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19, which is currently a major global concern. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active ingredients in Nigella sativa seeds. It has a variety of beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities. Here, we investigated the possible protective effects of TQ against kidney damage in septic BALB/c mice. Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control, TQ, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and TQ+CLP. CLP was performed after 2 weeks of TQ gavage. After 48 h, we measured the histopathological alterations in the kidney tissue and the serum levels of creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). We also evaluated pyroptosis (NLRP3, caspase-1), apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-8), proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6)-related protein and gene expression levels. Our results demonstrated that TQ inhibited CLP-induced increased serum CRE and BUN levels. It also significantly inhibited the high levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-8, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 induced by CLP. Furthermore, NF-κB protein level was significantly decreased in the TQ+CLP group than in the CLP group. Together, our results indicate that TQ may be a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640747

RESUMO

The present is a comprehensive review of the immunopathology of Covid-19. The immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by differentiation and proliferation of a variety of immune cells with immune mediator production and release, and activation of other pathogen resistance mechanisms. We fully address the humoral and cellular immune changes induced by the virus, with particular emphasis on the role of the "cytokine storm" in the evolution of the disease. Moreover, we also propose some immune alterations (i.e., inflammatory parameters, cytokines, leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations) as prognostic markers of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how immune modifying drugs, such as tocilizumab, chloroquine, glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins, and blood purification therapy, can constitute a fundamental moment in the therapy of the infection. Finally, we made a critical analysis of a number of substances, not yet utilized, but potentially useful in SARS-CoV-2 patients, such as IFN lambda, TNF blockers, ulinastatin, siponimod, tacrolimus, mesenchymal stem cells, inhibitors of mononuclear macrophage recruitment, IL-1 family antagonists, JAK-2 or STAT-3 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T/citologia
5.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(13): 1868-1870, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605374

RESUMO

Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 that is caused by a dysregulated immune system of the host. We are proposing a new hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 mediated inflammation of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) may be responsible for the cytokine storm in COVID 19. The inflamed NTS may result in a dysregulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Axônios/imunologia , Axônios/metabolismo , Axônios/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Nervos Cranianos/imunologia , Nervos Cranianos/metabolismo , Nervos Cranianos/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/imunologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/virologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pandemias , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/imunologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Núcleo Solitário/imunologia , Núcleo Solitário/virologia
6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 360, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552865

RESUMO

Thrombotic complications and coagulopathy frequently occur in COVID-19. However, the characteristics of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) are distinct from those seen with bacterial sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), with CAC usually showing increased D-dimer and fibrinogen levels but initially minimal abnormalities in prothrombin time and platelet count. Venous thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis are more frequent in CAC compared to SIC/DIC. Clinical and laboratory features of CAC overlap somewhat with a hemophagocytic syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, and thrombotic microangiopathy. We summarize the key characteristics of representative coagulopathies, discussing similarities and differences so as to define the unique character of CAC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pandemias , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue
7.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S108-S111, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496238

RESUMO

The whole globe is reeling under the COVID-19 pandemic now. With the scale and severity of infection, number of deaths and lack of any definite therapeutic armamentarium, the vaccine development has been accelerated at a never-before pace. A wide variety of vaccine technologies and platforms are being attempted. Out of the over 108 efforts, 100 are in preclinical and eight in Phase 1 or 2 trial stage. While the availability of newer technologies has facilitated development, there are several challenges on the way including limited understanding of the pathophysiology, targeting humoral or mucosal immunity, lack of suitable animal model, poor success of human severe acute respiratory syndrome/Middle East Respiratory Syndrome vaccines, limited efficacy of influenza vaccines, and immune exaggeration with animal coronavirus vaccines. With the current scenario with political, funding, research, and regulatory supports, if everything sails through smoothly, the successful vaccine is expected in 12-18 months. Modestly efficacious vaccine may be also a good achievement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Virais/economia , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7413673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596365

RESUMO

Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) show abnormal changes in laboratory myocardial injury markers, suggesting that patients with myocardial injury have a higher mortality rate than those without myocardial injury. This article reviews the possible mechanism of myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the patients with COVID-19 in aspects of direct infection of myocardial injury, specific binding to functional receptors on cardiomyocytes, and immune-mediated myocardial injury. During hospitalization, the monitoring of laboratory myocardial injury markers in patients of COVID-19 should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Traumatismos Cardíacos/sangue , Traumatismos Cardíacos/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelos Imunológicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1263: 55-65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588323

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer and has been shown to contribute to resistance to therapy. Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of cancer implicated in disease phenotype. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate inflammation in cancer and consequently how inflammatory mediators promote cancer progression is important for our understanding of cancer cell biology. The transcription factor GLI2 was initially identified as a member of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. During the last decade, studies have shown a novel mechanism of GLI2 regulation independent of HH signaling, where GLI2 consequently modulated several cytokine genes in the TME. These studies highlight a novel role for GLI2 as an inflammatory mediatory independent of HH stimulation. This chapter will discuss canonical and noncanonical pathways of GLI2 regulation and some of the downstream cytokine target genes regulated by GLI2.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(1): 3-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538857

RESUMO

Anosmia, stroke, paralysis, cranial nerve deficits, encephalopathy, delirium, meningitis, and seizures are some of the neurological complications in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) which is caused by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2). There remains a challenge to determine the extent to which neurological abnormalities in COVID-19 are caused by SARS-Cov2 itself, the exaggerated cytokine response it triggers, and/or the resulting hypercoagulapathy and formation of blood clots in blood vessels throughout the body and the brain. In this article, we review the reports that address neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 who may present with acute neurological symptoms (e.g., stroke), even without typical respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, or shortness of breath. Next, we discuss the different neurobiological processes and mechanisms that may underlie the link between SARS-Cov2 and COVID-19 in the brain, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, and muscles. Finally, we propose a basic "NeuroCovid" classification scheme that integrates these concepts and highlights some of the short-term challenges for the practice of neurology today and the long-term sequalae of COVID-19 such as depression, OCD, insomnia, cognitive decline, accelerated aging, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease in the future. In doing so, we intend to provide a basis from which to build on future hypotheses and investigations regarding SARS-Cov2 and the nervous system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20346, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481414

RESUMO

The immune system plays a fundamental role in the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Patients with pathological complete response (pCR) after NAC have a higher survival rate. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) are peripheral blood indicators of inflammatory response. This investigates the correlation between NLR, PLR, LMR, and other clinicopathological features of breast cancer patients before receiving NAC and pCR.Data of LABC patients who underwent NAC between 2009 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient's peripheral complete blood count was recorded before starting NAC. The cut-off values for neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets in the peripheral blood and NLR, PLR, and LMR were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses.The records of 131 patients were analyzed and divided into two groups, pCR (+ve) and pCR (-ve), and their clinicopathological features and laboratory findings were compared. pCR was achieved in 23.6% of patients. The cut-off values of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets at the time of diagnosis and NLR, PLR, and LMR were, respectively, 4150 µL, 2000 µL, 635 µL, 271 × 10 µL, 1.95, 119, and 3.35. The pCR rate was higher in patients with low neutrophil count, low NLR, and high lymphocyte count (P = .002, <.001, and .040, respectively).As per the findings of multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent predictive factors of pCR were clinical tumor size T1 and T2, grade 3, ER negativity, and low NLR (P = .015, .001, .020, .022, and .001, respectively).While NLR was found to be an independent predictive factor of pCR in LABC patients receiving NAC, a similar result was not observed for PLR and LMR. NLR can be a useful biomarker for predicting the response of patients receiving NAC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 391-399, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inflammatory cytokines are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm (IA), although results among studies in the literature are inconsistent. This article sought to review studies on the associations among polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes and IA risk and to provide recommendations for future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted up to August 4, 2019. The associations between polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokine genes and IA risk were estimated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were performed according to race. Qualitative systematic review was conducted for variants that were studied in only one study. All analyses were performed using STATA 12.0. RESULTS: 13 studies investigating the associations between polymorphisms in five inflammatory cytokine genes (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL6, and IL-12B) and IA were reviewed. Combined results showed that the A allele of TNF-α rs1800629 polymorphism has a protective effect against IA (dominant model: OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.47-0.89, p=0.007). No associations were identified between polymorphisms in IL-1α rs1800587, IL-1ß rs16944, IL6 rs1800795 and rs1800796, or IL-12B rs3212227 and IA risk. CONCLUSION: This review demonstrated an association between TNF-α rs1800629 polymorphism and IA in Caucasians, illustrating the potentially important role of genes involved in inflammation in IA.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nature ; 583(7816): 437-440, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434211

RESUMO

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in Wuhan (Hubei province, China)1; it soon spread across the world. In this ongoing pandemic, public health concerns and the urgent need for effective therapeutic measures require a deep understanding of the epidemiology, transmissibility and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here we analysed clinical, molecular and immunological data from 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, assembled from 112 high-quality samples together with sequences in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) dataset, showed a stable evolution and suggested that there were two major lineages with differential exposure history during the early phase of the outbreak in Wuhan. Nevertheless, they exhibited similar virulence and clinical outcomes. Lymphocytopenia, especially reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts upon hospital admission, was predictive of disease progression. High levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 during treatment were observed in patients with severe or critical disease and correlated with decreased lymphocyte count. The determinants of disease severity seemed to stem mostly from host factors such as age and lymphocytopenia (and its associated cytokine storm), whereas viral genetic variation did not significantly affect outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/sangue , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Virulência/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was directed to investigate the beneficial effects of benfotiamine pre- and post-treatments in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI in rats. METHODS: Myocardial heart damage was induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150 mg/kg) once daily for two consecutive days. Benfotiamine (100 mg/kg/day) was given orally for two weeks before or after ISO treatment. RESULTS: ISO administration revealed significant changes in electrocardiographic recordings, elevation of levels of cardiac enzymes; creatinine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin-I (cTn-I), and perturbation of markers of oxidative stress; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and markers of inflammation; protein kinase C (PKC), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The apoptotic markers (caspase-8 and p53) were also significantly elevated in ISO groups in addition to histological alterations. Groups treated with benfotiamine pre- and post-ISO administration showed significantly decreased cardiac enzymes levels and improved oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers compared to the ISO groups. CONCLUSION: The current study highlights the potential role of benfotiamine as a promising agent for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in myocardial damage in several cardiovascular disorders via NADPH oxidase inhibition.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiamina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiotoxinas/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tiamina/uso terapêutico
16.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104850, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360580

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide through person-to-person contact, causing a public health emergency of international concern. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Liu Shen capsule (LS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. However, little is known about the antiviral effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, the study was designed to investigate the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential effect in regulating the host's immune response. The inhibitory effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells was evaluated by using the cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assay. The number of virions of SARS-CoV-2 was observed under transmission electron microscope after treatment with LS. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that LS could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, and reduce the number of virus particles and it could markedly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the key proteins in the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway was detected by western blot and it was found that LS could inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and p-p38 MAPK, while increasing the expression of IκBα. These findings indicate that LS could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus infection via downregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced virus and regulating the activity of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway in vitro, making its promising candidate treatment for controlling COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 713-714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Older adults and people who have cardiovascular disorders (their common pathogenetic mechanism is progressive atherosclerosis) are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Their common pathogenetic mechanism is progressive atherosclerosis in which oxLDL (oxidized LDL) plays major role. Receptor-mediated uptake of oxLDL by the monocyte-derived macrophages activates the long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immunity, which is termed "trained immunity." The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms and treatment possibilities that can control the activities of these specific macrophages. METHODS: Search in Medline and PubMed relevant articles on the trained immunity and cytokine storm of COVID-19. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: When oxLDL-trained macrophages encounter SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in the lung, it causes unregulated cytokine secretion, leading to the alveolar damage. Therefore, blocking macrophage training by pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, could control the hyperactivation that the virus would trigger.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação , Pandemias , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20035, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) involves a severe inflammatory response. Systemic glucocorticoids are very important for the treatment of the acute exacerbation period; however, their use causes serious adverse effects. There is still no evidence on whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can be used to reduce the dosage of systemic glucocorticoids in the treatment of patients with AECOPD. METHODS: In this trial, we plan to enroll 204 eligible patients with AECOPD who will be randomly assigned to receive TCM or a placebo. The effect of TCM in the treatment of patients with AECOPD will be measured by the dosage of systemic glucocorticoids (at which COPD assessment test [CAT] scores improve by 50%). Safety will also be assessed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000029568.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Testes de Função Respiratória
19.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 8584763, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426037

RESUMO

Background: Although many studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of heart failure, an effective pharmacological therapy to protect cardiac tissues from severe loss of contractile function associated with heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (MI) has yet to be developed. Methods: We examined the cardioprotective effects of (Z)-2-acetoxy-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid, a new compound with potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in a rat model of heart failure. (Z)-2-Acetoxy-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid was systemically delivered to rats 6 weeks after MI at different doses (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg). Cardiac function was assessed by hemodynamic measurements. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related molecules, and markers of adverse ventricular remodeling was measured using RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Treatment with (Z)-2-acetoxy-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid significantly improved cardiac function, in particular by increasing dP/dt. Simultaneously, the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß was markedly reduced in the treatment group compared with the MI group. In addition, (Z)-2-acetoxy-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid-treated tissues displayed decreased expression of Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 and increased expression of Bcl-2, which was in part due to the promotion of Akt phosphorylation. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that (Z)-2-acetoxy-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid possesses potent cardioprotective effects against cardiac injury in a rat model of heart failure, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppression of the inflammatory and cell apoptosis responses.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 47: 107221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371340

RESUMO

Unexpected sudden cardiac death (SCD), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden intrauterine unexplained death (SIUD) are major unsolved, devastating forms of death that occur frequently. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, including sudden cardiac death (SCD). This editorial will review the pathology of SCD, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden intrauterine unexplained death (SIUD); OSA with its cardiovascular consequences; the possible link between SCD and OSA, discussing the potential mechanisms underlying these two frequent, but yet overlooked pathologies. Finally, the possible preventive benefits of treating OSA and identifying patients at common risk for OSA and SCD and SIDS-SIUD to prevent unexpected deaths will be discussed. Post-mortem examination is of great importance in every case of SCD sine materia, with examination of the brainstem and cardiac conduction system on serial sections, when general autopsy fails, but it should be stressed that also the investigations of patients suffering from OSA should focus on the possibility of pathological findings in common with cases of SCD.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/imunologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/imunologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/mortalidade , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/imunologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle
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